Timeline of antisemitism

This timeline of antisemitism chronicles the facts of antisemitism, hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group. It includes events in the history of antisemitic thought, actions taken to combat or relieve the effects of antisemitism, and events that affected the prevalence of antisemitism in later years. The history of antisemitism can be traced from ancient times to the present day.

Some authors prefer to use the terms anti-Judaism or religious antisemitism for religious sentiment against Judaism before the rise of racial antisemitism in the 19th century. For events specifically pertaining to the expulsion of Jews, please see Jewish refugees.


740 BCE
The Assyrian captivity (or the Assyrian exile) is the period in the history of Ancient Israel and Judah during which several thousand Israelites of ancient Samaria were resettled as captives by Assyria. The Northern Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
586 BCE
During the reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II, the Neo-Babylonian Empire destroys the temple in Jerusalem, and captures the Kingdom of Judah and 10,000 Jewish families.
475 BCE
Haman attempts genocide against the Jews. (Purim).
175 BCE–165 BCE
The Deuterocanonical First and Second Books of the Maccabees record that Antiochus IV Epiphanes attempts to erect a statue of Zeus in Jerusalem. The festival of Hanukkah commemorates the uprising of the Maccabees against this attempt.
139 BCE
Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Hispanus expels all Jews from the city of Rome.
124 BCE
The woman with seven sons was a Jewish martyr, described in 2 Maccabees 7 (2 Maccabees was written c. 124 BCE) and other sources. Although unnamed in 2 Maccabees, she is known variously as Hannah,[1] Miriam,[2] and Solomonia.[3] 2 Maccabees states that shortly before the revolt of Judas Maccabeus (2 Maccabees 8), Antiochus IV Epiphanes arrested a mother and her seven sons, and tried to force them to eat pork. When they refused, he tortured and killed the sons one by one. The narrator mentions that the mother "was the most remarkable of all, and deserves to be remembered with special honour. She watched her seven sons die in the space of a single day, yet she bore it bravely because she put her trust in the Lord."[4] Each of the sons makes a speech as he dies, and the last one says that his brothers are "dead under God's covenant of everlasting life".[5] The narrator ends by saying that the mother died, without saying whether she was executed, or died in some other way.

The Talmud tells a similar story, but with the refusal to worship an idol replacing the refusal to eat pork. Tractate Gittin 57b cites Rabbi Judah saying that "this refers to the woman and her seven sons" and the unnamed king is referred to as the "Emperor" and "Caesar". The woman commits suicide in this rendition of the story: she "also went up on to a roof and threw herself down and was killed".[6]

Other versions of the story are found in 4 Maccabees (which suggests that the woman might have thrown herself into the flames, 17:1) and Josippon (which says she fell dead on her sons' corpses[1]).

63 BCE
12,000 Jews die and many more are sent into the diaspora as a result of Pompey's conquest of the East.
59 BCE
Cicero criticizes Jews for being too influential in public assemblies. He also refers to Jews and Syrians as "races born to be slaves."[7]
38 BCE
Anti-Jewish riots erupt in Alexandria, countless Jews are killed, synagogues are defiled, Jewish leaders are publicly scourged, and the Jewish population is confined to one quarter of the city.[8][9]

First century

19 CE
Roman Emperor Tiberius expels Jews from Rome. Their expulsion is recorded by the Roman historical writers Suetonius, Josephus, and Cassius Dio.
37–41 CE
Thousands of Jews killed by mobs in the Alexandrian pogrom, as recounted by Philo of Alexandria in Flaccus.
50 CE
Jews are ordered by Roman Emperor Claudius "not to hold meetings", in the words of Cassius Dio (Roman History, 60.6.6). Claudius later expelled Jews from Rome, according to both Suetonius ("Lives of the Twelve Caesars", Claudius, Section 25.4) and Acts 18:2.
66–73 CE
The Great Jewish Revolt against the Romans is crushed by Vespasian and Titus. Titus refuses to accept a wreath of victory, because there is "no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God." (Philostratus, Vita Apollonii). The events of this period were recorded in detail by the Jewish–Roman historian Josephus. His record is largely sympathetic to the Roman point of view and it was written in Rome under Roman protection; hence it is considered a controversial source. Josephus describes the Jewish revolt as being led by "tyrants," to the detriment of the city, and he describes Titus as having "moderation" in his escalation of the Siege of Jerusalem (70).
70 CE
Over 1,000,000 Jews perish and 97,000 are taken as slaves following the destruction of the Second Temple.
73 CE
Almost all historical information on Masada is from first-century Jewish Roman historian Josephus.[10][11] A Roman governor had a legion lay siege to Masada, a mountain fortress.[11] They built a 114 m (375 ft) high assault ramp, during probably two to three months of siege, and then breached the fortress with a battering ram on 16 April.[12] According to Josephus, presumably based upon Roman commander commentaries accessible to him, when Romans entered the fortress they found its defendants had set all buildings but food storerooms ablaze and committed mass suicide or killed each other, 960 men, women, and children in total.[11] Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Chief of staff, Moshe Dayan, began having the swearing-in ceremony of Armoured Corps soldiers on top of Masada, ending with, "Masada shall not fall again.".[10]
94 CE
Fabrications of Apion in Alexandria, Egypt, including the first recorded case of blood libel. Juvenal writes anti-Jewish poetry. Josephus picks apart contemporary and old antisemitic myths in his work Against Apion.[13]
96 CE
Titus Flavius Clemens, nephew of the Roman Emperor Vespasian and supposed convert to Judaism is put to death on charges of atheism.
100 CE
Tacitus writes anti-Jewish polemic in his Histories (book 5). He reports on several old myths of ancient antisemitism (including that of the donkey's head in the Holy of Holies), but the key to his view that Jews "regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies" is his analysis of the extreme differences between monotheistic Judaism and the polytheism common throughout the Roman world.

Second century

Thousands of Jews are killed during civil unrest in Egypt, Cyprus, and Cyrenaica, as recounted by Cassius Dio.
Roman Emperor Hadrian bans circumcision, making Judaism de facto illegal.
Crushing of the Bar Kokhba revolt. According to Cassius Dio 580,000 Jews are killed. Hadrian orders the expulsion of Jews from Judea, which is merged with Galilee in order to form the province of Syria Palaestina. The purpose of this name change was to suppress the Jewish people's connection to their historic homeland (Judea / Land of Israel). (For other antisemitic actions resulting from this name change, see events of 1967 below) Although large Jewish populations remain in Samaria and Galilee, with Tiberias as the headquarters of exiled Jewish patriarchs, this is the start of the Jewish diaspora. Hadrian constructs a pagan temple to Jupiter at the site of the Temple in Jerusalem, builds Aelia Capitolina among the ruins of Jerusalem.[14]
Hadrian renames Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina and builds a Roman monument over the site of the Temple Mount. Jews are banned from visiting. Judea is renamed Palestine to suppress the Jewish connection with the land.
Earliest known accusation of Jewish deicide (the notion that Jews were held responsible for the death of Jesus), made in a sermon On the Passover, attributed to Melito of Sardis.
Apollinaris the Apologist writes two books against the Jews.

Third century

Emperor Caracalla allows all Jewish men within the Roman Empire to become full Roman citizens.
Jews in Italy face forced conversion.
Jews of Carthage are expelled.
The Jewish community of Nehardea is destroyed.

