Vishnu sahasranama

Vishnu sahasranama
Vishnusahasranama manuscript, ca1690.
Information
Religion Hinduism
Verses 107

Vishnu Sahasranama (Sanskrit: विष्णुसहस्रनाम, IAST: Viṣṇusahasranāma),[lower-alpha 1] is a list of 1,000 names (sahasranama) of Vishnu, one of the main deities in Hinduism and the supreme God in Vaishnavism. It is also one of the most sacred and popular stotras in Hinduism. The Vishnu Sahasranama as found in the Anushasana Parva[1] of the Mahabharata is the most popular version of the 1,000 names of Vishnu. Other versions exists in the Padma Purana, Skanda Purana and Garuda Purana. There is also a Sikh version of the Vishnu Sahasranama, found in the text Sundar Gutka.[2] Each name eulogizes one of His countless great attributes.

The Vishnu Sahasranama has been the subject of numerous commentaries. Adi Shankara wrote a definitive commentary on the sahasranāma in the 8th century which has been particularly influential for many schools of Hinduism even today. Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanuja, wrote a commentary in the 12th century, detailing the names of Vishnu from a Vishishtadvaita perspective, in the book titled Bhagavath Guna Dharpanam (or Bhagavad Guna Dharpana, meaning reflections of the Lord's qualities)[3][4]. Madhvacharya asserted that each name in the sahasranama has a minimum of 100 meanings.

Background

According to the 135[5] th chapter of Anushāsanaparva (verses 14 to 120) in the epic Mahabharata, the names were handed down to Yudhishthira by the famous warrior Bhishma who was on his death bed (of arrows) in the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Yudhishthira asks Bhishma the following questions:[6][7]

kimekam daivatam loke kim vāpyekam parāyaṇam
stuvantaḥ kam kamarcantaḥ prāpnuyurmānavāḥ śubham
ko dharmaḥ sarva dharmāṇām bhavataḥ paramo mataḥ
kim japan mucyate jantuḥ janmasamsārabandhanāt

In this universe Who is the one (ekam) refuge (parāyaṇam) for all? Who (kim) is the greatest (ekam) Lord (daivatam) in the world (loke)? By eulogising (sthuvantaḥ) whom (kam) can a person (mānavāḥ) reach auspiciousness (śubham) (peace and prosperity)? By worshipping (archantaḥ) whom can a person reach auspiciousness (peace and prosperity)? What (kah) is, in thy opinion, the Greatest Dharma of all Dharmas? By (kim) chanting whose name, can a "creature" (jantuh) proceed beyond (muchyate) the bonds (bandhanāt) of samsāra?

[8]

Bhishma answers by stating that mankind will be free from all sorrows by chanting the "Vishnusahasranāma", which are the thousand names of the all-pervading Supreme Being Vishnu, who is the master of all the worlds, the supreme light, the essence of the universe and who is Brahman. All matter animate and inanimate reside in him, and he in turn resides within all matter.

Etymology

In Sanskrit, sahasra means "a thousand" and nāma (nominative, the stem is nāman-) means "name". The compound is of the Bahuvrihi type and may be translated as "having a thousand names". In modern Hindi pronunciation, nāma is pronounced [na:m]. It is also pronounced sahasranāmam in South India. .

It is said that the one who reads this Vishnu Sahasranamam everyday with full devotion, achieves name, fame, wealth and knowledge in his life.

Interpretations

There are Sahasranāma for many forms of God (Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesha, Shakti, and others). The Vishnu Sahasranāma is popular among common Hindus, and a major part of prayer for devout Vaishnavas, or followers of Vishnu. While Vaishanvas venerate other deities, they believe that the universe, including the other divinities such as Shiva and Devi, is ultimately a manifestation of the Supreme Lord Vishnu. Followers of Shaivism similarly give prominence to Shiva. Despite the existence of other sahasranamas of other forms of God, referring a sahasranama as "The Sahasranama," generally refers to the Vishnu Sahasranama alone, thereby indicating its wide popularity and use.[9]

Smarta interpretations

Two of the names in Vishnusahasranama that refer to Shiva are "Shiva" (names # 27 and # 600 in Adi Sankara's commentary) itself, "Shambhu" (name # 38), "Ishanah" (name #6 4), and "Rudra" (name # 114). Most notably, Adi Shankara, according to one interpretation, has not interpreted these to mean that the deity Shiva and the deity Vishnu are the same.[10] Specifically, he asserts that the deity Vishnu is Brahman itself (not just an aspect of Brahmam).[11] Again, he notes that "only Hari (Vishnu) is eulogized by names such as Shiva",[12] a position consistent with interpretations of the Srivaishnavite commentator Parasara Bhattar. Parasara Bhattar had interpreted Shiva to mean a quality of Vishnu, such as "One who bestows auspiciousness.".[13] In fact, the Shri Rudram, a sacred prayer for Hindus and devotees of Shiva in particular, describes Vishnu as an aspect of Shiva in the fifth anuvaka.

However, this interpretation of the name Shiva has been challenged by Swami Tapasyananda's translation of Sankara's commentary on the Vishnusahasranama.[14] He translates the 27th name, Shiva to mean:"One who is not affected by the three Gunas of Prakrti, Sattva, Rajas,and Tamas; The Kaivalaya Upanishad says, "He is both Brahma and Shiva." In the light of this statement of non-difference between Shiva and Vishnu, it is Vishnu Himself Who Is exalted by the praise and worship of Shiva." [14] Based on this commonly held Advaitan point of view which has been adopted by Smartas, Vishnu and Shiva are viewed as one and the same God, being different aspects of preservation and destruction respectively. As many Sanskrit words have multiple meanings, it is possible that both Vishnu and Shiva share names in this instance, e.g., the name Shiva itself means "auspicious"[15] which could also apply to Vishnu. The Deities Ananthapadmanabha and Shankaranarayana are worshipped by Hindus, as is Lord Panduranga Vitthala, a form of Lord Krishna with a Shiva Linga on his crown, signifying the oneness of both deities.

Vaishnava interpretations

However, the Vaishnava commentator, Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya has interpreted the names "Shiva" and "Rudra" in Vishnu sahasranama to mean qualities or attributes of Vishnu, and not to indicate that Vishnu and Shiva are one and the same God. Vaishnavas worship Vishnu in his four-armed form, carrying conch, disc, flower and mace in his hands, believing that to be the Supreme form. However, Smarthas do not subscribe to this aspect or personification of God, as Smarthas say that God is pure and thus devoid of form. Additionally, they believe that God is not limited by time nor limited by shape and color. Vaishnava traditions are of the opinion that Vishnu is both unlimited and yet still capable of having specific forms, as to give arguments to the contrary (to say that God is incapable of having a form) is to limit the unlimitable and all-powerful Supreme.

In the Sri Vaishnava tradition, the Bhagavad-gita and the Vishnu Sahasranama are considered the two eyes of spiritual revelation.

In other Vaishnava traditions too, the Vishnu Sahasranama is considered an important text. Within Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Vallabha sampradaya, Nimbarka sampradaya and among Ramanandis, the chanting of the names of Krishna and Rama are considered to be superior to that of Vishnu. Based on another verse in the Padma Purana which says that the benefit of chanting the one thousand names of Vishnu can be derived from chanting one name of Rama, and a verse in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana equating the benefit of chanting three names of Rama with one name of Krishna. However, it is important to realize that those verses in those puranas are not to be interpreted literally, as many believe that there is no difference between Vishnu and Krishna. This theological difference can be expressed as follows: Many Vaishnava groups recognize Krishna as an Avatar of Vishnu, while others, instead, consider Him to be svayam bhagavan, or the original form of the Lord. Yet these verses can be interpreted as it is more important to have pure bhakti or devotion than merely repeating the many names of God without emotion. Indeed, Shri Krishna Himself said, "Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it.” [16]

Within Vaisnavism some groups, such as Sri sampradaya, adhere to and follow the Rig Veda: V.I.15b.3, which states "O ye who wish to gain realization of the supreme truth, utter the name of Vishnu at least once in the steadfast faith that it will lead you to such realization." [17]

Sandhya Interpretation

Sandhyavandanam in many traditions includes the assertion that Shiva and Vishnu are one and the same:[18]

Shivaaya Vishnu Roopaaya Shiva Roopaaya Vishanave |
Shivasya Hrudayam Vishnur Vishnuscha Hrudayam Shivaha ||
Yatha Shivamayo Vishnuhu Yevam Vishnu Mayaha Shivaha |
Yathaantharam Na Paschyaami Thatha Me Swasthi Ra Yushi ||

The popular name and deity ShankaraNarayana reflects this unity.

Interpretations alluding to the power of God in controlling karma

Many names in the Vishnusahasranama, the thousand names of Vishnu allude to the power of God in controlling karma. For example, the 135th name of Vishnu, Dharmadhyaksha, in Sankara's interpretation means, "One who directly sees the merits (Dharma) and demerits (Adharma), of beings by bestowing their due rewards on them." [19]

Other names of Vishnu alluding to this nature of God are Bhavanah, the 32nd name, Vidhata, the 44th name, Apramattah, the 325th name, Sthanadah, the 387th name and Srivibhavanah, the 609th name.[20] Bhavanah, according to Sankara's interpretation, means "One who generates the fruits of Karmas of all Jivas for them to enjoy." [21] The Brahma Sutra (3.2.28) "Phalmatah upapatteh" speaks of the Lord's function as the bestower of the fruits of all actions of the jivas.[21]

General thoughts

Sections from Swami Tapasyananda's translation of the concluding verses of Vishnu sahasranama, state the following: "Nothing evil or inauspicious will befall a man here or hereafter who daily hears or repeats these names." That comment is noteworthy. King Nahusha, a once righteous king, ancestor of Yudhishthira, according to excerpt from C. Rajagopalachari's translation of the Mahabharata, became an Indra, king of devas, but was later expelled from Swarga or heaven due to a curse by the great sage Agastya for his eventual gain in pride and arrogance and became a python for thousands of years.[22]

Pronunciation

In the linked preface prayer (but not in the succeeding Sahasranama) non-formal pronunciation is used, since correct representation of pronunciation requires extensive use of diacritic marks. An example: Sanskrit/Hindi has three letters representing S, which are represented here as 's', 'ś', and 'ṣ', as used in the Sanskrit word ṣatkona (= "hexagon"), Viṣnu, Kṛṣṇa and others is actually a retroflex phoneme and has no equivalent in English. Retroflex phonemes are those where the tongue is slightly coiled back in the palate and released along with the phoneme's sound. Also, the 'ṇ' in Viṣṇu and Kṛṣṇa is retroflex. In formal transliteration of Sanskrit alphabet to English, this set-up is denoted by placing dots below the letter 'ṣ'. More details can be found at Sanskrit language#Consonants, and at IAST

Although devotion is considered the most important thing while reciting any prayer or mantra (Unless used for tantric purposes, where the sound's vibration plays the major role), use of the correct pronunciation is believed by devotees to enhance the satisfaction derived from the recital, in the case of both vocal and mental chants.

