Voiced alveolar fricative

The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described.

  • The symbol for the alveolar sibilant is z, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z. The IPA letter z is not normally used for dental or postalveolar sibilants in narrow transcription unless modified by a diacritic ( and respectively).
  • The IPA symbol for the alveolar non-sibilant fricative is derived by means of diacritics; it can be ð̠ or ɹ̝.
Voiced coronal fricatives
Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar
retracted retroflex palato-
sibilant ʐ ʒ ʑ
non-sibilant ð ð̠/ð͇/ɹ̝ ɻ̝

Voiced alveolar sibilant

Voiced alveolar sibilant
IPA number 133
Entity (decimal) z
Unicode (hex) U+007A
Kirshenbaum z
source · help
Voiced laminal dentalized alveolar sibilant
Voiced alveolar retracted sibilant
Entity (decimal) z̺
Unicode (hex) U+007AU+033A

The voiced alveolar sibilant is common across European languages, but is relatively uncommon cross-linguistically compared to the voiceless variant. Only about 28% of the world's languages contain a voiced dental or alveolar sibilant. Moreover, 85% of the languages with some form of [z] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia.

In the eastern half of Asia, the Pacific and the Americas, [z] is very rare as a phoneme. Every language that has [z] also has [s].


  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • There are at least three specific variants of [z]:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [z] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. According to Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) about half of English speakers use a non-retracted apical articulation.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [ʒ] or laminal [ʐ].
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.


Dentalized laminal alveolar

ArmenianEastern[2]զարդ [z̪ɑɾt̪ʰ] 'decoration'
Belarusian[4]база[ˈbäz̪ä]'base'Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian[5]езеро[ˈɛz̪ɛro]'lake'Contrasts with palatalized form.
Czech[6]zima[ˈz̪ɪmä]'winter'See Czech phonology
EnglishMulticultural London[7]zoo[z̪ʏˑy̯]'zoo'See English phonology
French[8][9]zèbre[z̪ɛbʁ]'zebra'See French phonology
Hungarian[10]zálog[ˈz̪äːl̪oɡ]'pledge'See Hungarian phonology
Latvian[14]zars[z̪ärs̪]'branch'See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[15]зошто[ˈz̪ɔʃt̪ɔ]'why'See Macedonian phonology
Mirandesedaprendizaige[d̪əpɾẽd̪iˈz̪ajʒ(ɯ̽)]'learning'Contrasts seven sibilants altogether, preserving medieval Ibero-Romance contrasts.
Polish[1][16]zero [ˈz̪ɛrɔ] 'zero'See Polish phonology
PortugueseMost Brazilian speakersEstados Unidos[isˈt̪ad̪uz̪‿ʉˈnid͡zʉ(ˢ)]'United States'See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[17]zar[z̪är]'dice'See Romanian phonology
Russian[18]заезжать/zaezžat' [z̪əɪˈʑʑætʲ] 'to pick up'Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19][20]зима / zima[z̪ǐːmä]'winter'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Turkish[8][22]z[ɟø̞̈z̪]'eye'See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[23]зуб[z̪ub]'tooth'See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[24]koza[ˈkoz̪ä]'goat'See Upper Sorbian phonology
VietnameseHanoi[26]da[z̪äː]'skin'See Vietnamese phonology