Fourth century

The Synod of Elvira bans intermarriage between Christians and Jews. Other social intercourses, such as eating together, are also forbidden.
Constantine I enacts various laws regarding the Jews: Jews are not allowed to own Christian slaves or to circumcise their slaves. Conversion of Christians to Judaism is outlawed. Congregations for religious services are restricted, but Jews are also allowed to enter the restituted Jerusalem on the anniversary of the Temple's destruction.
Jews are expelled and banned from Jerusalem.
First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea. The Christian Church separates the calculation of the date of Easter from the Jewish Passover: "It was ... declared improper to follow the custom of the Jews in the celebration of this holy festival, because, their hands having been stained with crime, the minds of these wretched men are necessarily blinded.... Let us, then, have nothing in common with the Jews, who are our adversaries. ... avoiding all contact with that evil way. ... who, after having compassed the death of the Lord, being out of their minds, are guided not by sound reason, but by an unrestrained passion, wherever their innate madness carries them. ... a people so utterly depraved. ... Therefore, this irregularity must be corrected, in order that we may no more have any thing in common with those parricides and the murderers of our Lord. ... no single point in common with the perjury of the Jews."[15][16]
Rabbah bar Nahmani is forced to flee to the forest where he dies.
Intermarriage between Christians and Jews is banned in the Roman Empire, declaring the punishment death.
Book burning of Jewish texts in Persia.
Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus. Jews rise up against the corrupt rule of Gallus. Many towns are destroyed, thousands are killed.
Constantius II institutes a law stating that any Christian who converts to Judaism will have their property confiscated.
Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate, allows the Jews to return to "Holy Jerusalem which you have for many years longed to see rebuilt" and to rebuild the Temple.
Milan Synagogue Burning.
St. Gregory of Nysa calls Jews "murders of the Lord, assassins of the prophets, rebels and detesters of God, companions of the devils, a race of vipers."
Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate, allows the Jews to return to "holy Jerusalem which you have for many years longed to see rebuilt" and to rebuild the Temple.
John Chrysostom of Antioch writes eight homilies called Adversus Judaeos (lit: Against the Judaizers). See also: Christianity and antisemitism.
A Christian mob incited by the local bishop plunders and burns down a synagogue in Callinicum. Theodosius I orders that those responsible be punished, and the synagogue is rebuilt at the Christians' expense. Ambrose of Milan insists in his letter that the whole case be dropped. He interrupts the liturgy in the emperor's presence with an ultimatum that he will not continue until the case is dropped. Theodosius complies.
The Western Roman Emperor Honorius calls Judaism superstitio indigna and confiscates gold and silver collected by the synagogues for Jerusalem.

Fifth century

Roman laws pass which prohibit Jews from setting fire to Haman, stating that they are mocking Christianity.
A Jewish uprising in Alexandria claims the lives of many Christians.[17] Bishop Cyril forces his way into the synagogue, expels the Jews (some authors estimate the numbers of Jews expelled up to 100 thousand [18][19]) and gives their property to the mob. Later, near Antioch, Jews are accused of ritual murder during Purim.[20] Christians confiscate the synagogue. Jews call it "415 C.E. Alexandria Expulsion".[21]
An edict issued by the Emperors Honorius and Theodosius II ban building new Synagogues and converting non-Jews to Judaism.
The first record of Jews being forced to convert or face expulsion. Severus, the Bishop of Menorca, claimed to have forced 540 Jews to accept Christianity upon conquering the island. The synagogue in Magona, now Port Mahon the capital of Menorca, is burned.
The monk Barsauma (not to be confused with the famous Bishop of Nisibis) gathers a group of followers and for the next three years, he destroys synagogues throughout the province of Palestine.
The final nasi of the ancient Sanhedrin Gamliel VI is executed by the Roman Empire. This subsequently ended the Jewish patriarchate.
The East Roman Emperor Theodosius II orders that all funds raised by Jews to support their schools be turned over to his treasury.
Theodosius II’s wife visits Jerusalem, and arranges for Jews to visit and pray at the ruins of the Temple Mount. This leads to Jews emigrating to Jerusalem, where some are killed after being stabbed and stoned by local monks. At the trial for the deaths the monks claimed that the stones fell from heaven and that were acquitted.
The Codex Theodosianus, the first imperial compilation of laws. Jews are prohibited from holding important positions involving money, including judicial and executive offices. The ban against building new synagogues is reinstated. The anti-Jewish statutes also apply to the Samaritans. The Code is also accepted by Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian III.
Sassanid ruler Yazdegerd II of Persia's decree abolishes the Sabbath and orders executions of Jewish leaders, including the Exilarch Mar Nuna.
Council of Vannes, Gaul prohibited the Christian clergy from participating in Jewish feasts.
Half of the Jewish population of Isfahan is put to death and their children are brought up as 'fire-worshippers' over the alleged killing of two Magi Priests.
Exilarch Huna V is executed as a result of persecution under King Peroz (Firuz) of Persia.
Antioch Synagogue burning.

Sixth century

After the Jews of Babylon revolt and gain a short period of independence, the Persian King Kobad crucifies the Exilarch Mar-Zutra II on the bridge of Mahoza.
Synagogue of Daphne is destroyed and its inhabitants are massacred by a Christian mob celebrating the result of a chariot race.
Christians are banned from participating in Jewish feasts as a result of the Council of Epaone.
Ravenna, Italy. After the local synagogues were burned down by the local mob, the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great orders the town to rebuild them at its own expense.
Byzantine Emperor Justinian the Great publishes Corpus Juris Civilis. New laws restrict citizenship to Christians. These regulations determined the status of Jews throughout the Empire for hundreds of years: Jewish civil rights restricted: "they shall enjoy no honors". The principle of Servitus Judaeorum (Servitude of the Jews) is established: the Jews cannot testify against Christians. The emperor becomes an arbiter in internal Jewish matters. The use of the Hebrew language in worship is forbidden. Shema Yisrael ("Hear, O Israel, the Lord is one"), sometimes considered the most important prayer in Judaism, is banned as a denial of the Trinity. Some Jewish communities are converted by force, their synagogues turned into churches.
Emperor Justinian rules that Jews cannot testify against Christians. Jewish liturgy is censored for being "anti-trinitarian."
Synagogue of Borion is closed and all Jewish practices are prohibited by order of Justinian.
The First Council of Clermont (of Gaul) prohibits Jews from holding public office.
The Third Council of Orléans (of Gaul) forbids Jews to employ Christian servants or possess Christian slaves. Jews are prohibited from appearing in the streets during Easter: "their appearance is an insult to Christianity". A Merovingian king Childebert approves the measure.
Jews and Samaritans of Caesarea are massacred after revolting.
Clermont, Gaul. Bishop Avitus offers Jews a choice: accept Christianity or leave Clermont. Most emigrate to Marseilles.
The Merovingians order that all Jews of the Kingdom are to be baptized.
The Council of Narbonne, Septimania, forbids Jews from chanting psalms while burying their dead. Anyone violating this law is fined 6 ounces of gold. The third Council of Toledo, held under Visigothic King Reccared, bans Jews from slave ownership and holding positions of authority, and reiterates the mutual ban on intermarriage.[22] Reccared also rules children out of such marriages to be raised as Christians.
Pope Gregory I defends the Jews against forced conversion.
The Exilarch Haninai is executed by Khosrau II for supporting Mihrevandak. This halted all forms of Jewish self-governance for over 50 years.
The entire Jewish population of Antioch is punished because a Jew violated a law.[23]
Bishop Victor of Palermo seizes the local synagogues and repurposes them into churches.[24]