Merits of Recitation

Believers in the recitation of the Sahasranama claim that it brings unwavering calm of mind, complete freedom from stress and brings eternal knowledge. A translation of the concluding verses (Phalasruti) of Vishnu sahasranama, state the following: "Nothing evil or inauspicious will befall a man here or hereafter who daily hears or repeats these names.. Whichever devoted man, getting up early in the morning and purifying himself, repeats this hymn devoted to Vasudeva, with a mind that is concentrated on Him, that man attains to great fame, leadership among his peers, wealth that is secure and the supreme good unsurpassed by anything. He will be free from all fears and be endowed with great courage and energy and he will be free from diseases. Beauty of form, strength of body and mind, and virtuous character will be natural to him.... One who reads this hymn every day with devotion and attention attains to peace of mind, patience, prosperity, mental stability, memory and reputation.... Whoever desires advancement and happiness should repeat this devotional hymn on Vishnu composed by Vyasa....Never will defeat attend on a man who adores the Lotus-Eyed One (Kamala Nayana), who is the Master of all the worlds, who is birthless, and out of whom the worlds have originated and into whom they dissolve."

In orthodox Hindu tradition, a devotee should daily chant the Upanishads, Gita, Rudram, Purusha Sukta and Vishnu sahasranama. If one cannot do all this on any day, it is believed that chanting Vishnu sahasranama alone is sufficient. Vishnu sahasranama can be chanted at any time, irrespective of gender.

Varahi Tantra says that in the age of Kali yuga, most stotras are cursed by Parashurama and hence are ineffective. While listing the ones which are free from this curse and hence suitable during Kali Yuga, it is said, "Gita of the Bhishma Parva, Vishnu Sahasranama of Mahabharata and Chandika Saptashati' (Devi Mahatmyam) are free from all Doshas and grant fruits immediately in Kali Yuga." [23]

In a classic astrological text, the Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra, Sage Parashara frequently recommends the recitation of the Vishnu Sahasranama as the best remedial measure for planetary afflictions.[24] For example, see the following verse: "The most effective and beneficial remedial measure for the prolongation of longevity and to obtain relief from other evil effects is recitation of Vishnu Sahasranam." ch 56 verse 30 [24]

Sage Parashara mentions this practice more than ten times in his text. Here's another verse:

"The remedial measure to obtain relief from the above evil effects, is recitation of Vishnu Sahasranama." ch 59 verse 77 [24]

Shlokas

Recitation and aggregation

An alternative approach is to say the starting prayer, and then say the names collected in stanzas (As they were originally said by Bhishma.) Such stanzas are called Slokas in Sanskrit. The Sahasranama (apart from the initial and concluding prayers) has a total of 108 shlokas.

For example, the first sloka is:

om visvam vishnur-vashatkaro bhutbhavyabhavatprabhuh
bhutkrd bhutbhrd-bhaavo bhutatma bhutabhavanah

Notice the aggregation of several words and the omission of their intervening spaces. For example, the last word of the first line of this Sloka:

bhutabhavya-bhavatprabhuh

corresponds to:

om bhutabhavya bhavat prabhave namah

of the expanded version.

This joining-together of words is a common feature of Sanskrit and is called Samasa- a compound. It makes the slokas compact, and easier to remember.

The Thousand Names of Lord Vishnu

This is the complete list of names, in loose anglicized spelling and with idiosyncratic translations.[25][26]

