Voiced palatal stop

Voiced palatal stop
ɟ
IPA number 108
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɟ
Unicode (hex) U+025F
X-SAMPA J\
Kirshenbaum J
Braille
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The voiced palatal stop, or voiced palatal plosive, is a type of consonantal sound in some vocal languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɟ, a barred dotless j that was initially created by turning the type for a lowercase letter f. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\.

If the distinction is necessary, the voiced alveolo-palatal stop may be transcribed ɟ̟, ɟ˖ (both symbols denote an advanced ɟ) or d̠ʲ (retracted and palatalized d), but they are essentially equivalent since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are J\_+ and d_-' or d_-_j, respectively. There is also a non-IPA letter ȡ ("d" with the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ɕ, ʑ), used especially in Sinological circles.

[ɟ] is a less common sound worldwide than [d͡ʒ] because it is difficult to get the tongue to touch just the hard palate without also touching the back part of the alveolar ridge.[1] It is also common for the symbol ɟ to be used to represent a palatalized voiced velar stop or palato-alveolar/alveolo-palatal affricates, as in Indic languages. That may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified, and the distinction between stop and affricate is not contrastive.

There is also the voiced post-palatal stop[2] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back than the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced palatal stop but not as back as the prototypical voiced velar stop. The IPA does not have a separate symbol, which can be transcribed as ɟ̠, ɟ˗ (both symbols denote a retracted ɟ), ɡ̟ or ɡ˖ (both symbols denote an advanced ɡ). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are J\_- and g_+, respectively.

Especially in broad transcription, the voiced post-palatal stop may be transcribed as a palatalized voiced velar stop (ɡʲ in the IPA, g' or g_j in X-SAMPA).

Features

Features of the voiced palatal stop:

  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate. The otherwise identical post-palatal variant is articulated slightly behind the hard palate, making it sound slightly closer to the velar [ɡ].
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

Palatal or alveolo-palatal

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Albanian[3]gjuha[ˈɟuha]'tongue'Merged with [d͡ʒ] in Gheg Albanian
ArabicSome Northern Yemeni dialects[4]جمل[ˈɟamal]'camel'Corresponds to [d͡ʒ ~ ʒ ~ ɡ] in other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Some Sudanese speakers[4]
Upper Egypt[4]
Basqueanddere[äɲɟe̞ɾe̞]'doll'
CatalanMajorcan[5]guix[ˈɟi̞ɕ]'chalk'Corresponds to /ɡ/ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
ChineseTaiwanese Hokkien攑手 / gia̍h-tshiú[ɟiaʔ˧ʔ t͡ɕʰiu˥˩]'(to) raise a hand'
Taizhou dialect[ɟyoŋ]'together'
Corsicanfighjulà[viɟɟuˈla]'to watch'
Czechdělám[ˈɟɛlaːm]'I do'See Czech phonology
Dinkajir[ɟir]'blunt'
Ega[6][ɟé]'become numerous'
French[7]gui[ɟi]'mistletoe'Ranges from alveolar to palatal with more than one closure point. See French phonology
Friuliangjat[ɟat]'cat'
Gandajjajja[ɟːaɟːa]'grandfather'
Hungarian[8]gyám[ɟäːm]'guardian'See Hungarian phonology
IrishGaeilge[ˈɡeːlʲɟə]'Irish language'See Irish phonology
Latvianģimene[ˈɟime̞ne̞]'family'See Latvian phonology
Macedonianраѓање[ˈraɟaɲɛ]'birth'See Macedonian phonology
NorwegianCentral[9]fadder[fɑɟːeɾ]'godparent'See Norwegian phonology
Northern[9]
OccitanAuvergnatdiguèt[ɟiˈɡɛ]'said' (3rd pers. sing.)See Occitan phonology
Limousindissèt[ɟiˈʃɛ]
PortugueseSome Brazilian speakerspedinte[piˈɟ̟ĩc̟i̥]'beggar'Corresponds to affricate allophone of /d/ before /i/ that is common in Brazil.[10] See Portuguese phonology
Slovak[11]ďaleký[ˈɟ̟äɫɛ̝kiː]'far'Alveolo-palatal.[11] See Slovak phonology
Turkishgüneş[ɟyˈne̞ʃ]'sun'See Turkish phonology
VietnameseNorth-central dialectda[ɟa˧]'skin'See Vietnamese phonology