Seventh century

Massacres of Jews all across the Byzantine Empire.
After many of his anti-Jewish edicts were ignored, king Sisebur prohibits Judaism. Those not baptized fled. This was the first incidence where a prohibition of Judaism affected an entire country.
Fifth Council of Paris decrees that all Jews holding military or civil positions must accept baptism, together with their families.
The Jewish revolt against Heraclius. The last serious attempt to gain Jewish autonomy in the Land of Israel prior to modern times.
Italy. The earliest referral to the Juramentum Judaeorum (the Jewish Oath): the concept that no heretic could be believed in court against a Christian. The oath became standardized throughout Europe in 1555.
After breaking their promise of Jewish autonomy in Jerusalem, the Persians forbid Jews from settling within three miles of the city.
Mohammed watches as 600 Jews are decapitated in Medina in one day.
The Council of Clichy declared that any Jew who accepts public office must convert.
93 Jews are killed in the Battle of Khaybar.
Byzantine Emperor Heraclius with his army marches into Jerusalem. Jewish inhabitants support him after his promise of amnesty. Upon his entry into Jerusalem the local priests convince him that killing Jews is a good deed. The only Jews that survived were the ones who fled to Egypt or the mountains.
Frankish King Dagobert I, encouraged by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, expels all Jews from the kingdom.
The first case of officially sanctioned forced baptism. Emperor Heraclius violates the Codex Theodosianus, which protected them from forced conversions.
Jews living in the Levant are forced to pay the Jizya as a result of the Muslim conquest of the Levant
Jews are burned at the stake in Toledo, Spain.
Jews expelled from Arabia.
The Jizya is imposed on the native Jews of Egypt, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan.
The Jews of Toledo are forced to convert or be expelled.
The Twelfth Council of Toledo, Spain orders burning of the Talmud and other "heretic" books.
Visigothic king Erwig begins his reign by enacting 28 anti-Jewish laws. He presses for the "utter extirpation of the pest of the Jews" and decrees that all converts must be registered by a parish priest, who must issue travel permits. All holidays, Christian and Jewish, must be spent in the presence of a priest to ensure piety and to prevent the backsliding.
Quinisext Council in Constantinople forbids Christians on pain of excommunication to bathe in public baths with Jews, employ a Jewish doctor or socialize with Jews.
17th Council of Toledo. King Ergica believes rumors that the Jews had conspired to ally themselves with the Muslim invaders and forces Jews to give all land, slaves and buildings bought from Christians, to his treasury. He declares that all Jewish children over the age of seven should be taken from their homes and raised as Christians.

Eighth century

Possible date for the Pact of Umar, a document that specified restrictions on Jews and Christians (dhimmi) living under Muslim rule. However, academic historians believe that this document was actually compiled at a much later date.
Caliph Omar II bans Jewish worship on the Temple Mount.[25]
Byzantine emperor Leo III forcibly converts all Jews and Montanists in the empire into mainstream Byzantine Christianity.
Archbishop of York bans Christians from eating with Jews.[26]
Empress Irena decries the practice of forced conversion against Jews.
Idriss I attacks Jewish communities, imposes high per capita taxes, and forces them to provide annual virgins for his harem for refusing to attack other Jewish communities. According to Maghrebi tradition, the Jewish tribe Ubaid Allah left and settled in Djerba.[27]

Ninth century

Abbassid Caliph Harun al-Rashid orders all Jews in the Caliphate to wear a yellow belt, with Christians to wear a blue one.
Agobard, Archbishop of Lyons, declares in his essays that Jews are accursed and demands a complete segregation of Christians and Jews. In 826 he issues a series of pamphlets to convince Emperor Louis the Pious to attack "Jewish insolence", but fails to convince the Emperor.
al-Mutawakkil made a decree ordering Dhimmi, Jews and Christians, wear garments to distinguish them from Muslims, their places of worship destroyed, demonic effigies nailed to the door, and that they be allowed little involvement government or official matters.
Ahmad ibn Tulun flattens Jewish cemeteries and replaces them with Muslim tombs.
Basil I decrees that all Byzantine Jews are to be baptized, by force if necessary.[28]
Basil I reinforces law that prohibits Jews from holding any civil or military position in Epanagoge.
Church council in Metz forbids Christians and Jews from eating together.[29]
Charles the Simple donates all Jewish owned land to the Bishop of Narbonne. There is no recourse against the action.

Tenth century

French king Charles the Simple confiscates Jewish-owned property in Narbonne and donates it to the Church.
Jews of Oria are raided by a Muslim mob during a series of attacks on Italy. At least ten rabbinical leaders and many more are taken as captives. Among those captured is 12 year old Shabbetai Donnolo, who would go on later to be a famous physician and astronomer.
Bishop Ratherius of Verona begs the town elders to expel the Jews from the city until they agree to temporarily expel them.
Romanos I Lekapenos decreed that all Jews should be forced to convert and subjugated if they refuse. This leads to the death of hundreds of Jews and the destruction of numerous synagogues.[30]
The Jewish quarter of Bari is destroyed by a mob and a number of Jews are killed.[31]
Byzantine Jews from all over the Empire flee from persecution into Khazaria. The King of Khazaria at the time, who was Jewish, subsequently cut ties with the Byzantine Empire.
Venice bans Jews from using Venetian vessels.
Entire Jewish population of Sparta is expelled after Nikon the Metanoeite says it will rid the city of a plague.[32]
A number of Jewish residents in Barcelona are killed by the Muslim leader Almanzor. All Jewish owned land is handed over to the Count of Barcelona.[33]