#NameTransliterationTranslation
1विश्वम्vishwamWho is the universe himself
2विष्णुःvishnuhHe who pervades everywhere
3वषट्कारःvashatkaarahHe who is invoked for oblations
4भूतभव्यभवत्प्रभुःbhoota-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuhThe Lord of past, present and future
5भूतकृत्bhoota-kritThe creator of all creatures
6भूतभृत्bhoota-bhritHe who nourishes all creatures
7भावःbhaavahHe who becomes all moving and nonmoving things
8भूतात्माbhootaatmaaThe aatman of all beings
9भूतभावनःbhoota-bhaavanahThe cause of the growth and birth of all creatures
10पूतात्माpootaatmaaHe with an extremely pure essence
11परमात्माparamaatmaaThe Supersoul
12मुक्तानां परमा गतिःmuktaanaam paramaa gatihThe final goal, reached by liberated souls
13अव्ययःavyayahWithout destruction
14पुरुषःpurushahHe who is manifestation of A soul with strong masculinity
15साक्षीsaaksheeThe witness
16क्षेत्रज्ञःkshetrajnahThe knower of the field
17अक्षरःaksharahIndestructible
18योगःyogahHe who is realized through yoga
19योगविदां नेताyoga-vidaam netaaThe guide of those who know yoga
20प्रधानपुरुषेश्वरःpradhaana-purusheshvarahLord of pradhaana and purusha
21नारसिंहवपुःnaarasimha-vapuhHe whose form is man-lion
22श्रीमान्shreemaanHe who is always with shree
23केशवःkah Brahma; ah Vishnu and Isa Shivakeshavah: He who has beautiful locks of hair, slayer of Keshi and one who is himself the three
24पुरुषोत्तमःpurushottamahThe Supreme Controller, best among the purushas
25सर्वःsarvahHe who is everything
26शर्वःsharvasThe auspicious
27शिवःshivahHe who is eternally pure
28स्थाणुःsthaanuhThe pillar, the immovable truth
29भूतादिःbhootaadihThe cause of the five great elements
30निधिरव्ययःnidhir-avyayahThe imperishable treasure
31सम्भवःsambhavahHe who descends of His own free will
32भावनःbhaavanahHe who gives everything to his devotees
33भर्ताbhartaaHe who governs the entire living world
34प्रभवःprabhavahThe womb of the five great elements
35प्रभुःprabhuhThe Almighty Lord
36ईश्वरःeeshvarahHe who can do anything without any help
37स्वयम्भूःsvayambhoohHe who manifests from Himself
38शम्भुःshambhuhHe who brings auspiciousness
39आदित्यःaadityahThe son of Aditi (Vaamana)
40पुष्कराक्षःpushkaraakshahHe who has eyes like the lotus
41महास्वनःmahaasvanahHe who has a thundering voice
42अनादि-निधनःanaadi-nidhanahHe without origin or end
43धाताdhaataaHe who supports all fields of experience
44विधाताvidhaataaThe dispenser of fruits of action
45धातुरुत्तमःdhaaturuttamahThe subtlest atom
46अप्रमेयःaprameyahHe who cannot be perceived
47हृषीकेशःhrisheekeshahThe Lord of the senses
48पद्मनाभःpadmanaabhahHe from whose navel comes the lotus
49अमरप्रभुःamaraprabhuhThe Lord of the devas
50विश्वकर्माvishvakarmaaThe creator of the universe
51मनुःmanuhHe who has manifested as the Vedic mantras
52त्वष्टाtvashtaaHe who makes huge things small
53स्थविष्ठःsthavishtahThe supremely gross
54स्थविरो ध्रुवःsthaviro dhruvahThe ancient, motionless one
55अग्राह्यःagraahyahHe who is not perceived sensually
56शाश्वतःshaashvatahHe who always remains the same
57कृष्णःkrishnahHe whose complexion is dark
58लोहिताक्षःlohitaakshahRed-eyed
59प्रतर्दनःpratardanahThe Supreme destruction
60प्रभूतस्prabhootasEver-full
61त्रिकाकुब्धामtrikakub-dhaamaThe support of the three quarters
62पवित्रम्pavitramHe who gives purity to the heart
63मंगलं-परम्mangalam paramThe Supreme auspiciousness
64ईशानःeeshanahThe controller of the five great elements
65प्राणदःpraanadahHe who gives life
66प्राणःpraanahHe who ever lives
67ज्येष्ठःjyeshthahOlder than all
68श्रेष्ठःshreshthahThe most glorious
69प्रजापतिःprajaapatihThe Lord of all creatures
70हिरण्यगर्भःhiranyagarbhahHe who dwells in the womb of the world
71भूगर्भःbhoogarbhahHe who is the womb of the world
72माधवःmaadhavahHusband of Lakshmi
73मधुसूदनःmadhusoodanahDestroyer of the Madhu demon
74ईश्वरःeeshvarahThe controller
75विक्रमःvikrameeHe who is full of prowess
76धन्वीdhanveeHe who always has a divine bow
77मेधावीmedhaaveeSupremely intelligent
78विक्रमःvikramahValorous
79क्रमःkramahAll-pervading
80अनुत्तमःanuttamahIncomparably great
81दुराधर्षःduraadharshahHe who cannot be attacked successfully
82कृतज्ञःkritajnahHe who knows all that is
83कृतिःkritihHe who rewards all our actions
84आत्मवान्aatmavaanThe self in all beings
85सुरेशःsureshahThe Lord of the demigods
86शरणम्sharanamThe refuge
87शर्मsharmaHe who is Himself infinite bliss
88विश्वरेताःvisva-retaahThe seed of the universe
89प्रजाभवःprajaa-bhavahHe from whom all praja comes
90अहःahahHe who is the nature of time
91संवत्सरःsamvatsarahHe from whom the concept of time comes
92व्यालःvyaalahThe serpent (vyaalah) to atheists
93प्रत्ययःpratyayahHe whose nature is knowledge
94सर्वदर्शनःsarvadarshanahAll-seeing
95अजःajahUnborn
96सर्वेश्वरःsarveshvarahController of all
97सिद्धःsiddhahThe most famous
98सिद्धिःsiddhihHe who gives moksha
99सर्वादिःsarvaadihThe beginning of all
100अच्युतःachyutahInfallible
101वृषाकपिःvrishaakapihHe who lifts the world to dharma
102अमेयात्माameyaatmaaHe who manifests in infinite varieties
103सर्वयोगविनिसृतःsarva-yoga-vinissritahHe who is free from all attachments
104वसुःvasuhThe support of all elements
105वसुमनाःvasumanaahHe whose mind is supremely pure
106सत्यःsatyahThe truth
107समात्माsamaatmaaHe who is the same in all
108सम्मितःsammitahHe who has been accepted by authorities
109समःsamahEqual
110अमोघःamoghahEver useful
111पुण्डरीकाक्षःpundareekaakshahHe who dwells in the heart
112वृषकर्माvrishakarmaaHe whose every act is righteous
113वृषाकृतिःvrishaakritihThe form of dharma
114रुद्रःrudrahHe who is mightiest of the mighty or He who is "fierce"
115बहुशिरःbahu-shiraahHe who has many heads
116बभ्रुःbabhrurHe who rules over all the worlds
117विश्वयोनिःvishvayonihThe womb of the universe
118शुचिश्रवाःshuchi-shravaahHe who listens only the good and pure
119अमृतःamritahImmortal
120शाश्वतः-स्थाणुःshaashvatah-sthaanurPermanent and immovable
121वरारोहःvaraarohoThe most glorious destination
122महातपःmahaatapaahHe of great tapas
123सर्वगःsarvagahAll-pervading
124सर्वविद्भानुःsarvavid-bhaanuhAll-knowing and effulgent
125विष्वक्सेनःvishvaksenahHe against whom no army can stand
126जनार्दनःjanaardanahHe who gives joy to good people
127वेदःvedahHe who is the Vedas
128वेदविद्vedavidThe knower of the Vedas
129अव्यंगःavyangahWithout imperfections
130वेदांगःvedaangahHe whose limbs are the Vedas
131वेदविद्vedavitHe who contemplates upon the Vedas
132कविःkavihThe seer
133लोकाध्यक्षःlokaadhyakshahHe who presides over all lokas
134सुराध्यक्षःsuraadhyakshoHe who presides over all devas
135धर्माध्यक्षःdharmaadhyakshahHe who presides over dharma
136कृताकृतःkrita-akritahAll that is created and not created
137चतुरात्माchaturaatmaaThe four-fold self
138चतुर्व्यूहःchaturvyoohahVasudeva, Sankarshan etc.
139चतुर्दंष्ट्रःchaturdamstrahHe who has four canines (Nrsimha)
140चतुर्भुजःchaturbhujahFour-handed
141भ्राजिष्णुःbhraajishnurSelf-effulgent consciousness
142भोजनम्bhojanamHe who is the sense-objects
143भोक्ताbhoktaaThe enjoyer
144सहिष्णुःsahishnuhHe who can suffer patiently
145जगदादिजःjagadaadijahBorn at the beginning of the world
146अनघःanaghahSinless
147विजयःvijayahVictorious
148जेताjetaaEver-successful
149विश्वयोनिःvishvayonihHe who incarnates because of the world
150पुनर्वसुःpunarvasuhHe who lives repeatedly in different bodies
151उपेन्द्रःupendraThe younger brother of Indra (Vamana)
152वामनःvaamanahHe with a dwarf body
153प्रांशुःpraamshuhHe with a huge body
154अमोघःamoghahHe whose acts are for a great purpose
155शुचिःshuchihHe who is spotlessly clean
156ऊर्जितःoorjitahHe who has infinite vitality
157अतीन्द्रःateendrahHe who surpasses Indra
158संग्रहःsamgrahahHe who holds everything together
159सर्गःsargahHe who creates the world from Himself
160धृतात्माdhritaatmaaEstablished in Himself
161नियमःniyamahThe appointing authority
162यमःyamahThe administrator
163वेद्यःvedyahThat which is to be known
164वैद्यःvaidyahThe Supreme doctor
165सदायोगीsadaa-yogeeAlways in yoga
166वीरहाveerahaaHe who destroys the mighty heroes
167माधवःmaadhavahThe Lord of all knowledge
168मधुःmadhuhSweet
169अतीन्द्रियःateendriyoBeyond the sense organs
170महामायःmahaamayahThe Supreme Master of all Maya
171महोत्साहःmahotsaahahThe great enthusiast
172महाबलःmahaabalahHe who has supreme strength
173महाबुद्धिःmahaabuddhirHe who has supreme intelligence
174महावीर्यःmahaa-veeryahThe supreme essence
175महाशक्तिःmahaa-shaktihAll-powerful
176महाद्युतिःmahaa-dyutihGreatly luminous
177अनिर्देश्यवपुःanirdeshya-vapuhHe whose form is indescribable
178श्रीमान्shreemaanHe who is always courted by glories
179अमेयात्माameyaatmaaHe whose essence is immeasurable
180महाद्रिधृक्mahaadri-dhrikHe who supports the great mountain
181महेष्वासःmaheshvaasahHe who wields shaarnga
182महीभर्ताmaheebhartaaThe husband of mother earth
183श्रीनिवासःshreenivaasahThe permanent abode of Shree
184सतां गतिःsataam gatihThe goal for all virtuous people
185अनिरुद्धःaniruddhahHe who cannot be obstructed
186सुरानन्दःsuraanandahHe who gives out happiness
187गोविन्दःgovindahThe protector of the 'Go' - means Veda not Cow.
188गोविदां-पतिःgovidaam-patihThe Lord of all men of wisdom
189मरीचिःmareechihEffulgence
190दमनःdamanahHe who controls rakshasas
191हंसःhamsahThe swan
192सुपर्णःsuparnahBeautiful-winged (Two birds analogy)
193भुजगोत्तमःbhujagottamahThe serpent Ananta
194हिरण्यनाभःhiranyanaabhahHe who has a golden navel
195सुतपाःsutapaahHe who has glorious tapas
196पद्मनाभःpadmanaabhahHe whose navel is like a lotus
197प्रजापतिःprajaapatihHe from whom all creatures emerge
198अमृत्युःamrityuhHe who knows no death
199सर्वदृक्sarva-drikThe seer of everything
200सिंहःsimhahHe who destroys
201सन्धाताsandhaataaThe regulator
202सन्धिमान्sandhimaanHe who seems to be conditioned