Non-retracted alveolar

Adygheзы [ˈzə] 'one'
ArabicStandard[27]زائِر[ˈzaːʔir]'visitor'See Arabic phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaicܙܓ[ziɡa]'bell'
Bengaliনামা[namaz]'Salah'See Bengali phonology
Chechenзурма / zurma[zuɾma]'music'
Dutch[28][29]zaad[z̻aːt̻]'seed'Laminal; may have only mid-to-low pitched friction in the Netherlands.[28][29] See Dutch phonology
Englishzoo [zuː]'zoo'Absent from some Scottish and Asian dialects. See English phonology
Esperantokuzo[ˈkuzo]'cousin'See Esperanto phonology
GreekAthens dialect[31]ζάλη/záli[ˈz̻ali]'dizziness'See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrewזאב[zeˈʔev]'wolf'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindiज़मीन[zəmiːn]'land'See Hindustani phonology
ItalianMarked accents of Emilia-Romagna[32]caso[ˈkäːz̺ʲo]'case'Palatalized apical;[32] may be [ʐ] or [ʒ] instead.[32] See Italian phonology
Japanese[33]全部/zenbu[zembɯ]'everything'See Japanese phonology
Kabardianзы [ˈzə] 'one'
Kalaw Lagaw Yazilamiz[zilʌmiz]'go'
Kashmiriज़ानुन/زانُن[zaːnun]'to know'
Marathi[zər]'if'See Marathi phonology.
OccitanLimousinjòune[ˈzɒwne]'young'See Occitan phonology
Persian گوز [guz] 'fart'
Portuguese[34]casa[ˈkazɐ]'house'See Portuguese phonology
SpanishAndalusiancomunismo[ko̞muˈnizmo̞]'Communism'Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants, when it is not debuccalized to [h ~ ɦ]. Present in dialects which realize /s/ as a non-retracted alveolar fricative. Before /d/ it is dental [z̪].
Latin American
Mexicanzapato[zäˈpät̪o̞]'shoe'Some northern dialects. Corresponds to /s/ in other Mexican dialects, and to /θ/ in Peninsular Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Urduزمین[zəmiːn]'land'See Hindustani phonology
West Frisian[35]sizze[ˈsɪzə]'to say'It never occurs in word-initial positions. See West Frisian phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[36]guanaz[ɡʷanaz]'went to grab'

Retracted alveolar

Catalan[37][38]zel[ˈz̺ɛɫ]'zeal'Apical. See Catalan phonology
Galicianmesmo[ˈme̞z̺mo̞]'same'Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̪].
Greek[39]μάζα/za[ˈmɐz̠ɐ]'mass'See Modern Greek phonology
ItalianCentral Italy[40]caso[ˈkäːz̠o]'case'Present in Lazio north of Cape Linaro,[40] most of Umbria[40] (save Perugia and the extreme south)[40] and Le Marche south of the Potenza.[40]
Northern Italy[41][42]Apical.[43] Present in many areas north of the La Spezia–Rimini Line.[44][45] See Italian phonology
Sicily[40]Present south and west of a line drawn from Syracuse to Cefalù.[40]
Low German[46]
Mirandeseeisistir[e̞jz̺is̺ˈtiɾ]'to exist'Apical. Mirandese and neighboring Portuguese dialects were the only surviving oral tradition to preserve all seven mediaeval Ibero-Romance sibilants: ch //, x /ʃ/, g/j /ʒ/, c/ç //, z /z̪/, s/-ss- //, -s- /z̺/
OccitanGasconcasèrna[kaz̺ɛrno]'barracks'See Occitan phonology
Languedocienser[bez̺e]'to see'
PortugueseCoastal Northern EuropeanMerges with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
Inland Northern EuropeanApical. Contrasts with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
SpanishAndeanmismo [ˈmiz̺mo̞]'same'Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̪]. See Spanish phonology
Paisa Region


GermanStandard[47]sauber[ˈzäʊ̯bɐ]'clean'Varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[47] See Standard German phonology
ItalianStandard[48]caso[ˈkäːzo]'case'Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[48] See Italian phonology
Ticino[43]Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[49] Both variants may be labiodentalized.[43] See Italian phonology

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
Entity (decimal) ð̠
Unicode (hex) U+00F0U+0320
source · help
Voiced alveolar tapped fricative
IPA number 124 430
source · help

The voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), it can represent this sound as in a number of ways including ð̠ or ð͇ (retracted or alveolarized [ð], respectively), ɹ̝ (constricted [ɹ]), or (lowered [d]).

Few languages also have the voiced alveolar tapped fricative, which is simply a very brief apical alveolar non-sibilant fricative, with the tongue making the gesture for a tapped stop but not making full contact. This can be indicated in the IPA with the lowering diacritic to show full occlusion did not occur. Flapped fricatives are theoretically possible but are not attested.[50]


  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.


