Udmurt language

Udmurt
удмурт кыл udmurt kyl
Native to Russia
Region Udmurtia
Ethnicity Udmurts
Native speakers
340,000 (2010 census)[1]
Official status
Official language in
 Russia
Language codes
ISO 639-2 udm
ISO 639-3 udm
Glottolog udmu1245[2]

Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Uralic language, part of the Permic subgroup, spoken by the Udmurt natives of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with Russian. It is written using a Cyrillic alphabet, including five characters not used in the Russian alphabet: Ӝ/ӝ, Ӟ/ӟ, Ӥ/ӥ, Ӧ/ӧ, and Ӵ/ӵ. Together with Komi and Komi-Permyak languages, it constitutes the Permic grouping. Among outsiders, it has traditionally been referred to by its Russian exonym, Votyak. Udmurt has borrowed vocabulary from the neighboring languages Tatar and Russian.

Ethnologue estimates 550,000 native speakers (77%) in an ethnic population of 750,000 in the former USSR (1989 census).[3]

Dialects

Udmurt varieties can be grouped in three broad dialect groups:

A continuum of intermediate dialects between Northern and Southern Udmurt is found, and literary Udmurt includes features from both areas. Besermyan is more sharply distinguished.

The differences between the dialects are regardless not major, and mainly involve differences in vocabulary, largely attributable to the stronger influence of Tatar in the southern end of the Udmurt-speaking area. A few differences in morphology and phonology still exist as well, e.g.

  • Southern Udmurt has an accusative ending -ыз /-ɨz/, contrasting with northern -ты /-tɨ/.
  • Southwestern Udmurt distinguishes an eight vowel phoneme /ʉ/.
  • Besermyan has /e/ in place of standard Udmurt /ə/ (thus distinguishing only six vowel phonemes), and /ɵ/ in place of standard Udmurt /ɨ/.

Alphabet

The Udmurt alphabet is based on the Russian Cyrillic alphabet:

UppercaseLowercaseTransliteration[4]IPALetter name
Ааa[ɑ]а
Ббb[b]бэ
Ввv[v]вэ
Ггg[ɡ]гэ
Ддd, ď[d]; palatal [dʲ] when followed by я, е, и, ё, ю or ьдэ
Ееe, je[je]; [ʲe] when preceded by д, т, з, с, л, or не
Ёёjo[jo]; [ʲo] when preceded by д, т, з, с, л, or нё
Жжž[ʒ]жэ
Ӝӝ[d͡ʒ]ӝэ
Ззz, ź[z]; palatal [ʑ] when followed by я, е, и, ё, ю or ьзэ
Ӟӟ[d͡ʑ]ӟе
Ииi[i]; [ʲi] when preceded by д, т, з, с, л, or ни
Ӥӥï[i] when preceded by д, т, з, с, л, or нточкаен и, точкаосын и ("dotted i")
Ййj[j]вакчи и ("short i")
Ккk[k]ка
Ллl, ľ[ɫ]; palatal [lʲ] when followed by я, е, и, ё, ю or ьэл
Ммm[m]эм
Ннn, ň[n]; palatal [nʲ] when followed by я, е, и, ё, ю or ьэн
Ооo[o]о
Ӧӧö[ʌ ~ ə]ӧ
Ппp[p]пэ
Ррr[r]эр
Ссs, ś[s]; palatal [ɕ] when followed by я, е, и, ё, ю or ьэс
Ттt, ť[t]; palatal [tʲ] when followed by я, е, и, ё, ю or ьтэ
Ууu[u]у
Ф1фf[f]эф
Х1хh[x]ха
Ц1цc[t͡s]цэ
Ччč[t͡ɕ]чэ
Ӵӵć[t͡ʃ]ӵэ
Шшš[ʃ]ша
Щ1щšč[ɕ(ː)]ща
Ъ2ъчурыт пус ("hard sign")
Ыыy[ɨ ~ ɯ]ы
Ьь[ʲ]небыт пус ("soft sign")
Ээe, ė[e]э
Ююju[ju]; [ʲu] when preceded by д, т, з, с, л, or ню
Яяja[jɑ]; [ʲɑ] when preceded by д, т, з, с, л, or ня
  • 1 Only used in Russian loanwords and names.
  • 2 Silent, but required to distinguish palatalized consonants (/dʲ tʲ zʲ sʲ lʲ n/) from unpalatalized consonants followed by /j/ if followed by a vowel; for example, /zʲo/ and /zjo/ are written -зё- and -зъё-, respectively.