Eleventh century

Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ("the Mad") issues severe restrictions against Jews in the Fatimid Empire. All Jews are forced to wear a heavy wooden "golden calf" around their necks. Christians had to wear a large wooden cross and members of both groups had to wear black hats.
Caliph Abu Ali-Mansur orders the destruction of synagogues, Torah scrolls and Jewish artifacts among other non-Muslim buildings.[34]
The Jews of Ligomes are given the choice of baptism or exile.
The Abbasid Caliph Al-Qadir publishes the Baghdad Manifesto, which accuses the Fatimids of being descended from Jews, instead of being "family of the prophet."
A Muslim mob attacks a Jewish funeral procession, resulting in the arrest of 23 Jews.[35]
Pogrom against Sephardic Jews in Córdoba by a Muslim mob.[36]
One of the first known persecutions of Jews in Germany: Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor expels Jews from Mainz.
During the fall of the city, Sulayman's troops looted Córdoba and massacred citizens of the city, including many Jews. Prominent Jews in Córdoba, such as Samuel ibn Naghrela were forced to flee to the city in 1013.
The Jewish community of Kairouan, Tunisia is forced to choose between conversion and expulsion.[37]
A violent earthquake occurs, which some Greeks maintain is caused by a desecration of Jesus by the Jews. For this a number of Roman Jews are burnt at the stake.[38]
Probable date of the chronicle of Raoul Glaber. The French chronicler blamed the Jews for the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which was destroyed in 1009 by (Muslim) Caliph Al-Hakim. As a result, Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns.
Abul Kamal Tumin conquers Fez, Morocco and decimates the Jewish community, killing 6,000 Jews.
Following their conquest of the city from the Maghrawa tribe, the forces of Tamim, chief of the Zenata Berber Banu Ifran tribe, perpetrated a massacre of Jews in Fez. Fez massacre
Sixty Jews are put to death in Castrojeriz during a revolt, because the Jews were considered "property" of the kingdom by the locals.[39][40]
A Muslim mob raids the palace of the Jewish vizier and kills him after the ruler al-Mondhir is assassinated.
Exilarch Hezekiah Gaon is imprisoned and tortured to death by the Buyyids. The death of Hezekiah ended the line of the Geonim, which had begun four centuries earlier.
Council of Narbonne, France forbids Christians to live in Jewish homes.
Granada massacre: Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city. "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day."[41]
Jerusalem falls to the Seljuk Turks, lots of synagogues are destroyed and life for Jews in Jerusalem becomes much more restricted.
Council of Girona decrees Jews to pay taxes for support of the Catholic Church to the same extent as Christians.
The Jewish community of Granada, which had recovered after the attacks of 1066, attacked again at the hands of the Almoravides led by Yusuf ibn Tashfin, bringing the golden age of Jewish culture in Spain to end.
Jews are prohibited from working on Sunday or marrying Christians as a result of the Synod of Szabolcs.
The First Crusade. Three hosts of crusaders pass through several Central European cities. The third, unofficial host, led by Count Emicho, decides to attack the Jewish communities, most notably in the Rhineland, under the slogan: "Why fight Christ's enemies abroad when they are living among us?" Eimicho's host attacks the synagogue at Speyer and kills all the defenders. 800 are killed in Worms. Another 1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mainz to escape his attempt to forcibly convert them; see German Crusade, 1096. Attempts by the local bishops remained fruitless. All in all, 5,000 Jews were murdered.[42]
Jews fight side-by-side with Muslim soldiers to defend Jerusalem against the Crusaders and face massacres when it falls.[43] According to the Muslim chronicle of Ibn al-Qalanisi, "The Jews assembled in their synagogue, and the Franks burned it over their heads."[44] However, a contemporary Jewish communication does not corroborate the report that Jews were actually inside of the Synagogue when it was set on fire.[45] This letter was discovered among the Cairo Geniza collection in 1975 by historian Shelomo Dov Goitein.[46] Historians believe that it was written just two weeks after the siege, making it "the earliest account on the conquest in any language."[46] However, all sources agree that a synagogue was indeed burned during the siege.

Twelfth century

Son of Yusuf ibn Tashfin decrees the death penalty for any Jews living in Marrakesh.
Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yusuf ibn Tashfin ordered all Moroccan Jews to convert or leave.
Many Jews are massacred and their houses and synagogues are burned following a Muslim victory at the Battle of Uclés (1108). Of those murdered is Solomon ibn Farissol, the leader of the Castile community. This incident greatly impacted the Hebrew poet Judah HaLevi, and completely shifted the focus of his poetry.
Upon the death of Sviatopolk II, leader of the Kievan Rus', wide-spread riots and plundering of Jewish homes commenced.[47]
The Jewish Quarter of Kiev is destroyed by arson.
A Muslim mob in Córdoba storms into Jewish homes, takes their possessions and kills a number of them.
During the fight for succession between Matilde and Stephen (The Anarchy), the Jews of Oxford are forced to pay ransom to both sides of the conflict or their houses are to be burned.
150 Jews are killed in Ham, France.[48]
The case of William of Norwich, a contrived accusation of murder by Jews in Norwich, England.
Abd al-Mu'min gives the Jewish population of Sijilmasa the choice of converting to Islam or death. At least 150 Jews who refuse to convert are massacred.
100,000 Jews are massacred by the Almohads in Fez and 120,000 in Marrakesh.[49]
Jews are expelled from Muslim Spain.[50]
The mostly-Jewish town Lucena is captured by the Almohads. The local Jews are given the choice of Islam or death. This was the end of the Jewish community of Lucena.
The rule of the Almohads in al-Andalus. Only Jews who had converted to Christianity or Islam were allowed to live in Granada. One of the refugees was Maimonides, who settled in Fez and later in Fustat near Cairo.
Appalled by the annual practice of beating Jews during Palm Sunday, Bishop William issues an order which would excommunicate any priest who continues the practice.[51]
Forced mass conversions in Yemen.
New Almohad ruler decrees that all Jews in Fez must convert to Islam or face death. Judah ha-Kohen ibn Shushan is burnt alive for refusing, and famous Rabbi Maimonides is displaced and permanently leaves for Egypt.[52]
Harold of Gloucester is found floating in a river. The local Benedictine monks use the discovery to claim that "the child had been spirited away by the Jews on the 21st February for them to torture him to death on the night of 16th March". It established that the mythology created around William's death could be used as a template for explaining later deaths.
In Blois, France 31 Jews were burned at the stake for blood libel.
Jews of Bologna are expelled for no known reason.[53]
Following multiple church-inspired riots against the Jews of Poland, Mieszko III forbids all kinds of violence against the Jews.
King Alfonso II creates a charter which defines the status of Jews in Teruel. Jews are defined as "slaves of the king, belonging entirely to the royal treasury." The fee for killing a Jew is half of what the fee is for killing a Christian, and is to be paid directly to the king (since Jews are considered property of the crown).
The Third Lateran Council, Canon 26: Jews are forbidden to be plaintiffs or witnesses against Christians in the courts. Jews are forbidden to withhold inheritance from descendants who had accepted Christianity.
The body of a Christian girl is found near the shore. The Jews of Boppard are blamed for her death, resulting in 13 Jews being murdered.
Philip Augustus of France after four months in power, imprisons all the Jews in his lands and demands a ransom for their release.
Philip Augustus annuls all loans made by Jews to Christians and takes a percentage for himself. A year later, he confiscates all Jewish property and expels the Jews from Paris.
The Assize of Arms of 1181 orders that all weapons held by Jews must be confiscated, claiming they have no use for them. This led to the Jewish community of England being a lot more vulnerable during Anti-Jewish riots.
Jews are expelled from Orléans.
Jewish martyr Elhanan, the son of Ri is murdered for refusing to convert.[54]
The Saladin tithe. Jews are taxed 25% of their income and personal worth, while Christians are taxed 10%.
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa orders priests not to preach against Jews.
A Jewish deputation attending coronation of Richard the Lionheart was attacked by the crowd. Pogroms in London followed and spread around England.
All the Jews of Norwich, England found in their houses were slaughtered, except a few who found refuge in the castle.
57 Jews in St. Edmunds are killed in a massacre on Palm Sunday.[55]
500 Jews of York were massacred after a six-day siege by departing Crusaders, backed by a number of people indebted to Jewish money-lenders.[56]
Saladdin takes over Jerusalem from Crusaders and lifts the ban for Jews to live there.
More than 80 Jews in Bray-sur-Seine are burned at the stake after trying to execute a murderer who had killed an Israelite.[57]
After falsely being accused of ritual murder with no evidence, the daughter of Rabbi Isaac bar Asher ha-Levi is murdered, dismembered and her body parts are hung around the market place for days. Ha-Levi was killed the following day along with 8 other Jews after trying to recover what was left of his daughter’s body from the mob.
In an attempt to isolate the Jewish population economically, Christians were barred from buying food from Jews or having conversations with them under the threat of excommunication.[58]
Philip Augustus readmits Jews to Paris, only after another ransom was paid and a taxation scheme was set up to procure funds for himself. August: Saladdin's nephew al-Malik, caliph of Yemen, summons all the Jews and forcibly converts them.

