Voiced bilabial fricative

Voiced bilabial fricative
β
IPA number 127
Encoding
Entity (decimal) β
Unicode (hex) U+03B2
X-SAMPA B
Kirshenbaum B
Braille
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Voiced bilabial approximant
β̞
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The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is β (or more properly ), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is B. The symbol β is the Greek letter beta. This symbol is also sometimes used to represent the bilabial approximant, though that is more clearly written with the lowering diacritic, that is β̞. Theoretically, it could also be transcribed as an advanced labiodental approximant ʋ̟, but this symbol is hardly ever, if at all, used so.

It is extremely rare for a language to make a phonemic contrast between the voiced bilabial fricative and the bilabial approximant. The Mapos Buang language of New Guinea contains this contrast, but its bilabial approximant is interpreted as filling a phonological gap in the labiovelar series of the consonant system rather than the bilabial series.[1]

The bilabial fricative is diachronically unstable and is likely to shift to [v].[2]

The sound is not used in English dialects except for Chicano English, but it can be produced by approximating the normal English [v] between the lips.

Features

Features of the voiced bilabial fricative:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.

Occurrence

In the following transcriptions, the undertack diacritic is used to indicate an approximant [β̞].

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Akei[βati]'four'
Alekanohanuva[hɑnɯβɑ]'nothing'
Amharic[3]አበባ[aβ̞əβ̞a]'flower'Allophone of /b/ medially between sonorants.[3]
Angorfufung[ɸuβuŋ]'horn'
Basque[4]alaba[alaβ̞a]'daughter'Allophone of /b/
Bengaliভিসা[βisa]'Visa'See Bengali phonology
Berta[βɑ̀lɑ̀ːziʔ]'no'
Catalan[5]rebost[rəˈβ̞ɔst]'larder'Approximant or fricative. Allophone of /b/. Mainly found in betacist (/b/ and /v/ merging) dialects. See Catalan phonology
ChineseFuzhou[6]初八[t͡sœ˥˧βaiʔ˨˦]'eighth day of the month'Allophone of /p/ and /pʰ/ in certain intervocalic positions.[6]
Comorian Contrasts with both [v] and [w]
Dahalo[7][koːβo]'to want'Weak fricative or approximant. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /b/, and may be simply a plosive [b] instead.[7]
EnglishChicanovery[βɛɹi]'very'May be realized as [b] instead.
Ewe[8]Eʋe[èβe]'Ewe'Contrasts with both [v] and [w]
German[9][10]aber[ˈaːβɐ]'but'Intervocalic and pre-lateral allophone of /b/ in casual speech.[9][10] See Standard German phonology
Hebrew אבל ['äˈβal] 'however'
Hopitsivot[tsi:βot]'five'
Japanese[11]神戸市/be-shi[ko̞ːβ̞e̞ ɕi]'Kobe'Allophone of /b/ only in fast speech between vowels. See Japanese phonology
Kabylebri[βri]'to cut'
Kinyarwandaabana[aβana]'children'
Korean/Jeonhwa/[ˈt͡ɕɘːnβwa̠]'telephone'Allophone of /h/. See Korean phonology
Limburgish[12][13]wèlle[ˈβ̞ɛ̝lə]'to want'The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Luhya Nabongo [naβongo] 'king' Title of the king like Nabongo Mumia from the Wanga Dialect
Mapos Buang[1] venġévsën [βə.ˈɴɛβ.t͡ʃen] 'prayer' Mapos Buang has both a voiced bilabial fricative and a bilabial approximant as separate phonemes. The fricative is transcribed as {v}, and the approximant as {w}.[1]
wabeenġ [β̞a.ˈᵐbɛːɴ] 'kind of yam'
OccitanGasconla-vetz[laβ̞ets]'then'Allophone of /b/
PortugueseEuropean[14][15]bado[ˈsaβɐðu]'Saturday'Allophone of /b/. See Portuguese phonology
RipuarianColognianwing[βɪŋ]'wine'Allophone of syllable-initial /v/ for some speakers; can be [ʋ ~ w ~ ɰ] instead. See Colognian phonology
Kerkrade dialect[16]sjwaam[ʃβ̞aːm]'smoke'Weakly rounded; contrasts with /v/.[16]
SardinianLogudorese dialect[17]paba [ˈpäːβä] 'pope'Intervocalic allophone of /b/ as well as word-initial /p/ when the preceding word ends with a vowel and there is no pause between the words.[17]
Spanish[18]lava[ˈläβ̞ä]'lava'Ranges from close fricative to approximant.[19] Allophone of /b/. See Spanish phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[20]aber[ˈɑːβ̞eɾ]'problem'Allophone of /b/ in casual speech. See Swedish phonology
Turkish[21]vücut[βy̠ˈd͡ʒut̪]'body'Allophone of /v/ before and after rounded vowels.[21] See Turkish phonology
Turkmenwatan[βatan]'country'
Ukrainian[22]вона[β̞oˈnɑ]'she'An approximant; the most common prevocalic realization of /w/. Can vary with labiodental [ʋ].[22] See Ukrainian phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[23] Allophone of /b/

