Velar nasal

Velar nasal
ŋ
IPA number 119
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ŋ
Unicode (hex) U+014B
X-SAMPA N
Kirshenbaum N
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The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is the sound of ng in English sing. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ŋ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is N. The IPA symbol ŋ is similar to ɳ, the symbol for the retroflex nasal, which has a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem, and to ɲ, the symbol for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the left stem. Both the IPA symbol and the sound are commonly called 'eng' or 'engma'.

As a phoneme, the velar nasal does not occur in many of the indigenous languages of the Americas or in a large number of European or Middle Eastern or Caucasian languages, but it is extremely common in Australian Aboriginal languages. While almost all languages have /m/ and /n/, /ŋ/ is rarer.[1] Only half of the 469 languages surveyed in Anderson (2008) had a velar nasal phoneme; as a further curiosity, a large proportion of them limits its occurrence to the syllable coda. In many languages that do not have the velar nasal as a phoneme, it occurs as an allophone of /n/ before velar consonants.

An example of a language that lacks a phonemic or allophonic velar nasal is Russian, in which /n/ is pronounced as laminal denti-alveolar [] even before velar consonants.[2]

Some languages have the pre-velar nasal,[3] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical velar nasal, though not as front as the prototypical palatal nasal - see that article for more information.

Conversely, some languages have the post-velar nasal,[4] which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of a prototypical velar nasal, though not as back as the prototypical uvular nasal - see that article for more information.

Features

Features of the velar nasal:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Because the consonant is also nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Albanianngaqë[ŋɡacə]'because'
Aleut[5]chaang[tʃɑːŋ]'five'
ArabicSome speakersإنكار[ʔɪŋˈkʰɑːr]'denial'Allophone of /n/ before /k/; more commonly realized as [n].
ArmenianEastern[6]ընկեր[əŋˈkɛɾ]'friend'Allophone of /n/ before velar consonants
Assameseৰং[rɔŋ]'color'
BambaraŋonI[ŋoni]'guitar'
Basquehanka[haŋka]'leg'
Bengali[rɔŋ]'colour'
Bulgarian[7]тънко[ˈtɤŋko]'thin'
Catalan[8]sang[ˈsaŋ(k)]'blood'See Catalan phonology
ChineseCantonese[ŋɔːŋ˩]'raise'See Cantonese phonology
Eastern Min[ŋi]'suspect'
Gan[ŋa]'tooth'
Hakka[ŋai]'I'
Mandarin北京[peɪ˨˩tɕiŋ˥]'Beijing'Restricted to the syllable coda. See Mandarin phonology
Northern Min[ŋui]'outside'
Pu-Xian Min[ŋ̍]'yellow'Only in colloquial speech.
Sichuanese[ŋɔ]'I'
Southern Min[ŋɔ]'a state in the Zhou dynasty'
Wu[ŋ˩˧]'five'
Xiang[ŋau]'to boil'
Yuci dialect of Jin[ŋie]'I'
Chukchiӈыроӄ[ŋəɹoq]'three'
Czechtank[taŋk]'tank'See Czech phonology
Dinkaŋa[ŋa]'who'
Danishsang[sɑŋˀ]'song'See Danish phonology
Dutch[9]angst[ɑŋst]'fear'See Dutch phonology
Englishsing [sɪŋ]'sing'Restricted to the syllable coda. See English phonology
Faroeseong[ɔŋk]'meadow'
Fijiangone[ˈŋone]'child'
Filipinongayón[ŋaˈjon]'now'
Finnishkangas[ˈkɑŋːɑs]'cloth'Occurs in native vocabulary only intervocally (as a geminate) and before /k/. See Finnish phonology
French[10]camping[kɑ̃piŋ]'camping'Occurs only in words borrowed from English or Chinese. See French phonology
Galicianunha[ˈuŋa]'one' (f.)
Germanlang[laŋ]'long'See Standard German phonology
Greekαποτυγχάνω/apotynchánō[apo̞tiŋˈxano̞]'I fail'See Modern Greek phonology
HebrewStandardאנגלית[aŋɡˈlit]'English language'Allophone of /n/ before velar stops. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Sephardiעין[ŋaˈjin]'Ayin'See Sephardi Hebrew
Hiligaynonbuang[bu'äŋ]'crazy/mentally unstable'
Hindustaniरंग / رنگ[rəŋɡ]'color'See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Hungarianing[iŋɡ]'shirt'Allophone of /n/. See Hungarian phonology
Icelandicng[ˈkœy̯ŋk]'tunnel'See Icelandic phonology
Indonesianbangun[bäŋʊn]'wake up'
Inuktitutᐆᖅ/puunnguuq[puːŋŋuːq]'dog'
Inuvialuktunqamnguiyuaq[qamŋuijuaq]'snores'
Irisha nglór[ˌə̃ ˈŋl̪ˠoːɾˠ]'their voice'Occurs word-initially as a result of the consonantal mutation eclipsis. See Irish phonology
Italian[11]anche[ˈaŋke]'also'See Italian phonology
Itelmenқниң[qniŋ]'one'
JapaneseStandard南極/nankyoku[naŋkʲokɯ]'the South Pole'See Japanese phonology
Eastern dialects[12]/kagi[kaŋi]'key'
Kagayanen[13]manang[manaŋ]'older sister'
Kazakhмың/myń[məŋ]'thousand'
Kyrgyzмиң[miŋ]'thousand'
Ketаяң[ajaŋ]'to damn'
Khasingap[ŋap]'honey'
Korean/bang[pɐŋ]'room'See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[14]keng[kʰæŋ]'nobody'See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonianaнглиски[ˈaŋɡliski]'English'Occurs occasionally as an allophone of /n/ before /k/ and /ɡ/. See Macedonian phonology
Lugandaŋaaŋa[ŋɑːŋɑ]'hornbill'
Malaybangun[bäŋon]'wake up'
Malayalam[5]മാങ്ങ[maːŋŋɐ]'mango'
Māori[15]ngā[ŋaː]'the'
Marathiरंग[rəŋə]'colour'See Marathi phonology
Mariеҥ[jeŋ]'human'
Nganasanӈаӈ[ŋaŋ]'mouth'
Nivkhңамг[ŋamɡ]'seven'
North FrisianMooringkåchelng[ˈkɔxəlŋ]'stove'
Norwegiangang[ɡɑŋ]'hallway'See Norwegian phonology
Punjabiਵੰ[vəŋ]'bangle'
Persianرنگ[ræːŋɡ]'color'See Persian phonology
Pipilnemanha[nemaŋa]'later'
Polish[16]bank[bäŋk]'bank'Allophone of /n/ before /k, ɡ, x/; post-palatal before /kʲ, ɡʲ/.[17][18] See Polish phonology
Portuguesemanga[ˈmɐ̃(ŋ)ɡɐ]'mango'Occurs occasionally in slow, careful speech, as an allophone of /n/ before /ɡ/ and /k/, when the speaker does not delete the /n/ by fusing it with the preceding vowel.
OccitanProvençalvin[viŋ]'wine'
Rapanuihanga[haŋa]'bay'Sometimes written g in Rapanui
RomanianȚara Moților Transylvanian[19]câine[kɨŋi]'dog'Corresponds to [n] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Sanskrit मङ्गलम् [ˈməŋɡələm] 'auspicious' Occurs in all Indic languages, but is traditionally written out in full for Sanskrit.
Serbo-Croatian[20]станка / stanka[stâːŋka]'pause'Allophone of /n/ before /k, ɡ/.[20] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Sericomcáac[koŋˈkaak]'Seri people'
Shonananga[ŋaŋɡa]'witch doctor'
Slovenetank[taŋk]'tank'
Spanish[21]All dialectsdomingo[d̪o̞ˈmĩŋɡo̞]'Sunday'Allophone of /n/ before velar stops. See Spanish phonology
Andalusian, Canarian, and most Latin American dialectsalquitrán[alkitˈɾaŋ]'tar'Allophone of /n/ in word-final position, either before consonants other than velar stops or vowel-beginning words.
Swahili ng'ombe [ŋombɛ] 'cow'
Swedishingenting[ɪŋɛnˈtʰɪŋ]'nothing'See Swedish phonology
Tamilஇங்கே[iŋeː]'here'
Thaiาน[ŋaːn]'work'
Tuamotuanrangi/ragi[raŋi]'sky'
Tundra Nenetsӈэва[ŋæewa]'head'
TurkishAnkara[ˈaŋkaɾa]'Ankara'Allophone of /n/ before /k/ and /ɡ/. See Turkish phonology
Turkmenň[myŋ]'thousand'
Uzbekming[miŋ]'thousand'
Venetianman[maŋ]'hand'
Vietnamese[22]ngà[ŋaː˨˩]'ivory'See Vietnamese phonology
Welshrhwng[r̥ʊŋ]'between'
West Frisiankening[ˈkeːnɪŋ]'king'
Yi/nga[ŋa˧]'I'
Yup'ikungungssiq[uŋuŋssiq]'animal'
ZapotecTilquiapan[23]yan[jaŋ]'neck'Word-final allophone of lenis /n/