203स्थिरःsthirahSteady
204अजःajahHe who takes the form of Aja, Brahma
205दुर्मषणःdurmarshanahHe who cannot be vanquished
206शास्ताshaastaaHe who rules over the universe
207विश्रुतात्माvishrutaatmaaHe who is celebrated, most famous and heard about by one and all.
208सुरारिहाsuraarihaaDestroyer of the enemies of the devas
209गुरुःguruhThe teacher
210गुरुतमःgurutamahThe greatest teacher
211धामdhaamaThe goal
212सत्यःsatyahHe who is Himself the truth
213सत्यपराक्रमःsatya-paraakramahDynamic Truth
214निमिषःnimishahHe who has closed eyes in contemplation
215अनिमिषःanimishahHe who remains unwinking; ever knowing
216स्रग्वीsragveeHe who always wears a garland of undecaying flowers
217वाचस्पतिः-उदारधीःvaachaspatir-udaara-dheehHe who is eloquent in championing the Supreme law of life; He with a large-hearted intelligence
218अग्रणीःagraneehHe who guides us to the peak
219ग्रामणीःgraamaneehHe who leads the flock
220श्रीमान्shreemaanThe possessor of light, effulgence, glory
221न्यायःnyaayahJustice
222नेताnetaaThe leader
223समीरणःsameeranahHe who sufficiently administers all movements of all living creatures
224सहस्रमूर्धाsahasra-moordhaaHe who has endless heads
225विश्वात्माvishvaatmaaThe soul of the universe
226सहस्राक्षःsahasraakshahThousands of eyes
227सहस्रपात्sahasrapaatThousand-footed
228आवर्तनःaavartanahThe unseen dynamism
229निवृत्तात्माnivritaatmaaThe soul retreated from matter
230संवृतःsamvritahHe who is veiled from the jiva
231संप्रमर्दनःsam-pramardanahHe who persecutes evil men
232अहः संवर्तकःahassamvartakahHe who thrills the day and makes it function vigorously
233वह्निःvahnihFire
234अनिलःanilahAir
235धरणीधरःdharaneedharahHe who supports the earth
236सुप्रसादःsuprasaadahFully satisfied
237प्रसन्नात्माprasanaatmaaEver pure and all-blissful self
238विश्वधृक्vishva-dhrikSupporter of the world
239विश्वभुक्vishvabhukHe who enjoys all experiences
240विभुःvibhuhHe who manifests in endless forms
241सत्कर्ताsatkartaaHe who adores good and wise people
242सत्कृतःsatkritahHe who is adored by all good people
243साधुःsaadhurHe who lives by the righteous codes
244जह्नुःjahnuhLeader of men
245नारायणःnaaraayanahHe who resides on the waters
246नरःnarahThe guide
247असंख्येयःasankhyeyahHe who has numberless names and forms
248अप्रमेयात्माaprameyaatmaaA soul not known through the pramanas
249विशिष्टःvishishtahHe who transcends all in His glory
250शिष्टकृत्shishta-kritThe lawmaker
251शुचिःshuchihHe who is pure
252सिद्धार्थःsiddhaarthahHe who has all arthas
253सिद्धसंकल्पःsiddhasankalpahHe who gets all He wishes for
254सिद्धिदःsiddhidahThe giver of benedictions
255सिद्धिसाधनःsiddhisaadhanahThe power behind our sadhana
256वृषाहीvrishaaheeController of all actions
257वृषभःvrishabhahHe who showers all dharmas
258विष्णुःvishnuhLong-striding
259वृषपर्वाvrishaparvaaThe ladder leading to dharma (As well as dharma itself)
260वृषोदरःvrishodarahHe from whose belly life showers forth
261वर्धनःvardhanahThe nurturer and nourisher
262वर्धमानःvardhamaanahHe who can grow into any dimension
263विविक्तःviviktahSeparate
264श्रुतिसागरःshruti-saagarahThe ocean for all scripture
265सुभुजःsubhujahHe who has graceful arms
266दुर्धरःdurdharahHe who cannot be known by great yogis
267वाग्मीvaagmeeHe who is eloquent in speech
268महेन्द्रःmahendrahThe lord of Indra
269वसुदःvasudahHe who gives all wealth
270वसुःvasuhHe who is Wealth
271नैकरूपःnaika-roopoHe who has unlimited forms
272बृहद्रूपःbrihad-roopahVast, of infinite dimensions
273शिपिविष्टःshipivishtahThe presiding deity of the sun
274प्रकाशनःprakaashanahHe who illuminates
275ओजस्तेजोद्युतिधरःojas-tejo-dyutidharahThe possessor of vitality, effulgence and beauty
276प्रकाशात्माprakaashaatmaaThe effulgent self
277प्रतापनःprataapanahThermal energy; one who heats
278ऋद्धःriddhahFull of prosperity
279स्पष्टाक्षरःspashtaaksharahOne who is indicated by OM
280मन्त्रःmantrahThe nature of the Vedic mantras
281चन्द्रांशुःchandraamshuhThe rays of the moon
282भास्करद्युतिःbhaaskara-dyutihThe effulgence of the sun
283अमृतांशोद्भवःamritaamshoodbhavahThe Paramatman from whom Amrutamshu or the Moon originated at the time of the churning of the Milk-ocean.[27]
284भानुःbhaanuhSelf-effulgent
285शशबिन्दुःshashabindhuhThe moon who has a rabbit-like spot
286सुरेश्वरःsureshvarahA person of extreme charity
287औषधम्aushadhamMedicine
288जगतः सेतुःjagatas-setuhA bridge across the material energy
289सत्यधर्मपराक्रमःsatya-dharma-paraakramahOne who champions heroically for truth and righteousness
290भूतभव्यभवन्नाथःbhoota-bhavya-bhavan-naathahThe Lord of past, present and future
291पवनःpavanahThe air that fills the universe
292पावनःpaavanahHe who gives life-sustaining power to air
293अनलःanalahFire
294कामहाkaamahaaHe who destroys all desires
295कामकृत्kaamakritHe who fulfills all desires
296कान्तःkaantahHe who is of enchanting form
297कामःkaamahThe beloved
298कामप्रदःkaamapradahHe who supplies desired objects
299प्रभुःprabhuhThe Lord
300युगादिकृत्yugaadi-kritThe creator of the yugas
301युगावर्तःyugaavartahThe law behind time
302नैकमायःnaikamaayahHe whose forms are endless and varied
303महाशनःmahaashanahHe who eats up everything
304अदृश्यःadrishyahImperceptible
305व्यक्तरूपःvyaktaroopahHe who is perceptible to the yogi
306सहस्रजित्sahasrajitHe who vanquishes thousands
307अनन्तजित्anantajitEver-victorious
308इष्टःishtahHe who is invoked through Vedic rituals
309विशिष्टःvisishtahThe noblest and most sacred
310शिष्टेष्टःsishteshtahThe greatest beloved
311सिद्धार्थSidddhaaarthaone who attains perfection, birth name of Buddha avatar in the last epoch of Kali Yuga
312नहुषःnahushahHe who binds all with maya
313वृषःvrishahHe who is dharma
314क्रोधहाkrodhahaaHe who destroys anger
315क्रोधकृत्कर्ताkrodhakrit-kartaaHe who generates anger against the lower tendency
316विश्वबाहुःvisvabaahuhHe whose hand is in everything
317महीधरःmaheedharahThe support of the earth
318अच्युतःachyutahHe who undergoes no changes
319प्रथितःprathitahHe who exists pervading all
320प्राणःpraanahThe prana in all living creatures
321प्राणदःpraanadahHe who gives prana
322वासवानुजःvaasavaanujahThe brother of Indra
323अपां-निधिःapaam-nidhihTreasure of waters (the ocean)
324अधिष्ठानम्adhishthaanamThe substratum of the entire universe
325अप्रमत्तःapramattahHe who never makes a wrong judgement
326प्रतिष्ठितःpratishthitahHe who has no cause
327स्कन्दःskandahHe whose glory is expressed through Subrahmanya
328स्कन्दधरःskanda-dharahUpholder of withering righteousness
329धूर्यःdhuryahWho carries out creation etc. without hitch
330वरदःvaradahHe who fulfills boons
331वायुवाहनःvaayuvaahanahController of winds
332वासुदेवःvaasudevahDwelling in all creatures although not affected by that condition
333बृहद्भानुःbrihat-bhaanuhHe who illumines the world with the rays of the sun and moon
334आदिदेवःaadidevahThe primary source of everything
335पुरन्दरःpurandarahDestroyer of cities
336अशोकःashokahHe who has no sorrow
337तारणःtaaranahHe who enables others to cross
338तारःtaarahHe who saves
339शूरःshoorahThe valiant
340शौरिःshaurihHe who incarnated in the dynasty of Shoora
341जनेश्वरःjaneshvarahThe Lord of the people
342अनुकूलःanukoolahWell-wisher of everyone
343शतावर्तःshataavarttahHe who takes infinite forms
344पद्मीpadmeeHe who holds a lotus
345पद्मनिभेक्षणःpadmanibhekshanahLotus-eyed
346पद्मनाभःpadmanaabhahHe who has a lotus-navel
347अरविन्दाक्षःaravindaakshahHe who has eyes as beautiful as the lotus
348पद्मगर्भःpadmagarbhahHe who is being meditated upon in the lotus of the heart
349शरीरभृत्shareerabhritHe who sustains all bodies
350महर्द्धिःmaharddhiOne who has great prosperity
351ऋद्धःriddhahHe who has expanded Himself as the universe
352वृद्धात्माVriddhaatmaaThe ancient self
353महाक्षःmahaakshahThe great-eyed
354गरुडध्वजःgarudadhvajahOne who has Garuda on His flag
355अतुलःatulahIncomparable
356शरभःsharabhahOne who dwells and shines forth through the bodies
357भीमःbheemahThe terrible
358समयज्ञःsamayajnahOne whose worship is nothing more than keeping an equal vision of the mind by the devotee
359हविर्हरिःhavirharihThe receiver of all oblation
360सर्वलक्षणलक्षण्यःsarva-lakshana-lakshanyahKnown through all proofs
361लक्ष्मीवान्lakshmeevaanThe consort of Laksmi
362समितिञ्जयःsamitinjayahEver-victorious
363विक्षरःviksharahImperishable
364रोहितःrohitahThe fish incarnation
365मार्गःmaargahThe path
366हेतुःhetuhThe cause
367दामोदरःdaamodarahWho has a rope around his stomach
368सहःsahahAll-enduring
369महीधरःmaheedharahThe bearer of the earth
370महाभागःmahaabhaagahHe who gets the greatest share in every Yajna
371वेगवान्vegavaanHe who is swift
372अमिताशनःamitaashanahOf endless appetite
373उद्भवःudbhavahThe originator
374क्षोभणःkshobhanahThe agitator
375देवःdevahHe who revels
376श्रीगर्भःshreegarbhahHe in whom are all glories
377परमेश्वरःparameshvarahParama + Ishvara = Supreme Lord, Parama (MahaLakshmi i.e. above all the shaktis) + Ishvara (Lord) = Lord of MahaLakshmi
378करणम्karanamThe instrument
379कारणम्kaaranamThe cause
380कर्ताkartaaThe doer
381विकर्ताvikartaaCreator of the endless varieties that make up the universe
382गहनःgahanahThe unknowable
383गुहःguhahHe who dwells in the cave of the heart
384व्यवसायःvyavasaayahResolute
385व्यवस्थानःvyavasthaanahThe substratum
386संस्थानःsamsthaanahThe ultimate authority
387स्थानदःsthaanadahHe who confers the right abode
388ध्रुवःdhruvahThe changeless in the midst of changes
389परर्धिःpararddhihHe who has supreme manifestations
390परमस्पष्टःparamaspashtahThe extremely vivid
391तुष्टःtushtahOne who is contented with a very simple offering
392पुष्टःpushtahOne who is ever-full
393शुभेक्षणःshubhekshanahAll-auspicious gaze
394रामःraamahOne who is most handsome
395विरामःviraamahThe abode of perfect-rest