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 Mose Lung Rambok and Bruce Hooley (2010). Central Buang‒English Dictionary (PDF). Summer Institute of Linguistics Papua New Guinea Branch. ISBN 9980 0 3589 7.
  2. Picard (1987:364), citing Pope (1966:92)
  3. 1 2 Hayward & Hayward (1999:48)
  4. Hualde (1991:99–100)
  5. Wheeler (2005:10)
  6. 1 2 Zhuqing (2002:?)
  7. 1 2 Maddieson et al. (1993:34)
  8. Ladefoged (2005:156)
  9. 1 2 Krech et al. (2009:108)
  10. 1 2 Sylvia Moosmüller (2007). "Vowels in Standard Austrian German: An Acoustic-Phonetic and Phonological Analysis" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved March 9, 2013.. This source mentions only intervocalic [β].
  11. Okada (1991:95)
  12. Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:155)
  13. Peters (2006:117)
  14. Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
  15. Mateus & d'Andrade (2000:11)
  16. 1 2 Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:17)
  17. 1 2 (Italian) http://www.antoninurubattu.it/rubattu/grammatica-sarda-italiano-sardo.html Archived 2015-01-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. Martínez-Celdrán et al. (2003:257)
  19. Phonetic studies such as Quilis (1981) have found that Spanish voiced stops may surface as spirants with various degrees of constriction. These allophones are not limited to regular fricative articulations, but range from articulations that involve a near complete oral closure to articulations involving a degree of aperture quite close to vocalization
  20. Engstrand (2004:167)
  21. 1 2 Göksel & Kerslake (2005:6)
  22. 1 2 Žovtobrjux & Kulyk (1965:121–122)
  23. Merrill (2008:109)

References

  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Engstrand, Olle (2004), Fonetikens grunder (in Swedish), Lund: Studenlitteratur, ISBN 91-44-04238-8 
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar (PDF), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2014 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526 
  • Hayward, Katrina; Hayward, Richard J. (1999), "Amharic", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 45–50, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Hualde, José Ignacio (1991), Basque phonology, New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-05655-7 
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Maddieson, Ian; Spajić, Siniša; Sands, Bonny; Ladefoged, Peter (1993), "Phonetic structures of Dahalo", in Maddieson, Ian, UCLA working papers in phonetics: Fieldwork studies of targeted languages, 84, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 25–65 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana María; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428 
  • Picard, Marc (1987), "On the Palatalization and Fricativization of W", International Journal of American Linguistics, 53 (3): 362–365, doi:10.1086/466063 
  • Pope, Mildred (1966), From Latin to Modern French, Manchester: Manchester University Press 
  • Quilis, Antonio (1981), Fonética acústica de la lengua española, Gredos 
  • Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997) [1987], Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (2nd ed.), Kerkrade: Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer, ISBN 90-70246-34-1, archived from the original on 2015-09-19, retrieved 2015-09-09 
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7 
  • Zhuqing, Li (2002), Fuzhou Phonology and Grammar, Springfield, VA: Dunwoody Press, ISBN 9781881265931 
  • Žovtobrjux, M.A.; Kulyk, B.M. (1965), Kurs sučasnoji ukrajins’koji literaturnoji movy. Častyna I., Kiev: Radjans’ka škola 
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