See also

Notes

  1. Ladefoged (2005:164). The oral counterparts, /p t k/ are found together in almost all languages
  2. Jones & Ward (1969:160)
  3. Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
  4. Instead of "post-velar", it can be called "retracted velar", "backed velar", "pre-uvular", "advanced uvular" or "fronted uvular".
  5. 1 2 Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  6. Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 19.
  7. Sabev, Mitko. "Bulgarian Sound System". Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  8. Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  9. Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  10. Wells (1989), p. 44.
  11. Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 118.
  12. Okada (1991), p. 95.
  13. Olson et al. (2010), pp. 206–207.
  14. Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  15. Reed (2001).
  16. Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  17. Gussmann (1974), pp. 107, 111 and 114.
  18. Ostaszewska & Tambor (2000), pp. 35, 41 and 86.
  19. Pop (1938), p. 31.
  20. 1 2 Landau et al. (1999:67)
  21. Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 258.
  22. Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  23. Merrill (2008), p. 109.

References

  • Anderson, Gregory D. S. (2008), "The Velar Nasal", in Haspelmath, Martin; Dryer, Matthew S; Gil, David; et al., The World Atlas of Language Structures Online, Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, retrieved 2008-04-30 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Gussmann, Edmund (1974), Fisiak, Jacek, ed., "Nasality in Polish and English" (PDF), Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Poznań: Adam Mickiewicz University, 2: 105–122 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages, 1, Wiley-Blackwell 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296 
  • Ostaszewska, Danuta; Tambor, Jolanta (2000), Fonetyka i fonologia współczesnego języka polskiego, Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, ISBN 83-01-12992-1 
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
  • Reed, A.W. (2001), Kāretu, Timoti, ed., The Reed Concise Māori Dictionary 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Wells, J.C. (1989), "Computer-Coded Phonemic Notation of Individual Languages of the European Community", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 19 (1): 31–54, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005892 
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