Voiced palatal affricate

Voiced palatal affricate
ɟʝ
IPA number 108 (139)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɟ͡ʝ
Unicode (hex) U+025FU+0361U+029D
X-SAMPA J\_j\
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The voiced palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ɟ͡ʝ and ɟ͜ʝ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\_j\. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ɟʝ in the IPA and J\j\ in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.

This sound is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate.

It occurs in such languages as Hungarian and Skolt Sami, among others. The voiced palatal affricate is quite rare; it is mostly absent from Europe as a phoneme (it occurs as an allophone in most Spanish dialects), with the aforementioned Uralic languages and Albanian being exceptions. It usually occurs with its voiceless counterpart, the voiceless palatal affricate.

Features

Features of the voiced palatal affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. It is not a sibilant.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian Various dialects[1] gjë [ɟ͡ʝə] 'thing'
Asturian[2] uveyya [uβeɟ͡ʝa] 'sheep'
Hungarian gyár [ɟ͡ʝaːr] 'factory' See Hungarian phonology
Norwegian Central dialects[3] leggja [leɟ͡ja] 'lay' See Norwegian phonology
Western dialects[3]
Skolt Sami vuõˊlǧǧem [vʲuɘlɟ͡ʝːɛm] 'I leave'
Spanish Castilian[4] yate [ˈɟ͡jate̞] 'yacht' Occurs only in the onset. See Spanish phonology

See also

Notes

References

  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Menéndez García, Manuel (1965), El Cuarto de los Valles (Un habla del occidente astur) (in Spanish), IDEA, pp. 147–148 
  • Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla (in Norwegian), Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press) 
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