Thirteenth century

13th century
Germany. Appearance of Judensau: obscene and dehumanizing imagery of Jews, ranging from etchings to Cathedral ceilings. Its popularity lasted for over 600 years.
Jewish quarter of Constantinople is burned down by crusaders during the Siege of Constantinople (1203).
Jews are expelled from villages and towns all around Spain by Muslims.[59]
Jewish homes are burned, looted, Israelites are killed and the remaining Jewish population of Halle is expelled.[60]
Béziers is stormed and its inhabitants are massacred. Among those were 200 Jews. All Jewish children who survived and didn’t flee were forcibly baptized.[61]
Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse, humiliated and forced to swear that he would implement social restrictions against Jews.
King John of England imprisoned much of the Jewish population until they paid up 66,000 marks.
Forced conversions and mass murder of the Jewish community of Toledo.
The Fourth Lateran Council headed by Pope Innocent III declares: "Jews and Saracens of both sexes in every Christian province and at all times shall be marked off in the eyes of the public from other peoples through the character of their dress." (Canon 68). See Judenhut. The Fourth Lateran Council also noted that the Jews' own law required the wearing of identifying symbols. Pope Innocent III also reiterated papal injunctions against forcible conversions, and added: "No Christian shall do the Jews any personal injury...or deprive them of their possessions...or disturb them during the celebration of their festivals...or extort money from them by threatening to exhume their dead."[62]
French noblewoman Alix de Montmorency imprisons the Jewish population of Toulouse for refusing to convert. She eventually released them all except for children under six, who were taken and adopted by Christians.
An anti-Jewish riot erupts in Erfurt, where the Jewish quarter is destroyed along with two synagogues. Around 26 Jews are killed, and others throw themselves into fire rather than be forcibly converted. Samuel of Speyer was among those martyred.[63]
Council of Oxford: Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton forbids Jews from building new synagogues, owning slaves or mixing with Christians.
Louis VIII of France prohibits his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, reversing his father's policy of seeking such debts.
The Synod of Narbonne reaffirms the anti-Semitic decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council.
Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse, heir of Raymond VI, also forced to swear that he would implement social restrictions against Jews.
Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Frederick II and the Sultan Al-Kamil of Egypt. Jews are once again banned from residing in Jerusalem.
Theodore Komnenos Doukas is defeated. Since Theodore decreed many anti-Jewish laws and seized Jewish property, he was handed over to two Jews by John Asen II to personally kill him. After having pity on him and refusing to kill Theodore, the Czar had the Jews thrown off a cliff.
Forced mass conversions in Marrakesh, over 1,000 Moroccan Jews are killed.
The Jews of Fulda, Germany were accused of ritual murder. To investigate the blood libel, Emperor Frederick II held a special conference of Jewish converts to Christianity at which the converts were questioned about Jewish ritual practice. Letters inviting prominent individuals to the conference still survive. At the conference, the converts stated unequivocally that Jews do not harm Christian children or require blood for any rituals. In 1236 the Emperor published these findings and in 1247 Pope Innocent IV, the Emperor's enemy, also denounced accusations of the ritual murder of Christian children by Jews. In 1272, the papal repudiation of the blood libel was repeated by Pope Gregory X, who also ruled that thereafter any such testimony of a Christian against a Jew could not be accepted unless it is confirmed by another Jew. Unfortunately, these proclamations from the highest sources were not effective in altering the beliefs of the Christian majority and the libels continued.[64]
Crusaders attack Jewish communities of Anjou and Poitou and attempt to baptize all the Jews. Those who resisted (est. 3,000) were slaughtered.
A Jew and a Christian fisherman get into a heated argument about prices, which turns physical. It ends when the Jew deals a devastating blow to the Gentile’s head which leads to his death. This enrages the local Christian population, who attack the Jewish quarter of Narbonne. Don Aymeric, the governor of Narbonne prevents a massacre and restores all stolen Jewish property to their rightful owner.[65][66]
Duke Jean le Roux expels Jews from Brittany.
Disputation of Paris. Pope Gregory IX puts Talmud on trial on the charges that it contains blasphemy against Jesus and Mary and attacks on the Church.
A pogrom against the Jews of Frankfurt takes place after conflicts over Jewish-Christian marriages and the enforced baptism of interfaith couples. 180 Jews are killed as a result and 24 agree to be baptized. This became known as the Judenschlacht (German for Slaughter of the Jews).
In England, first of a series of royal levies against Jewish finances, which forced the Jews to sell their debts to non-Jews at cut prices.[67]
24 cart-loads of hand-written Talmudic manuscripts burned in the streets of Paris.
James I of Aragon orders Jews to listen to conversion sermons and to attend churches. Friars are given power to enter synagogues uninvited.
The first ever accusation of Host Desecration. The entire Jewish population of Beelitz was burned at the stake after being accused of torturing Jesus and the spot it happened was named "Judenberg."
11 Jews are tortured to death following a blood libel in Kitzingen.[68]
Pope Innocent IV orders Louis IX of France to burn all Talmud copies.
Alphonse of Poitiers orders the expulsion of all Jews in Poitou.
Saragossa: death of a choirboy Saint Dominguito del Val prompts ritual murder accusation. His sainthood was revoked in the 20th century but reportedly a chapel dedicated to him still exists in the Cathedral of Saragossa.
Henry III of England introduces harsh anti-Jewish laws.[69]
Louis IX expels the Jews from France, their property and synagogues confiscated. Most move to Germany and further east, however, after a couple of years, some were readmitted back.
Henry III of England sells his rights to the Jews (regarded as royal "chattels") to his brother Richard for 5,000 marks.
The Badge of shame is imposed locally on the Italian Jews.
Mongols are defeated and Syria is brought under Mamluk rule. Anti-Jewish laws are once again decreed, and Jewish life becomes a lot more restricted in the Levant.
Jews are banned from ascending above the 7th step on the Cave of the Patriarchs. This ban would last 700 years.
Thomas Aquinas publishes Summa Contra Gentiles, a summary of Christian faith to be presented to those who reject it. The Jews who refuse to convert are regarded as "deliberately defiant" rather than "invincibly ignorant".
Disputation of Barcelona.
Pope Clement IV assigns Talmud censorship committee.
Simon de Montfort inspires massacre of Jews in London.[70]
German-Jewish convert Abraham of Augsburg publicly assails Christianity, severs the heads of crucifix figurines and is sentenced to torture and death by burning.
In a special session, the Vienna city council forces Jews to wear Pileum cornutum (a cone-shaped headdress, prevalent in many medieval illustrations of Jews). This distinctive dress is an addition to Yellow badge Jews were already forced to wear. Christians are not permitted to attend Jewish ceremonies.
Synod of Breslau orders Jews to live in a segregated quarter.
After an accusation from an old woman that the Jews had bought a Christian child from her to kill, the entire Jewish community of Pforzheim face massacres and expulsion. Rabbi Samuel ben Yaḳar ha-Levi, Rabbi Isaac ben Eliezer and Rabbi Abraham ben Gershom commit suicide to escape the cruel torture they feared.
King Edward I of England passes the Statute of the Jewry forcing Jews over the age of seven to wear an identifying yellow badge, and making usury illegal, in order to seize their assets. Scores of English Jews are arrested, 300 hanged and their property goes to the Crown. In 1280 he orders Jews to be present as Dominicans preach conversion. In 1287 he arrests heads of Jewish families and demands their communities pay ransom of 12,000 pounds.
Massacre in Fez to kill all Jews stopped by intervention of the Emir[71]
The Edict of Pope Nicholas III requires compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons.
Synod of Ofen: Christians are forbidden to sell or rent real estate to or from Jews.
John Pectin, Archbishop of Canterbury, orders all London synagogues to close and prohibits Jewish physicians from practicing on Christians.
Philip III of France causes mass migration of Jews by forbidding them to live in the small rural localities.
10 Jews are slain in Mainz after claims of blood libel.[72]
Blood libel in Munich, Germany results in the death of 68 Jews. 180 more Jews are burned alive at the synagogue.
A 16 year old boy is found dead in the Rhine. Immediately the Jews of Oberwesel are accused of killing the boy. Over 40 men, women and children were killed by rioters as a response.
Jews are arrested and accused of coin clippage. Even without evidence, the whole community is convicted and expelled.
The Jewish population of Troyes is accused of ritual murder. 13 Jewish martyrs are burned at the stake, sacrificing themselves to spare the rest of the community.[73]
104 Jews in Bonn, Germany are killed during a pogrom.[74]
Jews are expelled from Gascony and Anjou.
Edict of Expulsion: Edward I expels all Jews from England, allowing them to take only what they could carry, all the other property became the Crown's. Official reason: continued practice of usury.
A Jewish man named Jonathan and his wife are accused of stabbing the wafer to torture Jesus. They are both burned at the stake, their house is destroyed and replaced with a chapel.[75]
The Jews of Baghdad are massacred.
Philip the Fair publishes an ordinance prohibiting the Jews to settle in France.
Jewish physician and grand vizier Sa'ad al-Dawla is killed by Muslims who felt it a degradation to have a Jew placed over them. Persian Jews suffer a long-period of violent persecution by the Muslim population.
Forced conversion and expulsion of the Italian Jewish community.
Accusations of Host desecration against the German Jews. More than 140 Jewish communities face forced conversions.
During the civil war between Adolph of Nassau and Albrecht of Austria, German knight Rintfleisch claims to have received a mission from heaven to exterminate "the accursed race of the Jews". Under his leadership, the mob goes from town to town destroying Jewish communities and massacring about 100,000 Jews, often by mass burning at stake. Among 146 localities in Franconia, Bavaria and Austria are Röttingen (20 April), Würzburg (24 July), Nuremberg (1 August).[76]