396विरजःvirajoPassionless
397मार्गःmaargahThe path
398नेयःneyahThe guide
399नयःnayahOne who leads
400अनयःanayahOne who has no leader
401वीरःveerahThe valiant
402शक्तिमतां श्रेष्ठःshaktimataam-shresthahThe best among the powerful
403धर्मःdharmahThe law of being
404धर्मविदुत्तमःdharmaviduttamahThe highest among men of realisation
405वैकुण्ठःvaikunthahLord of supreme abode, Vaikuntha
406पुरुषःpurushahOne who dwells in all bodies
407प्राणःpraanahLife
408प्राणदःpraanadahGiver of life
409प्रणवःpranavahHe who is praised by the gods
410पृथुःprituhThe expanded
411हिरण्यगर्भःhiranyagarbhahThe creator
412शत्रुघ्नःshatrughnahThe destroyer of enemies
413व्याप्तःvyaaptahThe pervader
414वायुःvaayuhThe air
415अधोक्षजःadhokshajahOne whose vitality never flows downwards
416ऋतुःrituhThe seasons
417सुदर्शनःsudarshanahHe whose meeting is auspicious
418कालःkaalahHe who judges and punishes beings
419परमेष्ठीparameshtheeOne who is readily available for experience within the heart
420परिग्रहःparigrahahThe receiver
421उग्रःugrahThe terrible
422संवत्सरःsamvatsarahThe year
423दक्षःdakshahThe smart
424विश्रामःvishraamahThe resting place
425विश्वदक्षिणःvishva-dakshinahThe most skilful and efficient
426विस्तारःvistaarahThe extension
427स्थावरस्स्थाणुःsthaavarah-sthaanuhThe firm and motionless
428प्रमाणम्pramaanamThe proof
429बीजमव्ययम्beejamavyayamThe Immutable Seed
430अर्थःarthahHe who is worshiped by all
431अनर्थःanarthahOne to whom there is nothing yet to be fulfilled
432महाकोशःmahaakoshahHe who has got around him great sheaths
433महाभोगःmahaabhogahHe who is of the nature of enjoyment
434महाधनःmahaadhanahHe who is supremely rich
435अनिर्विण्णःanirvinnahHe who has no discontent
436स्थविष्ठःsthavishthahOne who is supremely huge
437अभूःa-bhoohOne who has no birth
438धर्मयूपःdharma-yoopahThe post to which all dharma is tied
439महामखःmahaa-makhahThe great sacrificer
440नक्षत्रनेमिःnakshatranemirThe nave of the stars
441नक्षत्रीnakshatreeThe Lord of the stars (the moon)
442क्षमःkshamahHe who is supremely efficient in all undertakings
443क्षामःkshaamahHe who ever remains without any scarcity
444समीहनःsameehanahOne whose desires are auspicious
445यज्ञःyajnahOne who is of the nature of yajna
446इज्यःijyahHe who is fit to be invoked through yajna
447महेज्यःmahejyahOne who is to be most worshiped
448क्रतुःkratuhThe animal-sacrifice
449सत्रम्satramProtector of the good
450सतां-गतिःsataam-gatihRefuge of the good
451सर्वदर्शीsarvadarsheeAll-knower
452विमुक्तात्माvimuktaatmaaThe ever-liberated self
453सर्वज्ञःsarvajnoOmniscient
454ज्ञानमुत्तमम्jnaanamuttamamThe Supreme Knowledge
455सुव्रतःsuvratahHe who ever-perfoeming the pure vow
456सुमुखःsumukhahOne who has a charming face
457सूक्ष्मःsookshmahThe subtlest
458सुघोषःsughoshahOf auspicious sound
459सुखदःsukhadahGiver of happiness
460सुहृत्suhritFriend of all creatures
461मनोहरःmanoharahThe stealer of the mind
462जितक्रोधःjita-krodhahOne who has conquered anger
463वीरबाहुःveerabaahurHaving mighty arms
464विदारणःvidaaranahOne who splits asunder
465स्वापनःsvaapanahOne who puts people to sleep
466स्ववशःsvavashahHe who has everything under His control
467व्यापीvyaapeeAll-pervading
468नैकात्माnaikaatmaaMany souled
469नैककर्मकृत्naikakarmakritOne who does many actions
470वत्सरःvatsarahThe abode
471वत्सलःvatsalahThe supremely affectionate
472वत्सीvatseeThe father
473रत्नगर्भःratnagarbhahThe jewel-wombed
474धनेश्वरःdhaneshvarahThe Lord of wealth
475धर्मगुब्dharmagubOne who protects dharma
476धर्मकृत्dharmakritOne who acts according to dharma
477धर्मीdharmeeThe supporter of dharma
478सत्satexistence
479असत्asatillusion
480क्षरम्ksharamHe who appears to perish
481अक्षरम्aksharamImperishable
482अविज्ञाताavijnaataaThe non-knower (The knower being the conditioned soul within the body)
483सहस्रांशुःsahasraamshurThe thousand-rayed
484विधाताvidhaataaAll supporter
485कृतलक्षणःkritalakshanahOne who is famous for His qualities
486गभस्तिनेमिःgabhastinemihThe hub of the universal wheel
487सत्त्वस्थःsattvasthahSituated in sattva
488सिंहःsimhahThe lion
489भूतमहेश्वरःbhoota-maheshvarahThe great lord of beings
490आदिदेवःaadidevahThe first deity
491महादेवःmahaadevahThe great deity
492देवेशःdeveshahThe Lord of all devas
493देवभृद्गुरुःdevabhrit-guruhAdvisor of Indra
494उत्तरःuttarahHe who lifts us from the ocean of samsara
495गोपतिःgopatihThe shepherd
496गोप्ताgoptaaThe protector
497ज्ञानगम्यःjnaanagamyahOne who is experienced through pure knowledge
498पुरातनःpuraatanahHe who was even before time
499शरीरभूतभृत्shareera-bhootabhritOne who nourishes the nature from which the bodies came
500भोक्ताbhoktaaThe enjoyer
501कपीन्द्रःkapeendrahLord of the monkeys (Rama)
502भूरिदक्षिणःbhooridakshinahHe who gives away large gifts
503सोमपःsomapahOne who takes Soma in the yajnas
504अमृतपःamritapahOne who drinks the nectar
505सोमःsomahOne who as the moon nourishes plants
506पुरुजित्purujitOne who has conquered numerous enemies
507पुरुसत्तमःpurusattamahThe greatest of the great
508विनयःvinayahHe who humiliates those who are unrighteous
509जयःjayahThe victorious
510सत्यसन्धःsatyasandhahOf truthful resolution
511दाशार्हःdaashaarhahOne who was born in the Dasarha race
512सात्त्वतां पतिःsaatvataam-patihThe Lord of the Satvatas
513जीवःjeevahOne who functions as the ksetrajna
514विनयितासाक्षीvinayitaa-saaksheeThe witness of modesty
515मुकुन्दःmukundahThe giver of liberation
516अमितविक्रमःamitavikramahOf immeasurable prowess
517अम्भोनिधिःambho-nidhirThe substratum of the four types of beings
518अनन्तात्माanantaatmaaThe infinite self
519महोदधिशयःmahodadhishayahOne who rests on the great ocean
520अन्तकःantakahThe death
521अजःajahUnborn
522महार्हःmahaarhahOne who deserves the highest worship
523स्वाभाव्यःsvaabhaavyahEver rooted in the nature of His own self
524जितामित्रःjitaamitrahOne who has conquered all enemies
525प्रमोदनःpramodanahEver-blissful
526आनन्दःaanandahA mass of pure bliss
527नन्दनःnandanahOne who makes others blissful
528नन्दःnandahFree from all worldly pleasures
529सत्यधर्माsatyadharmaaOne who has in Himself all true dharmas
530त्रिविक्रमःtrivikramahOne who took three steps
531महर्षिः कपिलाचार्यःmaharshih kapilaachaaryahHe who incarnated as Kapila, the great sage
532कृतज्ञःkritajnahThe knower of the creation
533मेदिनीपतिःmedineepatihThe Lord of the earth
534त्रिपदःtripadahOne who has taken three steps
535त्रिदशाध्यक्षःtridashaadhyakshoThe Lord of the three states of consciousness
536महाशृंगःmahaashringahGreat-horned (Matsya)
537कृतान्तकृत्kritaantakritDestroyer of the creation
538महावराहःmahaavaraahoThe great boar
539गोविन्दःgovindahOne who is known through Vedanta
540सुषेणःsushenahHe who has a charming army
541कनकांगदीkanakaangadeeWearer of bright-as-gold armlets
542गुह्यःguhyoThe mysterious
543गभीरःgabheerahThe unfathomable
544गहनःgahanoImpenetrable
545गुप्तःguptahThe well-concealed
546चक्रगदाधरःchakra-gadaadharahBearer of the disc and mace
547वेधाःvedhaahCreator of the universe
548स्वांगःsvaangahOne with well-proportioned limbs
549अजितःajitahVanquished by none
550कृष्णःkrishnahDark-complexioned
551दृढःdridhahThe firm
552संकर्षणोऽच्युतःsankarshanochyutahHe who absorbs the whole creation into His nature and never falls away from that nature
553वरुणःvarunahOne who sets on the horizon (Sun)
554वारुणःvaarunahThe son of Varuna (Vasistha or Agastya)
555वृक्षःvrikshahThe tree
556पुष्कराक्षःpushkaraakshahLotus eyed
557महामनःmahaamanaahGreat-minded
558भगवान्bhagavaanOne who possesses six opulences
559भगहाbhagahaaOne who destroys the six opulences during pralaya
560आनन्दीaanandeeOne who gives delight
561वनमालीvanamaaleeOne who wears a garland of forest flowers
562हलायुधःhalaayudhahOne who has a plough as His weapon
563आदित्यःaadityahSon of Aditi
564ज्योतिरादित्यःjyotiraadityahThe resplendence of the sun
565सहिष्णुःsahishnuhOne who calmly endures duality
566गतिसत्तमःgatisattamahThe ultimate refuge for all devotees
567सुधन्वाsudhanvaaOne who has Shaarnga
568खण्डपरशु:khanda-parashurOne who holds an axe
569दारुणःdaarunahMerciless towards the unrighteous
570द्रविणप्रदःdravinapradahOne who lavishly gives wealth
571दिवःस्पृक्divah-sprikSky-reaching
572सर्वदृग्व्यासःsarvadrik-vyaasoOne who creates many men of wisdom
573वाचस्पतिरयोनिजःvaachaspatir-ayonijahOne who is the master of all vidyas and who is unborn through a womb
574त्रिसामाtrisaamaaOne who is glorified by Devas, Vratas and Saamans
575सामगःsaamagahThe singer of the sama songs
576सामsaamaThe Sama Veda
577निर्वाणम्nirvaanamAll-bliss
578भेषजम्bheshajamMedicine
579भृषक्bhishakPhysician
580संन्यासकृत्samnyaasa-kritInstitutor of sannyasa
581समःsamahCalm
582शान्तःshaantahPeaceful within
583निष्ठाnishthaaAbode of all beings
584शान्तिःshaantihOne whose very nature is peace
585परायणम्paraayanamThe way to liberation
586शुभांगःshubhaangahOne who has the most beautiful form
587शान्तिदःshaantidahGiver of peace
588स्रष्टाsrashtaaCreator of all beings
589कुमुदःkumudahHe who delights in the earth
590कुवलेशयःkuvaleshayahHe who reclines in the waters
591गोहितःgohitahOne who does welfare for cows
592गोपतिःgopatihHusband of the earth
593गोप्ताgoptaaProtector of the universe
594वृषभाक्षःvrishabhaakshoOne whose eyes rain fulfilment of desires
595वृषप्रियःvrishapriyahOne who delights in dharma
596अनिवर्तीanivarteeOne who never retreats
597निवृतात्माnivrittaatmaaOne who is fully restrained from all sense indulgences
598संक्षेप्ताsamksheptaaThe involver
599क्षेमकृत्kshemakritDoer of good
600शिवःshivahAuspiciousness
601श्रीवत्सवत्साःshreevatsa-vakshaahOne who has sreevatsa on His chest
602श्रीवासःshrevaasahAbode of Sree
603श्रीपतिःshreepatihLord of Laksmi
604श्रीमतां वरःshreemataam varahThe best among glorious
605श्रीदःshreedahGiver of opulence
606श्रीशःshreeshahThe Lord of Sree
