Voiced retroflex affricate

Voiced retroflex affricate
IPA number 106 (137)
Entity (decimal) ɖ͡ʐ
Unicode (hex) U+0256U+0361U+0290
Kirshenbaum dz.
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The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɖ͡ʐ, sometimes simplified to .[1] It occurs in such languages as Polish (the laminal affricate ) and Northwest Caucasian languages (apical).


Features of the voiced retroflex affricate:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.


Belarusianлічба[lʲiɖ͡ʐbä]'number'Laminal. See Belarusian phonology
ChineseWu[ɖ͡ʐaŋ]'to grow'
PolishStandard[2][3]em [ɖ͡ʐɛm] 'jam'Laminal; it's transcribed /d͡ʒ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[4]dzwon[ɖ͡ʐvɔn̪]'bell'Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡z/ into [d͡z].
Suwałki dialect[5]
Northern Qiangvvdhe[ʁɖ͡ʐə]'star'
Russian[3][6]джем [ɖ͡ʐɛm] 'jam'Laminal. It is a very rare variant, and it is usually pronounced as a sequence [dʐ]. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatianџем / em[ɖ͡ʐê̞m]'jam'Laminal. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Torwali[8]حؕىگ[ɖ͡ʐiɡ̥]'long'Contrasts with a palatal affricate.

See also


  1. Unlike the alveolar and palato-alveolar affricates, there is no obsolete ligature.
  2. Jassem (2003:103)
  3. 1 2 Hamann (2004:65)
  4. Lightner (1972:67)
  5. Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  6. Lunsford (2001:16–20)


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