AragonesePyrenean[51]aire[ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞]'air'Tapped; common realization of /ɾ/.[51]
Czech[52]čtyři[ˈt͡ʃtɪɹ̝ɪ]'four'May be a trill fricative[52] or a tap fricative instead.[53] It contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. See Czech phonology
Dahalo[54][káð̠i]'work'Apical; only weakly fricated. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /d̠/, and may be an approximant [ð̠˕] or simply a plosive [d] instead.[55]
Danish[56]Few speakers[57]ved[ve̝ð̠]'at'Laminal.[56] Allophone of /d/ in the syllable coda; much more often realized as an approximant.[57] See Danish phonology
Dutch[58]voor[vöːɹ̝]'for'One of many possible realizations of /r/; distribution unclear. See Dutch phonology
EnglishScouse[59]maid[meɪð̠] 'maid'Allophone of /d/. See English phonology
South African[60][61]round[ɹ̝æʊ̯nd]'round'Apical,[61] present in some urban dialects.[60] See South African English phonology
Icelandic[62][63]bróðir[ˈprou̯ð̠ir]'brother'Usually apical,[62][63] may be closer to an approximant. See Icelandic phonology
ItalianBologna[43]caso[ˈkäːð̠o]'case'Laminal; a hypercorrective variant of /z/ for some young speakers. Either non-sibilant, or "not sibilant enough".[43] See Italian phonology
Sicily[64]terra[ˈt̪ɛɹ̝ä]'earth'Apical; corresponds to /rr/ in standard Italian.[64] See Italian phonology
Manxmooar[muːɹ̝]'big'Common word-final realization of /r/.
Spanish[65]aire[ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞]'air'Tapped; possible realization of /ɾ/.[65] See Spanish phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[66][67]vandrare[²vän̪ːd̪ɹ̝äɹɛ]'wanderer'Allophone of /r/ around the Stockholm area. See Swedish phonology
Turkish[69]rüya[ˈɾ̞ÿjä]'dream'Tapped; word-initial allophone of /ɾ/.[69] See Turkish phonology

See also


  1. 1 2 Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. Kozintseva (1995), p. 7.
  3. Axundov (1983), pp. 115, 136, 139-142.
  4. Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  5. Klagstad Jr. (1958), p. 46.
  6. Palková (1994), p. 228.
  7. "english speech services | Accent of the Year / sibilants in MLE". Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  8. 1 2 Adams (1975), p. 288.
  9. Fougeron & Smith (1999), p. 79.
  10. Szende (1999), p. 104.
  11. Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  12. Kara (2002), p. 10.
  13. Kara (2003), p. 11.
  14. Nau (1998), p. 6.
  15. Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  16. Rocławski (1976), pp. 149.
  17. Ovidiu Drăghici. "Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013.
  18. Chew (2003), p. 67.
  19. Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  20. Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  21. Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  22. Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 154.
  23. S. Buk; J. Mačutek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics , (). 16 (2008): 63–79. arXiv:0802.4198. Bibcode:2008arXiv0802.4198B.
  24. Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22, 38, 39.
  25. Sjoberg (1963), p. 11.
  26. Thompson (1987), pp. 5 and 7.
  27. Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  28. 1 2 Gussenhoven (1999), p. 75.
  29. 1 2 Collins & Mees (2003), p. 190.
  30. Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  31. Adams (1975), p. 283.
  32. 1 2 3 Canepari (1992), p. 73.
  33. Okada (1991), p. 94.
  34. Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  35. Sipma (1913), p. 16.
  36. Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  37. Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  38. Torreblanca (1988), p. 347.
  39. Arvaniti (2007), p. 12.
  40. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Adams (1975), p. 286.
  41. Adams (1975), pp. 285-286.
  42. Canepari (1992), p. 71-72.
  43. 1 2 3 4 5 Canepari (1992), p. 72.
  44. Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  45. Adams (1975), p. 285.
  46. Adams (1975), p. 289.
  47. 1 2 Mangold (2005), p. 50.
  48. 1 2 Canepari (1992), p. 68.
  49. Canepari (1992), pp. 68 and 72.
  50. Laver (1994), p. 263.
  51. 1 2 Mott (2007), pp. 104, 112.
  52. 1 2 Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 228-230 and 233.
  53. Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 226.
  54. Maddieson et al. (1993:34)
  55. Maddieson et al. (1993:28, 34)
  56. 1 2 Jespersen & 1897-1899:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144)
  57. 1 2 Bauer et al. (1980:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144): "Only in a very distinct Danish - as from the stage of the Royal Theater - do we get a fricative."
  58. Collins & Mees (2003:199). Authors do not say where exactly it is used.
  59. Watson (2007), pp. 352-353.
  60. 1 2 Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 236.
  61. 1 2 Ogden (2009), p. 92.
  62. 1 2 Pétursson (1971:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:145)
  63. 1 2 Grønnum (2005:139)
  64. 1 2 Canepari (1992), pp. 64-65.
  65. 1 2 Mott (2007), p. 112.
  66. Engstrand (1999), pp. 141.
  67. Engstrand (2004), p. 167.
  68. 1 2 "UPSID r[F". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  69. 1 2 Yavuz & Balcı (2011), p. 25.


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