Voiced alveolar lateral affricate

Voiced alveolar lateral affricate
λ
IPA number 104 (149)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) d͡ɮ
Unicode (hex) U+0064U+0361U+026E
X-SAMPA dK\
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The voiced alveolar lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is d͡ɮ (often simplified to ).

Features

Features of the voiced alveolar lateral affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.

Occurrence

Voiced alveolar lateral affricates are rare. Sandawe has been transcribed with [dɮ], but the sound is more post-alveolar or palatal than alveolar. Consonants written dl in Athabaskan and Wakashan languages are either tenuis affricates, [t͜ɬ] (perhaps slightly voiced allophonically), or have an approximant release, [tˡ] or [dˡ]. In Montana Salish, /l/ may be prestopped, depending on context, in which case it may be realized as [ᵈl] or as an affricate [ᵈɮ̤].[1] In the Nguni languages [d͡ɮ] occurs after nasals: /nɮ̤/ is pronounced [nd͡ɮ̤], with an epenthetic stop, in at least Xhosa[2] and Zulu.[3]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Montana Salish p̓əllič̓č [pʼəd͡ɮɮít͡ʃʼt͡ʃ] 'turned over' Positional allophone of /l/
Xhosa indlovu [ind͡ɮ̤ɔːv̤u] 'elephant' Allophone of /ɮ̤/ after /n/

References

  1. Flemming, Ladefoged & Thomason (1994) "Phonetic structures of Montana Salish", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 87: 7
  2. Scarraffiotti (2011) Parlons Xhosa p. 13
  3. Rycroft & Ngcobo (1979) Say it in Zulu, p. 6
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