607श्रीनिवासःshreenivaasahOne who dwells in the good people
608श्रीनिधिःshreenidhihThe treasure of Sree
609श्रीविभावनःshreevibhaavanahDistributor of Sree
610श्रीधरःshreedharahHolder of Sree
611श्रीकरःshreekarahOne who gives Sree
612श्रेयःshreyahLiberation
613श्रीमान्shreemaanPossessor of Sree
614लोकत्रयाश्रयःloka-trayaashrayahShelter of the three worlds
615स्वक्षःsvakshahBeautiful-eyed
616स्वङ्गःsvangahBeautiful-limbed
617शतानन्दःshataanandahOf infinite varieties and joys
618नन्दिःnandihInfinite bliss
619ज्योतिर्गणेश्वरःjyotir-ganeshvarahLord of the luminaries in the cosmos
620विजितात्माvijitaatmaaOne who has conquered the sense organs
621विधेयात्माvidheyaatmaaOne who is ever available for the devotees to command in love
622सत्कीर्तिःsat-keertihOne of pure fame
623छिन्नसंशयःchinnasamshayahOne whose doubts are ever at rest
624उदीर्णःudeernahThe great transcendent
625सर्वतश्चक्षुःsarvatah-chakshuhOne who has eyes everywhere
626अनीशःaneeshahOne who has none to Lord over Him
627शाश्वतः-स्थिरःshaashvata-sthirahOne who is eternal and stable
628भूशयःbhooshayahOne who rested on the ocean shore (Rama)
629भूषणःbhooshanahOne who adorns the world
630भूतिःbhootihOne who is pure existence
631विशोकःvishokahSorrowless
632शोकनाशनःshoka-naashanahDestroyer of sorrows
633अर्चिष्मान्archishmaanThe effulgent
634अर्चितःarchitahOne who is constantly worshipped by His devotees
635कुम्भःkumbhahThe pot within whom everything is contained
636विशुद्धात्माvishuddhaatmaaOne who has the purest soul
637विशोधनःvishodhanahThe great purifier
638अनिरुद्धःaniruddhahHe who is invincible by any enemy
639अप्रतिरथःapratirathahOne who has no enemies to threaten Him
640प्रद्युम्नःpradyumnahVery rich
641अमितविक्रमःamitavikramahOf immeasurable prowess
642कालनेमीनिहाkaalanemi-nihaaSlayer of Kalanemi
643वीरःveerahThe heroic victor
644शौरीshauriOne who always has invincible prowess
645शूरजनेश्वरःshoora-janeshvarahLord of the valiant
646त्रिलोकात्माtrilokaatmaaThe self of the three worlds
647त्रिलोकेशःtrilokeshahThe Lord of the three worlds
648केशवःkeshavahOne whose rays illumine the cosmos
649केशिहाkeshihaaKiller of Kesi
650हरिःhariThe creator
651कामदेवःkaamadevahThe beloved Lord
652कामपालःkaamapaalahThe fulfiller of desires
653कामीkaameeOne who has fulfilled all His desires
654कान्तःkaantahOf enchanting form
655कृतागमःkritaagamahThe author of the agama scriptures
656अनिर्देश्यवपुःanirdeshya-vapuhOf Indescribable form
657विष्णुःvishnuhAll-pervading
658वीरःveerahThe courageous
659अनन्तःanantahEndless
660धनञ्जयःdhananjayahOne who gained wealth through conquest
661ब्रह्मण्यःbrahmanyahProtector of Brahman (anything related to Narayana)
662ब्रह्मकृत्brahmakritOne who acts in Brahman
663ब्रह्माbrahmaaCreator
664ब्रहमbrahmaBiggest
665ब्रह्मविवर्धनःbrahma-vivardhanahOne who increases the Brahman
666ब्रह्मविद्brahmavidOne who knows Brahman
667ब्राह्मणःbraahmanahOne who has realised Brahman
668ब्रह्मीbrahmeeOne who is with Brahma
669ब्रह्मज्ञःbrahmajnoOne who knows the nature of Brahman
670ब्राह्मणप्रियःbraahmana-priyahDear to the brahmanas
671महाकर्मःmahaakramoOf great step
672महाकर्माmahaakarmaaOne who performs great deeds
673महातेजाmahaatejaahOne of great resplendence
674महोरगःmahoragahThe great serpent
675महाक्रतुःmahaakratuhThe great sacrifice
676महायज्वाmahaayajvaaOne who performed great yajnas
677महायज्ञःmahaayajnahThe great yajna
678महाहविःmahaahavihThe great offering
679स्तव्यःstavyahOne who is the object of all praise
680स्तवप्रियःstavapriyahOne who is invoked through prayer
681स्तोत्रम्stotramThe hymn
682स्तुतिःstutihThe act of praise
683स्तोताstotaaOne who adores or praises
684रणप्रियःranapriyahLover of battles
685पूर्णःpoornahThe complete
686पूरयिताpoorayitaaThe fulfiller
687पुण्यःpunyahThe truly holy
688पुण्यकीर्तिःpunya-keertirOf Holy fame
689अनामयःanaamayahOne who has no diseases
690मनोजवःmanojavahSwift as the mind
691तीर्थकरःteerthakaroThe teacher of the tirthas
692वसुरेताःvasuretaahHe whose essence is golden
693वसुप्रदःvasupradahThe free-giver of wealth
694वसुप्रदःvasupradahThe giver of salvation, the greatest wealth
695वासुदेवःvaasudevoThe son of Vasudeva
696वसुःvasuhThe refuge for all
697वसुमनाvasumanaaOne who is attentive to everything
698हविःhavihThe oblation
699सद्गतिःsadgatihThe goal of good people
700सत्कृतिःsatkritihOne who is full of Good actions
701सत्ताsattaOne without a second
702सद्भूतिःsadbhootihOne who has rich glories
703सत्परायणःsatparaayanahThe Supreme goal for the good
704शूरसेनःshoorasenahOne who has heroic and valiant armies
705यदुश्रेष्ठःyadu-shresthahThe best among the Yadava clan
706सन्निवासःsannivaasahThe abode of the good
707सुयामुनःsuyaamunahOne who attended by the people dwelling on the banks of Yamuna
708भूतावासःbhootaavaasoThe dwelling place of the elements
709वासुदेवःvaasudevahOne who envelops the world with Maya
710सर्वासुनिलयःsarvaasunilayahThe abode of all life energies
711अनलःanalahOne of unlimited wealth, power and glory
712दर्पहाdarpahaaThe destroyer of pride in evil-minded people
713दर्पदःdarpadahOne who creates pride, or an urge to be the best, among the righteous
714दृप्तःdriptahOne who is drunk with Infinite bliss
715दुर्धरःdurdharahThe object of contemplation
716अथापराजितःathaaparaajitahThe unvanquished
717विश्वमूर्तिःvishvamoortihOf the form of the entire Universe
718महामूर्तिःmahaamortirThe great form
719दीप्तमूर्तिःdeeptamoortirOf resplendent form
720अमूर्तिमान्a-moortirmaanHaving no form
721अनेकमूर्तिःanekamoortihMulti-formed
722अव्यक्तःavyaktahUnmanifeset
723शतमूर्तिःshatamoortihOf many forms
724शताननःshataananahMany-faced
725एकःekahThe one
726नैकःnaikahThe many
727सवःsavahThe nature of the sacrifice
728कःkahOne who is of the nature of bliss
729किम्kimWhat (the one to be inquired into)
730यत्yatWhich
731तत्tatThat
732पदमनुत्तमम्padam-anuttamamThe unequalled state of perfection
733लोकबन्धुःlokabandhurFriend of the world
734लोकनाथःlokanaathahLord of the world
735माधवःmaadhavahBorn in the family of Madhu
736भक्तवत्सलःbhaktavatsalahOne who loves His devotees
737सुवर्णवर्णःsuvarna-varnahGolden-coloured
738हेमांगःhemaangahOne who has limbs of gold
739वरांगःvaraangahWith beautiful limbs
740चन्दनांगदीchandanaangadeeOne who has attractive armlets
741वीरहाveerahaaDestroyer of valiant heroes
742विषमःvishamaUnequalled
743शून्यःshoonyahThe void
744घृताशीghritaaseehOne who has no need for good wishes
745अचलःacalahNon-moving
746चलःchalahMoving
747अमानीamaaneeWithout false vanity
748मानदःmaanadahOne who causes, by His maya, false identification with the body
749मान्यःmaanyahOne who is to be honoured
750लोकस्वामीlokasvaameeLord of the universe
751त्रिलोकधृक्trilokadhrikOne who is the support of all the three worlds
752सुमेधाsumedhaaOne who has pure intelligence
753मेधजःmedhajahBorn out of sacrifices
754धन्यःdhanyahFortunate
755सत्यमेधःsatyamedhahOne whose intelligence never fails
756धराधरःdharaadharahThe sole support of the earth
757तेजोवृषःtejovrishoOne who showers radiance
758द्युतिधरःdyutidharahOne who bears an effulgent form
759सर्वशस्त्रभृतां वरःsarva-shastra-bhritaam-varahThe best among those who wield weapons
760प्रग्रहःpragrahahReceiver of worship
761निग्रहःnigrahahThe killer
762व्यग्रःvyagrahOne who is ever engaged in fulfilling the devotee's desires
763नैकशृंगःnaikashringahOne who has many horns
764गदाग्रजःgadaagrajahOne who is invoked through mantra
765चतुर्मूर्तिःchaturmoortihFour-formed
766चतुर्बाहुःchaturbaahuhFour-handed
767चतुर्व्यूहःchaturvyoohahOne who expresses Himself as the dynamic centre in the four vyoohas
768चतुर्गतिःchaturgatihThe ultimate goal of all four varnas and asramas
769चतुरात्माchaturaatmaaClear-minded
770चतुर्भावःchaturbhaavasThe source of the four
771चतुर्वेदविद्chatur-vedavidKnower of all four vedas
772एकपात्ekapaatOne-footed (BG 10.42)
773समावर्तःsamaavartahThe efficient turner
774निवृत्तात्माnivrittaatmaaOne whose mind is turned away from sense indulgence
775दुर्जयःdurjayahThe invincible
776दुरतिक्रमःduratikramahOne who is difficult to be disobeyed
777दुर्लभःdurlabhahOne who can be obtained with great efforts
778दुर्गमःdurgamahOne who is realised with great effort
779दुर्गःdurgahNot easy to storm into
780दुरावासःduraavaasahNot easy to lodge
781दुरारिहाduraarihaaSlayer of the asuras
782शुभांगःshubhaangahOne with enchanting limbs
783लोकसारंगःlokasaarangahOne who understands the universe
784सुतन्तुःsutantuhBeautifully expanded
785तन्तुवर्धनःtantu-vardhanahOne who sustains the continuity of the drive for the family
786इन्द्रकर्माindrakarmaaOne who always performs gloriously auspicious actions
787महाकर्माmahaakarmaaOne who accomplishes great acts
788कृतकर्माkritakarmaaOne who has fulfilled his acts
789कृतागमःkritaagamahAuthor of the Vedas
790उद्भवःudbhavahThe ultimate source
791सुन्दरःsundarahOf unrivalled beauty
792सुन्दःsundahOf great mercy
793रत्ननाभःratna-naabhahOf beautiful navel
794सुलोचनःsulochanahOne who has the most enchanting eyes
795अर्कःarkahOne who is in the form of the sun
796वाजसनःvaajasanahThe giver of food
797शृंगीshringeeThe horned one
798जयन्तःjayantahThe conqueror of all enemies
799सर्वविज्जयीsarvavij-jayeeOne who is at once omniscient and victorious
800सुवर्णबिन्दुःsuvarna-binduhWith limbs radiant like gold
801अक्षोभ्यःakshobhyahOne who is ever unruffled
802सर्ववागीश्वरेश्वरःsarva-vaageeshvareshvarahLord of the Lord of speech
803महाहृदःmahaahradahOne who is like a great refreshing swimming pool
804महागर्तःmahaagartahThe great chasm
805महाभूतःmahaabhootahThe great being
806महानिधिःmahaanidhihThe great abode
807कुमुदःkumudahOne who gladdens the earth
808कुन्दरःkundarahThe one who lifted the earth
809कुन्दःkundahOne who is as attractive as Kunda flowers
810पर्जन्यःparjanyahHe who is similar to rain-bearing clouds
