Treaty of Accession 2011
Croatia (yellow) joined the European Union (blue) on 1 July 2013
|Signed||9 December 2011|
|Sealed||10 January 2012|
|Effective||1 July 2013|
|Condition||ratification by Croatia and all 27 member states of the European Union|
|Depositary||Government of the Italian Republic|
|Languages||All 24 official Languages of the European Union|
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The Treaty of Accession 2011 is an agreement between the member states of the European Union and Croatia concerning Croatia's accession to the EU. It was signed on 9 December 2011 in Brussels by the heads of state or government of the 27 member states and by the President of Croatia, Ivo Josipović, and Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor.
The Treaty entered into force on 1 July 2013, making Croatia the 28th Member state of the European Union.
On 24 June 2011, the European Council called for the finishing of negotiations by the end of the month, and signing of the Treaty of Accession by the end of the year. Negotiations were subsequently closed on 30 June 2011, and on 14 September 2011 the accession treaty was finalised and made public. On 12 October 2011 the European Commission delivered a favourable opinion on the accession of Croatia to the European Union. As a result, on 1 December 2011 the European Parliament gave assent to the application of Croatia to become member of the European Union. The parliament voted in favour with 564 positive votes, 38 negative votes and 32 abstentions.
The treaty was signed on 9 December 2011 in Brussels and entered into force on 1 July 2013, having been ratified by Croatia and the European Union's 27 member states.
The full official name of the treaty is:
Treaty between the Kingdom of Belgium, the Republic of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Estonia, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Poland, the Portuguese Republic, Romania, the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovak Republic, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Member States of the European Union) and the Republic of Croatia concerning the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union.
The treaty, which is 250 pages long, provides for amendments to the treaties to add Croatian representatives into EU institutions (including transitional provisions before new elections take place) and outlines Croatia's various financial contributions. The document does not include a monitoring mechanism of Croatia by the European Commission to ensure continued reform, as was the case with Bulgaria and Romania. Two protocols promised to states during the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon, one making several guarantees to Ireland and another granting an opt-out from the Charter of Fundamental Rights to the Czech Republic, were planned to be ratified alongside the accession treaty, but both were ultimately delayed.
In addition to the Treaty of Accession, a Final Act was signed. The Final Act registers the results of the accession negotiations, including declarations made by the parties. It also laid down arrangements for the period between signing and entry into force of the treaty.
List of signatories
The treaty required ratification by all EU member states and Croatia, conforming to their respective constitutional provisions, and deposition of the ratification instruments with the Government of Italy by 30 June 2013 to come into force on 1 July 2013. This process was completed on 21 June 2013.
Ratification of the Treaty of Accession is summarized in the table below.
|22 January 2012||Referendum||67%||33%||-||4 April 2012|
|9 March 2012||Parliament||136||0||0|
|28 March 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|6 July 2012||Federal Council||53||2||0||8 August 2012|
|4 July 2012||National Council||152||7||0|
|9 July 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|13 December 2012||Senate||60||0||0||14 June 2013|
|24 January 2013||Chamber of Representatives||121||0||1|
|17 February 2013||Royal Assent||Granted|
|30 January 2013||
|22 October 2012||German-speaking Community||19||2||0|
|23 January 2013||French Community||76||0||0|
|22 December 2012||Brussels Regional Parliament||76||2||1|
|22 February 2013||
|27 February 2013||
|24 May 2013||COCOF Assembly||51||0||0|
|17 February 2012||National Assembly||180||0||0||19 April 2012|
|28 February 2012||Presidential Promulgation||Granted|
|3 May 2012||House of Representatives||56||0||0||11 June 2012|
|18 May 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|25 April 2012||Senate||59||0||0||4 July 2012|
|8 June 2012||Chamber of Deputies||151||0||13|
|26 June 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|2 May 2013||Parliament||113||0||0||29 May 2013|
|8 May 2013||Royal Assent||Granted|
|12 September 2012||Assembly||75||0||0||24 October 2012|
|18 September 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|18 December 2012||Parliament||131||34||0||6 May 2013|
|15 March 2013||Presidential Assent||Granted|
||3 May 2013||Parliament||Passed|
|15 January 2013||Senate||Passed||20 March 2013|
|17 January 2013||National Assembly||Passed|
