Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate

Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA number 216
Entity (decimal) ʥ
Unicode (hex) U+02A5
X-SAMPA d_z\
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The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are d͡ʑ, d͜ʑ, ɟ͡ʑ and ɟ͜ʑ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_z\ and J\_z\, though transcribing the stop component with ɟ (J\ in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding or ɟʑ in the IPA and dz\ or J\z\ in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.

Neither [d] nor [ɟ] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [d̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [d]), [ɟ̟] or [ɟ˖] (both symbols denote an advanced [ɟ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_-' or d_-_j and J\_+, respectively. There is also a dedicated symbol ȡ, which is not a part of the IPA. Therefore, narrow transcriptions of the voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate include [d̠ʲʑ], [ɟ̟ʑ], [ɟ˖ʑ] and [ȡʑ].

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ʥ, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the sibilant equivalent of voiced palatal affricate.


Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate:

  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.


Bengaliখন[d͡ʑɔkʰon]'when'See Bengali phonology
Catalan[1]All dialectsmetge[ˈmedd͡ʑə]'doctor'See Catalan phonology
ChineseTaiwanese Hokkien / ji̍t[d͡ʑit̚˧ʔ]'sun'
IrishSome dialects[2][3][4]Realization of the palatalized alveolar stop /dʲ/ in dialects such as Erris, Teelin and Tourmakeady.[2][3][4] See Irish phonology
Japanese知人 / chijin[t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ]'acquaintance'See Japanese phonology
Korean편지 / pyeonji[pʰjɘːnd͡ʑi]'letter'See Korean phonology
Polish[5]więk [d͡ʑvjɛŋk] 'sound'See Polish phonology
RomanianBanat dialect[6]des[d͡ʑes]'frequent'Corresponds to [d] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russianдочь бы[ˈd̪o̞d͡ʑ bɨ]'daughter would'Allophone of /t͡ɕ/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Sema[7]aji[à̠d͡ʑì]'blood'Possible allophone of /ʒ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [ʑ ~ ʒ ~ d͡ʒ] instead.[7]
Serbo-Croatianђаво / đavo[d͡ʑâ̠ʋo̞ː]'devil'Merges with /d͡ʒ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Yi / jji[d͡ʑi˧]'bee'

See also



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