Fourteenth century

Riots break out in Egypt, which are encouraged by the Mamluks. Many Jews are forcibly converted to Islam, including the entire Jewish population of Bilbeis. Many synagogues are appropriated into mosques.[77]
Philip IV of France seizes all Jewish property (except the clothes they wear) and expels them from France (approx. 100,000). His successor Louis X of France allows French Jews to return in 1315.
Jews of Sens are expelled.
Frederick II of Aragon adopts anti-Jewish laws, which require them to mark their clothes and shops with the yellow badge. Jews were also forbidden from having any relationship with Catholics.
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, a Persian Jewish convert to Islam was executed on fake charges of poisoning Öljeitü and for several days crowds carried his head around his native city of Tabriz, chanting "This is the head of the Jew who abused the name of God; may God's curse be upon him!"
Jews are expelled from Breslau.[78]
Jews are expelled from Milan during a persecution of so-called heretics.[79]
Shepherds' Crusade attacks the Jews of 120 localities in southwest France.
King Henry II of Castile forces Jews to wear Yellow badge.
Jews in central France accused of ordering lepers to poison wells. After massacre of est. 5,000 Jews, King Philip V admits they were innocent.
A Muslim mob destroys a synagogue in Damascus.[80]
King Charles IV expels Jews from France.
5,000 Jews are massacred and their houses are burned down following anti-Jewish preaching by a Franciscan friar.
Jewish martyr Aaron ben Zerah, along with his wife and four of his sons are executed.
Forced mass conversions in Baghdad
Persecutions against Jews in Franconia and Alsace led by lawless German bands, the Armleder under the highwayman Arnold von Uissigheim. Roughly 1500 Jews are killed.
The Aleinu prayer is banned in Castile.[81]
Host desecration accusations. Violence spreads to over 51 Jewish communities.
Pogroms over host desecration in Wolfsberg. The Jews are accused of stealing the bread of the Eucharist and trying to burn it. Over 70 Jews are burned at the stake and the entire Jewish community is destroyed.[82]
Pre-Easter massacres spread from Germany across Western Europe. Jews fleeing persecution are welcomed in Poland by Casimir the Great.
The citizens ask the King’s permission to confiscate the houses of the Jews for the cities benefit - he grants their request.[83]
European Jews are blamed for the plague in the Black Death persecutions. Charge laid to the Jews that they poisoned the wells. Massacres spread throughout Spain, France, Germany and Austria. More than 200 Jewish communities destroyed by violence. Many communities have been expelled and settle down in Poland.
Basel: 600 Jews burned at the stake, 140 children forcibly baptized, the remaining city's Jews expelled. The city synagogue is turned into a church and the Jewish cemetery is destroyed.
The Erfurt massacre was a massacre of around 3,000 Jews as a result of Black Death Jewish persecutions
The entire Jewish population of Speyer is destroyed. All Jews are either killed, converted, or fled. All their property and assets was confiscated. Part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions.
600 Jews are burned at the stake and the entire Jewish community of Zurich is annihilated as a part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions.
The Jewish community of Worms is completely destroyed as a result of the Black Death Jewish persecutions. Hundreds of Jews set fire to their homes to avoid the oncoming torture. Their property was seized by the locals.
Jews of Berlin are expelled and many are killed as a part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions.[84]
Jews of Breslau are expelled as part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions.[78]
60 Jews are murdered in Breslau. The city claims all property and synagogues, while the Emperor was given the cemetery and all Jewish debts.
The Jewish quarter of Cologne is destroyed by an angry mob, and the most of the community is killed. All of their property was split up between the ransackers. It was part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions.[85]
The Strasbourg massacre was a part of the Black Death persecutions, where several hundred Jews were publicly burned to death, and the rest of them were expelled. It was one of the first and worst pogroms in pre-modern history.
6,000 Jews are burned to death in Mainz as a part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions. When the angry mob charged, the Jews initially fought back, killing around 200 of their attackers.[86]
Brussels Jewish community is decimated after they are blamed for the Plague.
Church officials order the expulsion of Jews from Bulgaria for "heretical activity."
12,000 Jews are massacred throughout Spain following a bloody civil war.
Charles V of France allows Jews to return for a period of 20 years in order to pay ransom for his father John II of France, imprisoned in England. The period is later extended beyond the 20 years.
Jews are expelled from Breslau.[78]
Furious with a pogrom against Castilian Jews in Miranda de Ebro, Peter of Castile publicly boils one of the perpetrators, roasts another, and executes others with an axe.
Sephardic Jew Samuel ben Meir Abulafia is arrested and tortured to death in prison for no apparent reason. His lands are confiscated by the king.[87]
Jews of Lorraine are expelled after their presence is cited as the cause of lightning strikes which destroyed twenty-two houses.
Host desecration trials are held against the Jews of Barcelona. They were initiated by the crown prince Don Juan of Aragon.
Some 6,000 Jews are killed during a siege in Toledo.
The entire Jewish population of Brussels is massacred over allegations of host desecration. It was an end of the Hebrew community in Brussels. The event was commemorated by local Christians as the Sacrament of Miracle.
Jews from expelled from Hungary. Most of them flee south into Greece and neighboring areas.[88]
Another Host desecration trial is held against Jews in Teruel and Huesca. The person behind it, as with the previous trial, is the crown prince Don Juan of Aragon. Many Jews are tortured and burned alive publicly.[89]
16 Jews are murdered in the Mailotin Riots.
200 Jews are killed in Noerdlingen and the community ceases to exist.[90]
Wenceslaus, Holy Roman Emperor, expels the Jews from the Swabian League and Strasbourg and confiscates their property.
John of Castile reinforces previous anti-Jewish legislation.
All Jews in the Swabian League are arrested, and their books are confiscated.
18 March, a Jewish boy is accused of plotting against a priest. The mob slaughters approx. 3,000 of Prague's Jews, destroys the city's synagogue and Jewish cemetery. Wenceslaus insists that the responsibility lay with the Jews for going outside during Holy Week.
Anti-Jewish riots led by Ferrand Martinez erupt in Seville.
Led by Ferrand Martinez, countless massacres devastate the Sephardic Jewish community, especially in Castile, Valencia, Catalonia and Aragon. The Jewish quarter in Barcelona is completely destroyed. By the end of the pogroms, at least 10,000 Jews are murdered and thousands more are forcibly converted.
Pogrom against the Jews of Toledo on the Seventeenth of Tammuz. Jewish martyrs Israel Alnaqua and Judah ben Asher died at the stake together.
Over 250 Jews are massacred by a mob in Valencia.
All Jewish inhabitants of Palma, Majorca are either converted or killed.
More than 400 Jews are massacred in Barcelona.
The Jews of Damascus are accused by Muslims of setting fire to the central mosque. Although there was no evidence presented, one Jew was burned alive, the leaders of the community were tortured, and the local synagogue was appropriated into a mosque.[80]
Sicilian Jews are forced to live in Ghettos and severe persecution breaks out in Erice, Catania and Syracuse.[91]
3 November, Charles VI of France expels all Jews from France.
Jewish ghettos across Slovenia are set on fire by an anonymous mob.
A Christian woman is accused of stealing hosts and giving them to Jews for the purpose of desecration. Thirteen members of the Jewish community of Posen, along with the woman are all tortured and burned alive slowly. The community is then forced to pay a special tax every year until the 18th century.
80 Jews are murdered in Prague after a converted Jew named Peter accuses them of denigrating Christianity. A number of Jews are also jailed, including Yom-Tov Lipmann-Muhlhausen.

