Voiced dental and alveolar stops

Voiced alveolar stop
d
IPA number 104
Encoding
Entity (decimal) d
Unicode (hex) U+0064
X-SAMPA d
Kirshenbaum d
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The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar stops is d (although the symbol can be used to distinguish the dental stop, and the postalveolar), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d.

Features

Features of the voiced alveolar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • There are three specific variants of [d]:
    • Dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth.
    • Alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

Occurrence

Voiced dental stop
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Dental or denti-alveolar

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ArmenianEastern[1]դեմք / demk’ [d̪ɛmkʰ] 'face'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Westernտալ / dal[d̪ɑl]'to give'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Basquediru[d̪iɾu]'money'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Belarusian[2]падарожжа[päd̪äˈroʐʐä]'travel'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Belarusian phonology
Bengaliদা[d̪am]'price'Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[3]dit[ˈd̪it̪]'finger'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Catalan phonology
ChineseWu[d̪ɑ̃]'the Tang dynasty'
Dinka[4]dhek[d̪ek]'distinct'Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with alveolar /d/.
DutchBelgianding[d̪ɪŋ]'thing'Laminal denti-alveolar.
EnglishDublin[5]then[d̪ɛn]'then'Laminal denti-alveolar. Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects; in Dublin it may be [d͡ð] instead.[5] See English phonology
Southern Irish[6]
Geordie[7]Word-initial allophone of /ð/; may be realized as [ð] instead.[7]
Ulster[8]dream[d̪ɹim]'dream'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /d/ before /r/, in free variation with an alveolar stop.
Esperantomondo[ˈmondo]'world'See Esperanto phonology
French[9]dais[d̪ɛ]'canopy'Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Georgian[10]კუ[ˈkʼud̪i]'tail'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Hindustani[11]दूध / دودھ[d̪uːd̪ʱ]'milk'Laminal denti-alveolar. Hindustani contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Irishdorcha[ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəxə]'dark'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Irish phonology
Italian[12]dare[ˈd̪äːre]'to give'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
Kashubian[13]Laminal denti-alveolar.
Kyrgyz[14]дос[d̪os̪]'friend'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Latvian[15]drudzis[ˈd̪rud̪͡z̪is̪]'fever'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Marathiगड[d̪əɡəɖ]'stone'Laminal denti-alveolar. Marathi contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Pashtoﺪﻮﻩ[ˈd̪wɑ]'two'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Polish[16]dom [d̪ɔm] 'home'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[17]Many dialectsdar[ˈd̪aɾ]'to give'Laminal denti-alveolar. May palatalize or lenite in certain environments, depending on dialect. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਦਾਲ[d̪ɑːl]'lentils'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Russian[18]дышать[d̪ɨ̞ˈʂatʲ]'to breathe'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with a palatalized alveolar variant. See Russian phonology
Slovene[19]danes[ˈd̪àːnəs̪]'today'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Spanish[20]hundido[ũn̪ˈd̪ið̞o̞]'sunken'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Spanish phonology
Turkishdal[d̪äɫ]'twig'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[21][22]дерево[ˈd̪ɛrɛβ̞ɔ]'tree'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[23]Laminal denti-alveolar.
ZapotecTilquiapan[24]'dan'[d̪aŋ]'countryside'Laminal denti-alveolar.

Alveolar

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Adygheдахэ[daːxa]'pretty'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaicwada[waːda]'to do'Predominant in the Urmia, Jilu, Baz, Gawar and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [ð̞] in other varieties.
Bengaliডা[d̠ab]'green coconut'True alveolar in eastern dialects, apical post-alveolar in western dialects. See Bengali phonology.
Czechdo[do]'into'See Czech phonology
Dutch[25]dak[dɑk]'roof'See Dutch phonology
EnglishMost speakersdash [ˈdæʃ]'dash'See English phonology
Finnishsidos[ˈsido̞s]'bond'See Finnish phonology
FrenchIn Avelesgesdent[dɑ̃]'tooth'See French phonology
Greekντροπή / dropí[dro̞ˈpi]'shame'See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrewדואר[ˈdoʔaʁ]'mail'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarianadó[ˈɒdoː]'tax'See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian[26]dacing [ˈdätʃɪŋ]'balancing scale'
Japanese[27]男性的 / danseiteki[dãnse̞ːte̞ki]'masculine'See Japanese phonology
Kabardianдахэ[daːxa]'pretty'
Korean아들 / adeul[ɐdɯl]'son'See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[28]brudder[ˈbʀudɐ]'brother'More often voiceless [t].[28] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malaydahan[dähän]'branch'
Maltesedehen[den]'wit'
Thaiดาว[daːw]'star'
West Frisiandoarp [ˈdwɑrp]'village'
Yi/dda[da˧]'competent'

Variable

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Arabicدين[diːn]'religion'Laminal denti-alveolar or alveolar, depending on the dialect. See Arabic phonology.
EnglishBroad South African[29]dawn[doːn]'dawn'Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.[29][30][31]
Scottish[30][dɔn]
Welsh[31][dɒːn]
GermanStandard[32]Dach[dax]'roof'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar.[32] See Standard German phonology
NorwegianUrban East[33]dans[d̻ɑns]'dance'Partially voiced or fully voiceless [t]. Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[33] See Norwegian phonology
Persian[34]اداره[edaːre]'office'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar.[34] See Persian phonology
Slovak[35][36]do [d̻ɔ̝] 'into'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[35][36] See Slovak phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[37]dag[dɑːɡ]'day'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, with the former being predominant.[37] May be an approximant in casual speech. See Swedish phonology

See also

Notes

References

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