Voiced epiglottal trill

Voiced pharyngeal trill
(voiced epiglottal fricative)
ʢ
IPA number 174
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʢ
Unicode (hex) U+02A2
X-SAMPA <\
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The voiced epiglottal or pharyngeal trill, also analyzed as a fricative,[1] is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʢ.

Few languages distinguish between pharyngeal and epiglottal fricatives/trills, and in fact the fricatives in Arabic are routinely described as "pharyngeal". However, according to Peter Ladefoged, the Aghul spoken in the village of Burkikhan, Dagestan has both (as well as an epiglottal stop).

Features

Features of the voiced epiglottal trill/fricative:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AghulRicha dialect[2] [ʢakʷ] 'light'
Arabic[3]Iraqi[4]عَام [ʢaːm]'year' Corresponds to /ʕ/ () in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
BerberSiwa language[5] [arˤbˤəʢa] 'four'

See also

Notes

  1. John Esling (2010) "Phonetic Notation", in Hardcastle, Laver & Gibbon (eds) The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, 2nd ed., p 695.
  2. Kodzasov, S. V. Pharyngeal Features in the Daghestan Languages. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (Tallinn, Estonia, Aug 1-7 1987), pp. 142-144.
  3. Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)
  4. Zeki Hassan, John Esling, Scott Moisik, & lise Crevier-Buchman (2011) "Aryepiglottic trilled variants of /ʕ, ħ/ in Iraqi Arabic". Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 831834), Hong Kong.
  5. Mr. Christfried Naumann, Doctoral Student, Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany. June 26, 2009.

References

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