811पावनःpaavanahOne who ever purifies
812अनिलःanilahOne who never slips
813अमृतांशःamritaashahOne whose desires are never fruitless
814अमृतवपुःamritavapuhHe whose form is immortal
815सर्वज्ञःsarvajnaOmniscient
816सर्वतोमुखःsarvato-mukhahOne who has His face turned everywhere
817सुलभःsulabhahOne who is readily available
818सुव्रतःsuvratahOne who has taken the most auspicious forms
819सिद्धःsiddhahOne who is perfection
820शत्रुजित्shatrujitOne who is ever victorious over His hosts of enemies
821शत्रुतापनःshatrutaapanahThe scorcher of enemies
822न्यग्रोधःnyagrodhahThe one who veils Himself with Maya
823उदुम्बरःudumbarahNourishment of all living creatures
824अश्वत्थःashvattasTree of life
825चाणूरान्ध्रनिषूदनःchaanooraandhra-nishoodanahThe slayer of Canura
826सहस्रार्चिःsahasraarchihHe who has thousands of rays
827सप्तजिह्वःsaptajihvahHe who expresses himself as the seven tongues of fire (Types of agni)
828सप्तैधाःsaptaidhaahThe seven effulgences in the flames
829सप्तवाहनःsaptavaahanahOne who has a vehicle of seven horses (sun)
830अमूर्तिःamoortihFormless
831अनघःanaghahSinless
832अचिन्त्यःacintyoInconceivable
833भयकृत्bhayakritGiver of fear
834भयनाशनःbhayanaashanahDestroyer of fear
835अणुःanuhThe subtlest
836बृहत्brihatThe greatest
837कृशःkrishahDelicate, lean
838स्थूलःsthoolahOne who is the fattest
839गुणभृत्gunabhritOne who supports
840निर्गुणःnirgunahWithout any properties
841महान्mahaanThe mighty
842अधृतःadhritahWithout support
843स्वधृतःsvadhritahSelf-supported
844स्वास्यःsvaasyahOne who has an effulgent face
845प्राग्वंशःpraagvamshahOne who has the most ancient ancestry
846वंशवर्धनःvamshavardhanahHe who multiplies His family of descendents
847भारभृत्bhaarabhritOne who carries the load of the universe
848कथितःkathitahOne who is glorified in all scriptures
849योगीyogeeOne who can be realised through yoga
850योगीशःyogeeshahThe king of yogis
851सर्वकामदःsarvakaamadahOne who fulfils all desires of true devotees
852आश्रमःaashramahHaven
853श्रमणःshramanahOne who persecutes the worldly people
854क्षामःkshaamahOne who destroys everything
855सुपर्णःsuparnahThe golden leaf (Vedas) BG 15.1
856वायुवाहनःvaayuvaahanahThe mover of the winds
857धनुर्धरःdhanurdharahThe wielder of the bow
858धनुर्वेदःdhanurvedahOne who declared the science of archery
859दण्डःdandahOne who punishes the wicked
860दमयिताdamayitaaThe controller
861दमःdamahBeautitude in the self
862अपराजितःaparaajitahOne who cannot be defeated
863सर्वसहःsarvasahahOne who carries the entire Universe
864अनियन्ताaniyantaaOne who has no controller
865नियमःniyamahOne who is not under anyone's laws
866अयमःayamahOne who knows no death
867सत्त्ववान्sattvavaanOne who is full of exploits and courage
868सात्त्विकःsaattvikahOne who is full of sattvic qualities
869सत्यःsatyahTruth
870सत्यधर्मपराक्रमःsatya-dharma-paraayanahOne who is the very abode of truth and dharma
871अभिप्रायःabhipraayahOne who is faced by all seekers marching to the infinite
872प्रियार्हःpriyaarhahOne who deserves all our love
873अर्हःarhahOne who deserves to be worshiped
874प्रियकृत्priyakritOne who is ever-obliging in fulfilling our wishes
875प्रीतिवर्धनःpreetivardhanahOne who increases joy in the devotee's heart
876विहायसगतिःvihaayasa-gatihOne who travels in space
877ज्योतिःjyotihSelf-effulgent
878सुरुचिःsuruchihWhose desire manifests as the universe
879हुतभुक्hutabhukOne who enjoys all that is offered in yajna
880विभुःvibhuhAll-pervading
881रविःraviOne who dries up everything
882विरोचनःvirochanahOne who shines in different forms
883सूर्यःsooryahThe one source from where everything is born
884सविताsavitaaThe one who brings forth the Universe from Himself
885रविलोचनःravilochanahOne whose eye is the sun
886अनन्तःanantahEndless
887हुतभुक्hutabhukOne who accepts oblations
888भोक्ताbhoktaaAOne who enjoys
889सुखदःsukhadahGiver of bliss to those who are liberated
890नैकजःnaikajahOne who is born many times
891अग्रजःagrajahThe first-born
892अनिर्विण्णःanirvinnahOne who feels no disappointment
893सदामर्षीsadaamarsheeOne who forgives the trespasses of His devotees
894लोकाधिष्ठानम्lokaadhishthaanamThe substratum of the universe
895अद्भुतःadbhutahWonderful
896सनात्sanaatThe beginningless and endless factor
897सनातनतमःsanaatanatamahThe most ancient
898कपिलःkapilahThe great sage Kapila
899कपिःkapihOne who drinks water
900अव्ययःavyayahThe one in whom the universe merges
901स्वस्तिदःsvastidahGiver of Svasti
902स्वस्तिकृत्svastikritOne who robs all auspiciousness
903स्वस्तिsvastiOne who is the source of all auspiciouness
904स्वस्तिभुक्svastibhukOne who constantly enjoys auspiciousness
905स्वस्तिदक्षिणःsvastidakshinahDistributor of auspiciousness
906अरौद्रःaraudrahOne who has no negative emotions or urges
907कुण्डलीkundaleeOne who wears shark earrings
908चक्रीchakreeHolder of the chakra
909विक्रमीvikrameeThe most daring
910ऊर्जितशासनःoorjita-shaasanahOne who commands with His hand
911शब्दातिगःshabdaatigahOne who transcends all words
912शब्दसहःshabdasahahOne who allows Himself to be invoked by Vedic declarations
913शिशिरःshishirahThe cold season, winter
914शर्वरीकरःsharvaree-karahCreator of darkness
915अक्रूरःakroorahNever cruel
916पेशलःpeshalahOne who is supremely soft
917दक्षःdakshahPrompt
918दक्षिणःdakshinahThe most liberal
919क्षमिणांवरःkshaminaam-varahOne who has the greatest amount of patience with sinners
920विद्वत्तमःvidvattamahOne who has the greatest wisdom
921वीतभयःveetabhayahOne with no fear
922पुण्यश्रवणकीर्तनःpunya-shravana-keertanahThe hearing of whose glory causes holiness to grow
923उत्तारणःuttaaranahOne who lifts us out of the ocean of change
924दुष्कृतिहाdushkritihaaDestroyer of bad actions
925पुण्यःpunyahSupremely pure
926दुःस्वप्ननाशनःduh-svapna-naashanahOne who destroys all bad dreams
927वीरहाveerahaaOne who ends the passage from womb to womb
928रक्षणःrakshanahProtector of the universe
929सन्तःsantahOne who is expressed through saintly men
930जीवनःjeevanahThe life spark in all creatures
931पर्यवस्थितःparyavasthitahOne who dwells everywhere
932अनन्तरूपःanantaroopahOne of infinite forms
933अनन्तश्रीःanantashreehFull of infinite glories
934जितमन्युःjitamanyuhOne who has no anger
935भयापहःbhayapahahOne who destroys all fears
936चतुरश्रःchaturashrahOne who deals squarely
937गभीरात्माgabheeraatmaaToo deep to be fathomed
938विदिशःvidishahOne who is unique in His giving
939व्यादिशःvyaadishahOne who is unique in His commanding power
940दिशःdishahOne who advises and gives knowledge
941अनादिःanaadihOne who is the first cause
942भूर्भूवःbhoor-bhuvoThe substratum of the earth
943लक्ष्मीःlakshmeehThe glory of the universe
944सुवीरःsuveerahOne who moves through various ways
945रुचिरांगदःruchiraangadahOne who wears resplendent shoulder caps
946जननःjananahHe who delivers all living creatures
947जनजन्मादिःjana-janmaadirThe cause of the birth of all creatures
948भीमःbheemahTerrible form
949भीमपराक्रमःbheema-paraakramahOne whose prowess is fearful to His enemies
950आधारनिलयःaadhaaranilayahThe fundamental sustainer
951अधाताadhaataaAbove whom there is no other to command
952पुष्पहासःpushpahaasahHe who shines like an opening flower
953प्रजागरःprajaagarahEver-awakened
954ऊर्ध्वगःoordhvagahOne who is on top of everything
955सत्पथाचारःsatpathaachaarahOne who walks the path of truth
956प्राणदःpraanadahGiver of life
957प्रणवःpranavahOmkara
958पणःpanahThe supreme universal manager
959प्रमाणम्pramaanamHe whose form is the Vedas
960प्राणनिलयःpraananilayahHe in whom all prana is established
961प्राणभृत्praanibhritHe who rules over all pranas
962प्राणजीवनःpraanajeevanahHe who maintains the life-breath in all living creatures
963तत्त्वम्tattvamThe reality
964तत्त्वविद्tattvavitOne who has realised the reality
965एकात्माekaatmaaThe one self
966जन्ममृत्युजरातिगःjanma-mrityu-jaraatigahOne who knows no birth, death or old age in Himself
967भूर्भुवःस्वस्तरुःbhoor-bhuvah svas-taruhThe tree of the three worlds (bhoo=terrestrial, svah=celestial and bhuvah=the world in between)
968तारःtaarahOne who helps all to cross over
969सविताःsavitaaThe father of all
970प्रपितामहःprapitaamahahThe father of the father of beings (Brahma)
971यज्ञःyajnahOne whose very nature is yajna
972यज्ञपतिःyajnapatihThe Lord of all yajnas
973यज्वाyajvaaThe one who performs yajna
974यज्ञांगःyajnaangahOne whose limbs are the things employed in yajna
975यज्ञवाहनःyajnavaahanahOne who fulfils yajnas in complete
976यज्ञभृद्yajnabhridThe ruler of the yajanas
977यज्ञकृत्yajnakritOne who performs yajna
978यज्ञीyajneeEnjoyer of yajnas
979यज्ञभुक्yajnabhukReceiver of all that is offered
980यज्ञसाधनःyajnasaadhanahOne who fulfils all yajnas
981यज्ञान्तकृत्yajnaantakritOne who performs the concluding act of the yajna
982यज्ञगुह्यम्yajnaguhyamThe person to be realised by yajna
983अन्नम्annamOne who is food
984अन्नादःannaadahOne who eats the food
985आत्मयोनिःaatmayonihThe uncaused cause
986स्वयंजातःsvayamjaatahSelf-born
987वैखानःvaikhaanahThe one who cut through the earth
988सामगायनःsaamagaayanahOne who sings the sama songs; one who loves hearing saama chants;
989देवकीनन्दनःdevakee-nandanahSon of Devaki
990स्रष्टाsrashtaaCreator
991क्षितीशःkshiteeshahThe Lord of the earth
992पापनाशनःpaapa-naashanahDestroyer of sin
993शंखभृत्sankha-bhritOne who has the divine Pancajanya
994नन्दकीnandakeeOne who holds the Nandaka sword
995चक्रीchakreeCarrier of Sudarsana
996शार्ङ्गधन्वाshaarnga-dhanvaaOne who aims His shaarnga bow
997गदाधरःgadaadharahCarrier of Kaumodaki club
998रथांगपाणिःrathaanga-paanihOne who has the wheel of a chariot as His weapon; One with the strings of the chariot in his hands;
999अक्षोभ्यःakshobhyahOne who cannot be annoyed by anyone
1000सर्वप्रहरणायुधःsarva-praharanaayudhahHe who has all implements for all kinds of assault and fight

