Turks in the Republic of Macedonia

Turks in Macedonia

On municipal level

On settlement level
Total population

77,959 (2002 census)[1]

3.8% of total population
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Religion

Turks in the Republic of Macedonia, also known as Macedonian Turks, (Macedonian: Македонски Турци, Turkish: Makedonya Türkleri) are the ethnic Turks who constitute the third largest ethnic group in the Republic of Macedonia.[1] According to the 2002 census, there were 77,959 Turks living in the country, forming a minority of some 3.8% of the population.[2] The community form a majority in Centar Župa and Plasnica.[1]

The Turkish community claim higher numbers than the census shows, somewhere between 170,000 and 200,000.[2][3] There are additionally roughly 100,000 Torbeš and some of them still maintain a strong affiliation to Turkish identity.[4]

History

Ottoman era

Macedonia came under the rule of the Ottoman Turks in 1392, remaining part of the Ottoman Empire for more than 500 years up to 1912 and the Balkan wars.[5]

Modern era

Once the Ottoman Empire fell at the beginning of the 20th century, many of the Turks fled to Turkey. Many left under Yugoslav rule, and more left after World War II. Others intermarried or simply identified themselves as Macedonians or Albanians to avoid stigma and persecution.[2]

Population of Macedonian Turks according to national censuses[6]
Census Turks Total population of Macedonia % Turks
1913 Census209,000[7]1,082,90219.3%
1948 Census95,9401,152,9868.3%
1953 Census203,938³1,304,51415.6%
1961 Census131,4841,406,0039.4%
1971 Census108,5521,647,3086.6%
1981 Census86,5911,909,1364.5%
1991 Census77,0802,033,9643.8%
1994 Census78,0191,945,9324.0%
2002 Census77,9592,022,5473.9%

³ 143,615 gave Turkish, 32,392 gave Macedonian and 27,086 gave Albanian as their mothertongue.[8]

After 1953, a large emigration of Turks based on an agreement between the Republic of Turkey and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia took place— around 80,000 according to Yugoslav data and over 150,000 according to Turkish sources.[6]

Culture

Language

Macedonian Turks speak the Turkish language and secondly Albanian in the west and Macedonian in the east. Turkish is spoken with Slavic and Greek admixtures creating a unique Macedonian Turkish dialect.[9] However, Macedonian is also widely used amongst the community.[10]

Religion

According to the 2002 census, Turks make up 12% of the total Muslim population in Macedonia.[11]

Demographics

Turkish population in Macedonia according to the 2002 census (Turkish majority in bold):

Municipality Turks
2002 Census[1]
% Turkish
Greater Skopje8,5951.7%
Gostivar7,9919.9%
Centar Župa5,22680.2%
Plasnica4,44697.8%
Radoviš4,06114.4%
Strumica3,7546.9%
Struga3,6285.7%
Studeničani3,28519.1%
Vrapčište3,13412.3%
Kičevo2,9985.3%
Debar2,68413.7%
Mavrovo and Rostuša2,68031.1%
Dolneni2,59719.1%
Ohrid2,2684.1%
Vasilevo2,09517.3%
Tetovo1,8822.2%
Resen1,79710.7%
Veles1,7243.1%
Bitola1,6101.8%
Valandovo1,33311.2%
Štip1,2722.7%
Bogovinje1,1834.1%
Prilep9171.2%
Karbinci72818.2%
Konče52114.7%
Tearce5162.3%
Bosilovo4953.5%
Dojran40211.7%
Čaška3915.1%
Pehčevo3576.5%
Demir Kapija3447.6%
Kočani3150.8%
Kruševo3153.3%
Kumanovo2920.3%
Vinica2721.4%
Negotino2431.3%
Sopište2434.3%
Mogila2293.4%
Makedonski Brod1812.5%
Kavadarci1670.4%
Lozovo1575.5%
Delčevo1220.7%
Berovo910.7%
Sveti Nikole810.4%
Petrovec750.9%
Gradsko711.9%
Bogdanci540.6%
Demir Hisar350.4%
Gevgelija310.1%
Novaci270.8%
Ilinden170.1%
Kratovo80.1%
Probištip6<0.1%
Jegunovce4<0.1%
Brvenica2<0.1%
Debarca2<0.1%
Kriva Palanka2<0.1%
Želino2<0.1%
Zelenikovo1<0.1%

