Voiced postalveolar affricate

Voiced palato-alveolar affricate
d̠ʒ
IPA number 104 135
Encoding
Entity (decimal) d͡ʒ
Unicode (hex) U+0064U+0361U+0292
X-SAMPA dZ or d_rZ
Kirshenbaum dZ
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The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with d͡ʒ (formerly the ligature ʤ), or in broad transcription ɟ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ǰ, ǧ, ǯ, and . It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of j in jump.

Features

Features of the voiced postalveolar affricate:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abkhazаџыр[ad͡ʒər]'steel'See Abkhaz phonology
Adygheджанэ [d͡ʒaːna] 'dress'
Albanianxham[d͡ʒam]'glass'
Amharicእን[ɨnd͡ʒəra]'injera'
ArabicModern Standard[1]جَرَس[d͡ʒaras]'bell'In other standards and dialects, corresponds to [ɡ] or [ʒ]. See Arabic phonology
ArmenianEastern[2]ջուր[d͡ʒuɾ]'water'
Westernճանճ[d͡ʒɑnd͡ʒ]'fly'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaicjura[d͡ʒuɾ:a]'big'Used predominantly in Urmia and some Jilu dialects. [g] is used in other varieties.
Azerbaijaniağac[ɑɣɑd͡ʒ]'tree'
Bengali[d͡ʒɔl]'water'Contrasts with the aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
BerberKabylelǧiran[ld͡ʒiræn]'the neighbors'
Bulgarianджудже[ˈd͡ʒud͡ʒɛ]'dwarf'See Bulgarian phonology
Chechenджерво / dzhyerwo[d͡ʒjerwo]'previously married woman'
ChineseQuzhou dialect[d͡ʒõ]'heavy'
Copticϫ[d͡ʒe]'that'
Czechčba[lɛːd͡ʒba]'treatment'See Czech phonology
Englishjump[ˈd͡ʒʌmp]'jump 'See English phonology
Esperantomanĝaĵo[manˈd͡ʒaʒo̞]'food'See Esperanto phonology
Faroesegestir[ˈd͡ʒɛstɪɹ]'guests 'See Faroese phonology
Frenchadjonction[ad͡ʒɔ̃ksjɔ̃]'addition'Rare. See French phonology
Georgian[3]იბე[d͡ʒibɛ]'pocket'
GermanStandard[4]Dschungel[ˈd͡ʒʊŋəl]'jungle'Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] Some speakers may merge it with /t͡ʃ/. See Standard German phonology
Goemai[d͡ʒaːn]'twins'
Hebrewג׳וק[d͡ʒuk]'cockroach'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniजाना / جانا[d͡ʒɑːnɑː]'to go'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarianlándzsa[laːnd͡ʒɒ]'spear'Rare, mostly in loanwords. See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5]gemma[ˈd͡ʒɛmma]'gem'See Italian phonology
Indonesian jarak[ˈd͡ʒaraʔ]'distance'
Kashubian[6]
KurdishKurmanjicîger[d͡ʒiːˈɡɛɾ]'lung'
Kyrgyzжаман[d͡ʒaman]'bad'See Kyrgyz phonology
Latviandai[dad͡ʒi]'thistles'See Latvian phonology
LimburgishHasselt dialect[7]djèn[d͡ʒɛːn²]'Eugene'
Lithuanianiaugsmingas[d͡ʒɛʊɡʲsʲˈmʲɪnɡɐs]'gladsome'See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonianџемпер[ˈd͡ʒɛmpɛr]'sweater'See Macedonian phonology
Malayjahat[d͡ʒahat]'evil'
Manchuᠵᡠᠸᡝ[d͡ʒuwe]'two'
Marathi[d͡ʒəj]'victory'See Marathi phonology
OccitanLanguedocienjove[ˈd͡ʒuβe]'young'See Occitan phonology
Provençal[ˈd͡ʒuve]
Ojibweᑭᐌᐦ / iicikiwee[iːd͡ʒikiwẽːʔ]'brother'See Ojibwe phonology
Pashtoجګ[d͡ʒeɡ]'high'
Persianکجا[kod͡ʒɒ]'where'See Persian phonology
PolishGmina Istebnadziwny[ˈd͡ʒivn̪ɘ]'strange'/ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ merge into [d͡ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /d͡ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
PortugueseMost Brazilian dialects[9]grande[ˈɡɾɐ̃d͡ʒi]'big'Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when the vowel is elided) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise.
Most dialectsjambalaya[d͡ʒɐ̃bɐˈlajɐ]'jambalaya'In free variation with /ʒ/ in a few recent loanwords. See Portuguese phonology
Romanianger[d͡ʒer]'frost'See Romanian phonology
SardinianCampidanesegéneru[ˈd͡ʒɛneru]'son-in-law'
Scottish GaelicDia[d͡ʒia]'God'See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-CroatianSome speakersџем / em[d͡ʒê̞m]'jam'May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnianђаво / đavo[d͡ʒâ̠ʋo̞ː]'devil'Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /d͡ʒ/ and /d͡ʑ/, either to [d͡ʒ] or laminal [ɖ͡ʐ].
Croatian
SilesianGmina Istebna[10]These dialects merge /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ into [d͡ʒ].
Jablunkov[10]
Somalijoog[d͡ʒoːɡ]'stop'See Somali phonology
SpanishMany dialectscónyuge[ˈkõ̞ɲd͡ʒuxe̞]'spouse'May correspond to [ɟʝ] in Castilian Spanish, or be a stigmatized dialectal realization of /ʝ/ and /ʎ/. See Spanish phonology
Some dialectsayudar[ad͡ʒuˈð̞ar]'to help'
Some Rioplatense dialectsdiez[d͡ʒes]'ten'
Tagalogdiyan[d͡ʒän]'there'Used to pronounce the multigraphs dy and diy in native words and j in loanwords outside Spanish. For more information, see Tagalog phonology.
Turkishacı[äˈd͡ʒɯ]'pain'See Turkish phonology
Turkmenjar[d͡ʒär]'ravine'
Ubykh[amd͡ʒan]'?'See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[11]джерело[d͡ʒɛrɛˈlɔ]'source'See Ukrainian phonology
Uyghurجوزا[d͡ʒozɑ]'desk'See Uyghur phonology
West Frisiansiedzje[ˈʃɪd͡ʒə]'to sow'See West Frisian phonology
Yiddishדזשוכע[d͡ʒʊxə]'insect'See Yiddish phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[12]dxan[d͡ʒaŋ]'god'

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
d̠ɹ̠˔
dɹ̝˗
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Features

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
EnglishAustralian[13]dream[d̠͡ɹ̠˔ʷɪi̯m]'dream'Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/.[13][14][15][16] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [d͡ɹ̝].[14] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[14][15]
Received Pronunciation[14][15]
Port Talbot[16][d̠͡ɹ̠˔iːm]

See also

Notes

References

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Connolly, John H. (1990), "Port Talbot English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 121–129, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Cox, Felicity; Fletcher, Janet (2017) [First published 2012], Australian English Pronunciation and Transcription (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-316-63926-9 
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083 
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, ISBN 83-7384-063-X 
  • Dubisz, Stanisław; Karaś, Halina; Kolis, Nijola (1995), Dialekty i gwary polskie, Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna, ISBN 83-2140989-X 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Mangold, Max (2005) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.), Mannheim: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180 
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