Inclusion of other deities

One notable thing about the Sahasranama is that it includes names of other Hindu deities such as Shiva, Brahma, etc. within it. According to followers of Vaishnava theology, this is an example of Vishnu considered in His universal aspect, as an aggregation, and basis of all other deities which emanate from Him. In this cosmic aspect, Vishnu is also called Mahavishnu (Great Vishnu). By an Advaitan interpretation, this notation is not surprising as followers of Advaita philosophy, in particular, Smartas believe that Vishnu and Shiva are the same and are hence different aspects of the one Supreme Being.

Quotes about Vishnu Sahasranama

  • Sri N. Krishnamachari, a Vaishnavite scholar, at Stephen Knapp's website, quoting Vaishnavite scholars, states that there are six reasons for the greatness of Vishnusahasranama:
  1. "Vishnusahasranama is the essence of the Mahabharata;
  2. Great sages such as Narada, the Alvars, and composers including Saint Tyagaraja have made repeated references to the "Thousand Names of Vishnu" in their devotional works;
  3. The person who strung together the thousand names as part of the Mahabharata and preserved it for the world was none other than Sage Veda Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedas;
  4. Bhishma considered chanting of the Vishnusahasranama the best and easiest of all dharmas, or the means to attain relief from all bondage;
  5. It is widely accepted that the chanting this Stotram gives relief from all sorrows, and leads to happiness and peace of mind;
  6. Vishnusahasranama is in conformity with the teachings of the Gita." [28]
  • verse 27 of Bhaja Govindam attributed to Shankaracharya ,[29] said that the Gita and Vishnusahasranama should be chanted and the form of the Lord of Lakshmi, Vishnu should always be meditated on. He also said that the Sahasranama bestowed all noble virtues on those who chanted it.[30]
  • Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya had said that Vishnusahasranama absolves people of all sins and has no equal[30]
  • Madhvacharya, propounder of Dvaita philosophy, said that the Sahasranama was the essence of the Mahabharata, which in turn was the essence of the Sastras and that each word of the Sahasranama had 100 meanings.[30]
  • Swaminarayan, founder of the Hindu Swaminarayan faith, said in verse 118 of the scripture, Shikshapatri, that one should "either recite or have the 10th canto,(of Bhagavata Purana ) and also other holy scriptures like the "Vishnusahasranama" recited at a holy place according to one's capacity. "The recital is such that it gives fruits according to whatever is desired." [31]
  • Swaminarayan also said in verses 93-96, "I have the highest esteem for these eight holy scriptures: 1-4)the four Vedas, 5) the Vyas-Sutra,(i.e., Brahma Sutras, 6) the Shrimad Bhagavatam, 7) Shri Vishnusahasranama in the Mahabharata, and 8) the Yajnavalkya Smrti which is at the center of the Dharma Scriptures; and all My disciples who wish to prosper should listen to these eight holy scriptures, and the brahmanas under my shelter should learn and teach these holy scriptures, and read them to others."
  • Swami Sivananda, in his twenty important spiritual instructions, stated that the Vishnusahasranama, along with other religious texts, should be studied systematically.[32]
  • Quote by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada; on February 15, 1970 to J.F.Staal; Professor of Philosophy and of South Asian Languages. Second paragraph, states:
”In this way we find all the scriptures aiming at the Supreme Person. In the Rig Veda (1.22.20) the mantra is om tad vishnoh paramam padam sada pashyanti surayah ("The demigods are always looking to that supreme abode of Vishnu"). The whole Vedic process, therefore, is to understand Lord Vishnu, and any scripture is directly or indirectly chanting the glories of the Supreme Lord, Vishnu.”[33]
sri rama rama rameti rame rame manorame
sahasranama tat tulyam rama nama varanane
"O Varanana (lovely-faced lady), I chant the holy name of Rama, Rama, Rama and thus constantly enjoy this beautiful sound. This holy name of Sri Rama is equal to one thousand holy names of Lord Vishnu." (Brhad Visnusahasranamastotra, Uttara-khanda, Padma Purana 72.335)
sahasra-namnam punyanam, trir-avrttya tu yat phalam
ekavrttya tu krsnasya, namaikam tat prayacchati
"The pious results (punya) achieved by chanting the thousand holy names of Vishnu (Vishnusahasranama-Stotram) three times can be attained by only one utterance of the holy name of Krishna."
yo mam nama sahasrena stotum icchati pandava
sohamekena slokena stuta eva na samsaya
"Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one sloka. There is no doubt about it.”[16]
  • From the oldest scriptural text in Hinduism, the Rig Veda; V.I.15b.3, it states:
"O ye who wish to gain realization of the Supreme Truth, utter the name of "Vishnu" at least once in the steadfast faith that it will lead you to such realization."
  • Shri Shirdi Sai Baba in the Sai SatCharitra said to His devotee Shama to put across the efficacy of chanting Vishnu Sahasranaama:
"Oh Shama, this book is very valuable and efficacious, so I present it to you, you read it. Once I suffered intensely and My
heart began to palpitate and My life was in danger. At that critical time, I hugged this book to My heart and then, Shama, what 
a relief it gave me! I thought that Allah Himself came down and saved Me. So I give this to you, read it slowly, little by 
little, read daily one name at least and it will do you good."[34]

Phalasruti - Benefits of chanting Vishnusahasranama

The following lines are from the Mahabharata and are quoted portions from the text. Devotees believe that regular chanting of the hymn can accrue benefits.

I)On avoiding evil, success in battles, and gaining affluence, pleasure, happiness and offspring:

vedantago brahmanasyat kshatriyo vijayeebhavet
vaishyo dhanasamrudhyasyat shudra sukhamavapniyat
Bhishma said, "Thus have I recited to thee, without any exception, the thousand excellent names of the high-souled Kesava whose glory should always be sung. Anyone who hears the names every day or who recites them every day, never meets with any evil either here or hereafter. If a Brahmana does this he succeeds in mastering the Vedanta; if a Kshatriya does it, he is always successful in battles. A Vaishya, by doing it, becomes possessed of affluence, while a Shudra earns great happiness."
If one becomes desirous of earning the merit of righteousness, one succeeds in earning it (by hearing or reciting these names). If it is wealth that one desires, one succeeds in earning wealth (by acting in this way). So also the man who wishes for enjoyments of the senses succeeds in enjoying all kinds of pleasures, and the man desirous of offspring acquires offspring (by pursuing this course of conduct).

II)On acquiring fame, prosperity, prowess, energy, strength, beauty, removing fear, avoiding calamity, and being cured of disease:

"That man who with devotion and perseverance and heart wholly turned towards him, recites these thousand names of Vasudeva every day, after having purified himself, succeeds in acquiring great fame, a position of eminence among his kinsmen, enduring prosperity, and lastly, that which is of the highest benefit to him (viz., emancipation Moksha itself). Such a man never meets with fear at any time, and acquires great prowess and energy. Disease never afflicts him; splendour of complexion, strength, beauty, and accomplishments become his. The sick become hale, the afflicted become freed from their afflictions; the frightened become freed from fear, and he that is plunged in calamity becomes freed from calamity."
"The man who hymns the praises of that foremost of Beings by reciting His thousand names with devotion succeeds in quickly crossing all difficulties. That mortal who takes refuge in Vasudeva and who becomes devoted to Him, becomes freed of all sins and attains to eternal Brahman. They who are devoted to Vasudeva have never to encounter any evil. They become freed from the fear of birth, death, decrepitude, and disease."

III)On acquiring righteousness and intelligence, and avoiding the sins of evil:

"That man who with devotion and faith recites this hymn (consisting of the thousand names of Vasudeva) succeeds in acquiring felicity of soul, forgiveness of disposition, Prosperity, intelligence, memory, and fame. Neither wrath, nor jealousy, nor cupidity, nor evil understanding ever appears in those men of righteousness who are devoted to that foremost of beings. The firmament with the sun, moon and stars, the welkin, the points of the compass, the earth and the ocean, are all held and supported by the prowess of the high-souled Vasudeva. The whole mobile and immobile universe with the deities, Asuras, and Gandharvas, Yakshas, Uragas and Rakshasas, is under the sway of Krishna."

IV)On the origins of the soul, the source of righteous behavior, and the basis of all knowledge and existence:

"The senses, mind, understanding, life, energy, strength and memory, it has been said, have Vasudeva for their soul. Indeed, this body that is called Kshetra, and the intelligent soul within, that is called the knower of Kshetra, also have Vasudeva for their soul. Conduct (consisting of practices) is said to be the foremost of all topics treated of in the scriptures. Righteousness has conduct for its basis. The unfading Vasudeva is said to be the Lord of righteousness. The Rishis, the Pitris, the deities, the great (primal) elements, the metals, indeed, the entire mobile and immobile universe, has sprung from Narayana. Yoga, the Sankhya Philosophy, knowledge, all mechanical arts, the Vedas, the diverse scriptures, and all learning, have sprung from Janardana. Vishnu is the one great element or substance which has spread itself out into multifarious forms. Covering the three worlds, He the soul of all things, enjoys them all."
His glory knows no diminution, and He it is that is the Enjoyer of the universe (as its Supreme Lord). This hymn in praise of the illustrious Vishnu composed by Vyasa, should be recited by that person who wishes to acquire happiness and that which is the highest benefit (viz., emancipation). Those persons that worship and adore the Lord of the universe, that deity who is inborn and possessed of blazing effulgence, who is the origin or cause of the universe, who knows no deterioration, and who is endued with eyes that are as large and beautiful as the petals of the lotus, have never to meet with any discomfiture."

Bhishma's quote cited from Kisari Mohan Ganguli's translation of Vishnusahasranama (public domain)

See also

Notes

  1. A tatpurusha compound

Footnotes

  1. D. Kinsley (1974), Through the Looking Glass, History of Religions, 13(4), pages 270-305
  2. http://www.astrojyoti.com/sikhsahasranama.htm
  3. https://franklin.library.upenn.edu/catalog/FRANKLIN_99878993503681
  4. http://antaryami.net/darpanam/sri-vishnu-sahasranamam-bhagavad-guna-darpanam/
  5. "The Mahabharata in Sanskrit: Book 13: Chapter 135". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2016-10-04.
  6. For IAST version of Sanskrit for these verses, see: Sankaranarayan 1996, pp. 2–5.
  7. For Sanskrit text and translation, see: Tapasyananda, pp. 3-4.
  8. Sankara Bhashya on Vishnusahasranaama
  9. Tapasyananda, pg. iv.
  10. Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. The names "Shiva", "Shambhu", "Eesanah", and "Rudra" are to be found in slokas 17, 18, 21, and 26 respectively
  11. Commentary to sloka 13, "yatra puMliGgashabdaprayOgaH, tatra viSNurvishESyaH; yatra strIliMga shabdaH, tatra dEvatA prayOgaH; yatra napuMsaliGga prayOgaH, tatra brahmEti vishEshyatE (where a word of masculine gender is used, the noun is Vishnu, in feminine gender the noun is Devata, and in neuter gender the noun is Brahma)", Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra
  12. Commentary to sloka 17 in Transcription of Sankara's commentary to Vishnusahasranamastotra, "sivAdi nAmabhiH hariH eva stUyate"
  13. http://www.ahobilavalli.org/vishnu_sahasra_namam_vol1.pdf
  14. 1 2 Tapasyananda, pg. 47.
  15. Bhag-P 4.4.14 "Siva means mangala, or auspicious"
  16. 1 2 "Srivaishnavism". Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
  17. Foreword of P. Sankaranarayan's translation of Vishnu sahasranama, Bhavan's Book University
  18. http://shivayavishnurupaya.blogspot.com/2011/04/shivaya-vishnu-rupaayashiva-rupaaya.html
  19. Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pg. 62.
  20. Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pgs. 48, 49, 87, 96 and 123.
  21. 1 2 Tapasyananda, Swami. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, pg. 48.
  22. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 December 2004. Retrieved 16 December 2004., story #53
  23. http://www.kamakotimandali.com/srividya/saptashati.html
  24. 1 2 3 Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra, Vol. 2, pg. 740, by Maharshi Parashara, with translation, commentary and editing by R. Santhana, Ranjan Publications, New Delhi, India
  25. Vijaya Kumar, The Thousand Names of Vishnu
  26. B.K. Chaturvedi, Vishnu Puran, page 126
  27. Swami-Krishnananda.org English translation, IAST Sanskrit
  28. http://www.stephen-knapp.com/thousand_names_of_the_supreme.htm
  29. Bhaja Govindam: kamakoti.org
  30. 1 2 3 "On the Buddha in verse". The Hindu. Chennai, India. December 16, 2005.
  31. Shree Swaminarayan Temple Cardiff - Scriptures - Shikshapatri
  32. 20 Important Spiritual Instructions
  33. The Krishna Consciousness Movement is the Genuine Vedic Way
  34. shrisaibabasansthan.org

References

  • Sankaranarayan, P. (1996), Śrī Viṣṇu Sahasranāma Stotram, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan . With an English Translation of Sri Sankara Bhagavatpada's Commentary
  • Tapasyananda, Swami, Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, Chennai: Sri Ramakrishna Math . Sanskrit and English, with an English translation of Sri Sankara Bhagavatpada's commentary.

Further reading

  • Sanskrit & Hindi: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh 273005, India
  • Sanskrit & English: The Thousand Names of Vishnu and the Satyanarayana Vrat, translated by Swami Satyananda Saraswati, Devi Mandir, Napa.

Other translations:

  • Sanskrit & Gujarati: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram; translated by Shri Yogeshwarji, India @ www.swargarohan.org
  • Sanskrit & English: Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram; translated by Swami Vimalananda, Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam, Tiruchirapalli, India, 1985
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