National day

The Turks in Macedonia also have an own national day, the Day of Education in Turkish Language. By a decision of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia in 2007, December 21 became a national and non-working day for the Turkish community in the country.[12]

Media

There are both radio and television broadcasts in Turkish.[13] Since 1945, Macedonian Radio-Television transmits one hour daily Turkish television programs and four and a half hours of Turkish radio programs.[14] Furthermore, the newspaper Birlik is published in Turkish three times a week.[14]

Politics

The Turks have 3 political parties in Macedonia: Turkish Democratic Party (Türk Demokratik Partisi - TDP), Turkish Movement Party (Türk Hareket Partisi - THP) and Turkish National Unity Movement (Türk Millî Birlik Hareketi - TMBH). There is also the Union of Turkish NGOs in Republic of Macedonia (Makedonya Türk Sivil Toplum Teşkilatlar Birliği - MATÜSİTEB).[15]

The first political party of the Turks in Macedonia is the Turkish Democratic Party (TDP). Because of political and economic changes in Macedonia, the Turks, like other communities, have decided to get organized in order to protect and develop their political rights. As a result, a political association named the Turkish Democratic Union was established on 1 July 1990. The association identified its major goal to defend national and moral interests of the Turks in Macedonia and launched activities in this direction. Such developments allowed the Turks to transform their association into a political party. The transformation was completed on 27 June 1992, when the Turkish Democratic Union was renamed the Turkish Democratic Party at the second extraordinary congress under the leadership Avni Engüllü in Skopje. Since its establishment, TDP has been protecting the rights and interests of Turks in Macedonia.[15]

Moreover, several people of Turkish origin serve in high-ranking levels of Macedonian politics. Furkan Çako from the Turkish Democratic Party (TDP) serves as Minister without Portfolio in the Macedonian government. In the parliament, the Turks are represented by Kenan Hasip, TDP leader, and Enes İbrahim (THP). In addition, Salih Murat, an ethnic Turk, is a member of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Macedonia.[15]

Education

The first school in Turkish language in Macedonia was opened in 1944.[16] As of 2008 there were over 60 schools that offered lessons in Turkish. Turks have the right of education in Turkish for four years in East Macedonia. There are 264 teachers in these schools. There is a lycee in Gostivar and a technical college in Tetovo where students are trained in Turkish. Few quota is spared for Turkish students at universities in Skopje and Bitola. There are also private Turkish schools established by Turkish entrepreneurs. Macedonian Turks show great interest in these schools.

Notable people

See also

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office 2005, 34.
  2. 1 2 3 Knowlton 2005, 66.
  3. Abrahams 1996, 53.
  4. Skutsch, Carl (7 November 2013). "Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities". Routledge. Retrieved 19 August 2017 via Google Books.
  5. Evans 2010, 11.
  6. 1 2 Ortakovski 2001, 26.
  7. Der Islam im Spiegel zeitgenössischer Literatur der islamischen Welt, Johann Christoph Bürge, page 89, 1985
  8. Muslim Identity and the Balkan State, Hugh Poulton,Suha Taji-Farouki, page 96-97, 1997
  9. Minahan 1998, 173.
  10. Abrahams 1996, 54.
  11. Nielsen, Akgonul & Alibasic 2009, 221.
  12. "Премиерот Никола Груевски во работна посета на Република Италија". Влада на Република Македонија. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  13. Knowlton 2005, 107.
  14. 1 2 Ortakovski 2001, 32.
  15. 1 2 3 "Turks in Macedonia: current situation". The Politicon. The Politicon. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  16. "Contact Support". www.mia.com.mk. Retrieved 19 August 2017.

Bibliography

Further reading

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