Fifteenth century

Two Jews are burned to death for an alleged host desecration in Glogau.[92]
Many members of the Jewish community of Salzburg and Hallein is burned alive on charged of host desecration.[89]
Blood libel accusations against the Jews of Kraków led by a fanatic priest result in anti-Jewish riots.
Oppressive legislation against Jews in Spain as an outcome of the preaching of the Dominican friar Vicente Ferrer.
Disputation of Tortosa, Spain, staged by the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII, is followed by forced mass conversions.
All Jews living in Trier are expelled.
All Jews are expelled from Lyons.
Persecutions of Jews in Vienna, known as Wiener Gesera (Vienna Edict), confiscation of their possessions, and forced conversion of Jewish children. 270 Jews burned at stake.
All Viennese Jews are expelled following persecution.
Pope Martin V issues a Bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warns the friars not to incite against the Jews. The Bull was withdrawn the following year on allegations that the Jews of Rome attained it by fraud.
The Jewish population of Zurich is exiled.[93]
Jews are expelled and banned from Cologne.
Jews are expelled from Iglau after they are accused of being in league with the Hussites.[94]
All Jews living in Bern are expelled and their property is seized.[95]
Jews are expelled from Fribourg.[96]
Pogrom in Aix-en-Provence breaks out in which 9 Jews are killed, many more are injured and 74 are forcibly converted.[97]
Council of Basel, Sessio XIX: Jews are forbidden to obtain academic degrees and to act as agents in the conclusion of contracts between Christians.
Massacre and forced conversion of Majorcan Jews.
Jews are expelled from Speyer "forever."
Jews of Zurich are expelled.[93]
Jewish inhabitants of Augsburg and Düsseldorf are expelled.
Establishment of mellahs (ghettos) in Morocco.
Synagogues and other Jewish buildings are destroyed by a riot of Glogau.[92]
Jews are expelled from Upper Bavaria.[98]
Jewish population of Utrecht are expelled.[99]
Casimir IV renews all the rights of Jews of Poland and makes his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. He revokes it in 1454 at the insistence of Bishop Zbigniew.
The Statute of Toledo introduces the rule of purity of blood discriminating Conversos. Pope Nicholas V condemns it.
Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria expels all Jews who reject baptism.
Around 40 Jews in Breslau are burned at the stake on charges of host desecration, while the head Rabbi hung himself to avoid the torture. Jewish children under 7 were stolen and forcibly baptized. The few Jews remaining were banished from Breslau.[100]
Pope Caliextus III issues a papal bull which prohibits Jews from testifying against Christians, but permits Christians to testify against a Jew.
The city council of Erfurt, Germany votes to expel the Jews.
Pope Nicholas V authorizes the establishment of the Inquisition to investigate heresy among the Marranos. See also Crypto-Judaism.
The Moroccan revolt against the Marinid dynasty, accusations against one Jewish Vizier lead to a massacre of the entire Jewish population of Fes.
Over 30 Jews in Cracow are killed by an angry mob.[101]
Many Jewish homes and plundered and a number are killed during anti-Jewish in Posen.[102]
Sultan Qaitbay forces Jews of Cairo to pay 75,000 gold pieces or be expelled. This severely impoverished the local Jewish community.[103]
The Jewish community of Bavaria are expelled, many migrate into Bulgaria.[104]
Massacres of Marranos of Valladolid, Cordova, Segovia, Ciudad Real, Spain
On Assumption day 15 August 1474, Christians wreaked brutal havoc on the Jewish dwellers of the Cartellone area of Modica. It was the first and most horrible massacre of Sicilian Jews. During the evening a number of Christians slaughtered about 360 Jews causing a total and fierce devastation in La Giudecca. They ran through the streets chanting: "Hurrah for Mary! Death to the Jews!" (Viva Maria! Morte ai Giudei!).
A student of the preacher Giovanni da Capistrano, Franciscan Bernardine of Feltre, accuses the Jews in murdering an infant, Simon. The entire community is arrested, 15 leaders are burned at the stake, the rest are expelled. In 1588, Pope Sixtus V confirmed Simon's cultus. Saint Simon was considered a martyr and patron of kidnap and torture victims for almost 500 years. In 1965, Pope Paul VI declared the episode a fraud, and decanonized Simon's sainthood.
Jews of Passau are expelled.[98]
The Spanish Inquisition is instituted.
Pogrom against the Jewish section of Arles. A number of Jews are killed and 50 men are forced to convert.
Bishop Gennady exposes the heresy of Zhidovstvuyushchiye (Judaizers) in Eastern Orthodoxy of Muscovy.
Tomás de Torquemada burns 6,000 volumes of Jewish manuscripts in Salamanca.
Jews are expelled from Geneva and not allowed to return for over 300 years.
The blood libel in La Guardia, Spain, where the alleged victim Holy Child of La Guardia became revered as a saint.
Muhammad al-Maghili orders the expulsion and murder of the Jewish community in Tlemcen.
The Jewish population of Tuat is massacred in a pogrom inspired by the preacher al-Maghili.[105]
Ferdinand II and Isabella issue General Edict on the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain: approx. 200,000. Some return to the Land of Israel. As many localities and entire countries expel their Jewish citizens (after robbing them), and others deny them entrance, the legend of the Wandering Jew, a condemned harbinger of calamity, gains popularity.
Jews of Mecklenburg, Germany are accused of stabbing a consecrated wafer. 27 Jews are burned, including two women. The spot is still called the Judenberg. All the Jews are expelled from the Duchy.
Askia Mohammad I decrees that all Jews must convert to Islam, leave or be killed. Judaism becomes illegal in Mali. This was based on the advice of Muhammad al-Maghili. The region of Timbuktu had previously been tolerant of other religions before Askia got into power.
John II of Portugal deports several hundred Jewish children to the colony of São Tomé, where most of them die.
Expulsion from Sicily: approx. 37,000.
16 Jews are burned at the stake after a blood libel in Trnava.
After a fire destroys the Jewish quarter of Cracow, the Polish king Jan I Olbracht transfers the Jews to Kazimierz, which would become the first Polish ghetto. Jews were confined to the ghetto until 1868.
Jews in Lithuania are expelled and their property is seized. They were allowed to return 8 years later.[106]
The Jews of Lecce are massacred and the Jewish quarter is burned to the ground.
The French conquer Naples and persecute the local Jews.
Jews living in Styria are expelled and all their property is confiscated.[107]
Forced conversion and expulsion of Jews from Portugal. This included many who fled Spain four years earlier.
Entire Jewish community of Graz is expelled.
Manuel I of Portugal decrees that all Jews must convert or leave Portugal without their children.
Prince Alexander of Lithuania forces most of the Jews to forfeit their property or convert. The main motivation is to cancel the debts the nobles owe to the Jews. Within a short time trade grinds to a halt and the Prince invites the Jews back in.
French Jews are expelled from most of France.
Jews of Nuremberg are expelled.
Jews are banished from Verona. The Jews who were money lenders were replaced with Christian usurers who oppressed the poor so bad that the Jews were very shortly called to return.[108]
All New Christians are prohibited from leaving Portugal, even those who were forcibly baptized.[109]