|28 January 2013||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|7 June 2013||Federal Council||69||0||0||21 June 2013|
|16 May 2013||Federal Diet||583||0||6|
|14 June 2013||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|30 October 2012||Parliament||283||12||5||27 December 2012|
|5 November 2012||Presidential Promulgation||Granted|
|13 February 2012||National Assembly||334||0||5||22 March 2012|
|14 February 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|27 June 2012||Senate||Passed||8 October 2012|
|19 June 2012||House of Representatives||Passed|
|3 July 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|28 February 2012||Senate||216||2||22||10 April 2012|
|15 February 2012||Chamber of Deputies||483||2||30|
|29 February 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|22 March 2012||Parliament||79||0||0||6 June 2012|
|2 April 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|26 April 2012||Parliament||87||2||6||20 June 2012|
|8 May 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|9 October 2012||Chamber of Deputies||59||0||0||17 January 2013|
|29 November 2012||Grand Ducal Promulgation||Granted|
|5 March 2012||House of Representatives||69||0||0||2 April 2012|
|16 April 2013||Senate||58||12||0||31 May 2013|
|5 February 2013||House of Representatives||115||31||0|
|18 April 2013||Royal Promulgation||Granted|
|4 October 2012||Senate||76||0||0||12 February 2013|
|14 September 2012||House of Representatives||431||0||1|
|19 December 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|21 September 2012||National Assembly||206||0||24||19 December 2012|
|14 November 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|26 June 2012||Parliament||378||0||0||2 August 2012|
|2 July 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|1 February 2012||National Council||145||0||0||19 March 2012|
|17 February 2012||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|2 April 2013||National Assembly||82||0||0||18 June 2013|
|10 April 2013||Presidential Assent||Granted|
|24 October 2012||Senate||266||0||0||8 January 2013|
|11 October 2012||Congress of Deputies||282||0||0|
|30 October 2012||Royal Assent||Granted|
|7 November 2012||Parliament||280||20||0||8 January 2013|
|27 November 2012||House of Commons||Passed||20 May 2013|
|21 January 2013||House of Lords||Passed|
|31 January 2013||Royal Assent||Granted|
|1 December 2011||Parliament||564||38||32||—|
|5 December 2011||Council Assent||Granted|
In July and September 2012, officials of the Slovenian Parliament and the Slovenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that they would not ratify Croatia's Treaty of Accession until an agreement was reached on how to handle the debt of Slovenian bank Ljubljanska banka, which went bankrupt during the breakup of Yugoslavia, to its Croatian customers. In February 2013, representatives of all major parties in Slovenia agreed to approve Croatia's accession after experts and foreign ministers from both countries reached a compromise deal. The Prime Ministers of Slovenia and Croatia signed a memorandum outlining the settlement on 11 March, with Janez Janša, Prime Minister of Slovenia, saying that ratification of the accession treaty would occur "within 30 days" of the signing of the memorandum. On 2 April 2013, the Slovenian Parliament gave its consent to Croatia's accession.
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- Article 4 the treaty requires that instruments of ratification issued by all member states be deposited with the Government of Italy in order for the treaty to enter into force. The instrument of ratification is a solemn document of international character, usually signed by the country's head of state, confirming to the other parties of the treaty that the state in question accepts the treaty, as signed by its representatives. Each country issues and deposits the instrument of ratification after its internal ratification process is finalised by all required state bodies, in accordance with each country's internal constitutional requirements.
- Approval of the Brussels United Assembly is subject to an absolute majority of both language groups of the parliament (French and Dutch) voting in favour. Failing that, a second vote can be held where only one third of each language group, and a majority of the full house, is required for adoption.
- Åland is an autonomous province of Finland. It is part of European Union, but is subject of certain exemptions. Åland Parliament ratification is not necessary for the Treaty to enter into force, but is needed for its provisions to apply on the territory of Åland islands.
- Gibraltar is a British overseas territory. It is a part of the European Union through its constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom is responsible, inter alia, for Gibraltar's foreign policy, but Gibraltar still has separate legislature, government, judiciary and administration. Consequently, Gibraltar Parliament does not ratify the international treaties, rather it is responsible for implementing of the EU legislation in Gibraltar.
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