Phonology

The language does not distinguish between long and short vowels and does not have vowel harmony.

Labial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Alveolo-
palatal
Palatal Velar
plain lat. plain lat.
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless (t͡s) t͡ʃ t͡ɕ
voiced (d͡z) d͡ʒ d͡ʑ
Fricative voiceless (f) s ʃ ɕ (x)
voiced v z ʒ ʑ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Approximant l j ʎ
Trill r

The consonants /f x t͡s/ are restricted to loanwords, and are traditionally replaced by /p k t͡ɕ/ respectively.

Front Central Back
Unrounded Round
Close i ɨ u
Mid e ə o
Open a

Grammar

Udmurt is an agglutinating language. It uses affixes to express possession, to specify mode, time, and so on.

Lexicon

Depending on the style, about 10 to 30 percent of the Udmurt lexicon consists of loanwords. Many loanwords are from the Tatar language, which has also strongly influenced Udmurt phonology and syntax.

The Udmurt language itself, together with the Tatar language, influenced the language of the Udmurt Jews, in the dialects of which the words of Finno-Ugric and Turkic origin there were recorded.[5][6][7][8]

Media in Udmurt

Eurovision runners-up Buranovskiye Babushki, a pop group composed of Udmurt grandmothers, sing mostly in Udmurt.[9]

The romantic comedy film Berry-Strawberry, a joint Polish-Udmurt production, is in the Udmurt language.

In 2013, the film company "Inwis kinopottonni" produced a film in the Udmurt language called Puzkar ("nest").[10]

The Bible was first completely translated into Udmurt in 2013.[11]

Bibliography

  • Kel'makov, Valentin; Sara Hännikäinen (2008). Udmurtin kielioppia ja harjoituksia (in Finnish) (2nd ed.). Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura. ISBN 978-952-5150-34-6. 
  • Moreau, Jean-Luc (2009). Parlons Oudmourte. Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 2-296-07951-2. 

References

  1. Udmurt at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Udmurt". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Ethnologue code=UDM Archived October 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. "BGN/PCGN romanization of udmurt". Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  5. Altyntsev A.V., "The Concept of Love in Ashkenazim of Udmurtia and Tatarstan", Nauka Udmurtii. 2013. № 4 (66), p. 131-132. (Алтынцев А.В., "Чувство любви в понимании евреев-ашкенази Удмуртии и Татарстана". Наука Удмуртии. 2013. №4. С. 131-132: Комментарии.) (in Russian)
  6. Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "A short ethnographic overview of the Ashkenazic Jews' group in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic". Die Sammlung der wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten der jungen jüdischen Wissenschaftler. Herausgegeben von Artur Katz, Yumi Matsuda und Alexander Grinberg. München, Dachau, 2015. S. 51.
  7. Гольдберг-Алтынцев А.В., "Краткий этнографический обзор группы ашкеназских евреев в Алнашском районе Удмуртской Республики / пер. с англ. яз. А.Й. Каца." Jewish studies in the Udmurt Republic: Online. Part 1. Edited by A. Greenberg. February 27, 2015 published. P. 3. (in Russian)
  8. Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "Some characteristics of the Jews in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic." The youth. The creativity. The science. Edited by V. Cox, A. Katz and A. Greenberg. Trenton, 2014, p. 28. (גאלדבערג-אלטינצעוו א.ו., ". איניגע באזונדערהייטן פון די יידן אין אלנאשסקער רייאן פון ודמורטישע רעפובליק" The youth. The creativity. The science. = Die Jugend. Die Kreativität. Die Wissenschaft. = נוער. יצירתיות. מדע Edited by V. Cox, A. Katz and A. Greenberg. Trenton, 2014. P. 28.) (in Yiddish)
  9. Omelyanchuk, Olena (7 March 2012). "Buranovskiye Babushki to represent Russia in Baku". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  10. "Пузкар (удмурт кино)".
  11. "First Bible in Udmurt – arrives this week!". United Bible Societies. Retrieved 12 April 2015.


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