Post-palatal

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Catalan[12]guix[ˈɡ̟i̞ɕ]'chalk'Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels.[12] See Catalan phonology
Greek[13]μετάγγιση / metággisi[me̞ˈtɐŋ̟ɟ̠is̠i]'transfusion'Post-palatal.[13] See Modern Greek phonology
ItalianStandard[14]ghianda[ˈɡ̟jän̪ːd̪ä]'acorn'Post-palatal; allophone of /ɡ/ before /i, e, ɛ, j/.[14] See Italian phonology
Portugueseamiguinho[ɐmiˈɡ̟ĩɲu]'little buddy'Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[15]ghimpe[ˈɡ̟impe̞]'thorn'Both an allophone of /ɡ/ before /i, e, j/ and the phonetic realization of /ɡʲ/.[15] See Romanian phonology
RussianStandard[16]герб / gerb[ɡ̟e̞rp]'coat of arms'Typically transcribed in IPA with ɡʲ. See Russian phonology
Spanish[17]guía[ˈɡ̟i.ä]'guidebook'Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels.[17] See Spanish phonology
Yanyuwa[18][ɡ̠uɡ̟uɭu]'sacred'Post-palatal.[18] Contrasts plain and prenasalized versions.

Variable

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
English[19][20]geese [ɡ̟iːs]'geese'Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels and /j/. Varies between post-palatal and palatal.[19][20] See English phonology

See also

Notes

  1. Ladefoged (2005), p. 162.
  2. Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
  3. Newmark, Hubbard & Prifti (1982), p. 10.
  4. 1 2 3 Watson (2002), p. 16.
  5. Recasens & Espinosa (2005), p. 1.
  6. Connell, Ahoua & Gibbon (2002), p. 100.
  7. Recasens (2013), pp. 11–13.
  8. Ladefoged (2005), p. 164.
  9. 1 2 Skjekkeland (1997), pp. 105–107.
  10. Palatalization in Brazilian Portuguese revisited
  11. 1 2 Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
  12. 1 2 Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  13. 1 2 Arvaniti (2007), p. 20.
  14. 1 2 Canepari (1992), p. 62.
  15. 1 2 Sarlin (2014), p. 17.
  16. Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 223.
  17. 1 2 Canellada & Madsen (1987), p. 20.
  18. 1 2 Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 34-35.
  19. 1 2 Gimson (2014), p. 181.
  20. 1 2 Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).

References

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics, 8: 97–208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv, archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-11 
  • Canellada, María Josefa; Madsen, John Kuhlmann (1987), Pronunciación del español: lengua hablada y literaria, Madrid: Castalia, ISBN 978-8470394836 
  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8 
  • Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), "Ega", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162 
  • Kolgjini, Julie M. (2004), Palatalization in Albanian: An acoustic investigation of stops and affricates (Ph.D.), The University of Texas at Arlington 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Newmark, Leonard; Hubbard, Philip; Prifti, Peter R. (1982), Standard Albanian: A Reference Grammar for Students, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-1129-6 
  • Rafel, Joaquim (1999), Aplicació al català dels principis de transcripció de l'Associació Fonètica Internacional (PDF) (3rd ed.), Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans, ISBN 84-7283-446-8 
  • Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005), "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 1–25, doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878 
  • Sarlin, Mika (2014) [First published 2013], "Sounds of Romanian and their spelling", Romanian Grammar (2nd ed.), Helsinki: Books on Demand GmbH, pp. 16–37, ISBN 978-952-286-898-5 
  • Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla, Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press) 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bunčić, Daniel (2015), "Russian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (2): 221–228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395 
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