Sixteenth century

French Jews living in Provence are expelled.
Jews living in Pilsen are expelled on charges of host desecration.[110]
Several Jewish scholars are burned at the stake for proselytizing in Moscow.[111]
Ten České Budějovice Jews are tortured and executed after being accused of killing a Christian girl; later, on his deathbed, a shepherd confesses to fabricating the accusation.
A marrano expresses his doubts about miracle visions at St. Dominics Church in Lisbon, Portugal. The crowd, led by Dominican monks, kills him, then ransacks Jewish houses and slaughters any Jew they could find. The countrymen hear about the massacre and join in. Over 2,000 marranos killed in three days.
A converted Jew Johannes Pfefferkorn receives authority of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor to destroy the Talmud and other Jewish religious books, except the Hebrew Bible, in Frankfurt.
Forty Jews are executed in Brandenburg, Germany for allegedly desecrating the host; remainder expelled. 23 November. Less-wealthy Jews expelled from Naples; remainder heavily taxed. 38 Jews burned at the stake in Berlin.
Spanish gain control of Calabria and expel all Jews and New Christians.[112]
Spain gains control of Naples and expels the Jewish population.
The officials of Conegliano try to expel the Jewish population but are unsuccessful.[113]
Eight Roman Catholic converts from Judaism burned at the stake for allegedly reverting.
Most Apulian Jews are either expelled or are tortured to death. Jewish property is seized and Synagogues are replaced with Catholic Churches.
The Jewish population of Mittelberg is accused of host desecration.
Jews are expelled from Laibach.[114]
Jews are expelled from the city of Genoa, but are allowed back in a year later.[115]
Emperor Maximillian expels Jews from Ljubljana.[116]
The first ghetto is established, on one of the islands in Venice.
Jews are beaten, raped and killed in Hebron, as their homes and businesses are looted and pillaged.
The Jews of Safed is attacked by Mamluk forces and local Arabs. Many Jews are killed and their homes are plundered.
The Jewish community of Ratisbon is expelled. The synagogue is destroyed and replaced with a chapel. Thousands of Jewish gravestones are taken and used for buildings.
Martin Luther leads Protestant Reformation and challenges the doctrine of Servitus Judaeorum "... to deal kindly with the Jews and to instruct them to come over to us". 21 February. All Jews expelled from Ratisbon/Regensburg.
Pope Leo X allows the Jews to print the Talmud in Venice.
The conquest of Cranganore by the Portuguese leads to the complete destruction of the local Jewish community. Most refugees fled to Cochin.[117]
Mexico bans immigration from those who can’t prove four generations of Catholic ancestry.[118]
Jews are expelled from Hungary, Croatia, and Slovakia following the Battle of Mohács.
Jews are ordered to leave Florence, but the edict is soon rescinded.
Three judaizers are burned at the stake in Mexico City's first auto da fe.
30 Jewish men, women, and children are burned at the stake in Pezinok.[119]
Solomon Molcho is burned at the stake for refusing to return to Catholicism after reverting to Judaism.
After Spanish troops capture Tunis all the local Jews are sold into slavery.
Jews are expelled from Nauheim.[120]
Katarzyna Weiglowa, a Roman Catholic woman from the Kingdom of Poland who converted to Judaism is burned at the stake in Kraków under the charge of apostasy for refusing to call Jesus Christ the Son of God. She is regarded by Jews (among others) as a martyr.
All Jews are banished from Prague.
Moses Fishel of Cracow is accused of proselytizing and dies a martyr.
Jews are exiled from Basel.[121]
Jeronimo Diaz, a New Christian physician, is burned at the stake for holding heretical opinions in Goa, India.[122]
In his pamphlet On the Jews and Their Lies Martin Luther advocates an eight-point plan to get rid of the Jews as a distinct group either by religious conversion or by expulsion:
"...set fire to their synagogues or schools..."
"...their houses also be razed and destroyed..."
"...their prayer books and Talmudic writings... be taken from them..."
"...their rabbis be forbidden to teach henceforth on pain of loss of life and limb..."
"...safe-conduct on the highways be abolished completely for the Jews..."
"...usury be prohibited to them, and that all cash and treasure of silver and gold be taken from them..." and "Such money should now be used in ... the following [way]... Whenever a Jew is sincerely converted, he should be handed [certain amount]..."
"...young, strong Jews and Jewesses [should]... earn their bread in the sweat of their brow..."
"If we wish to wash our hands of the Jews' blasphemy and not share in their guilt, we have to part company with them. They must be driven from our country" and "we must drive them out like mad dogs."
Luther "got the Jews expelled from Saxony in 1537, and in the 1540s he drove them from many German towns; he tried unsuccessfully to get the elector to expel them from Brandenburg in 1543. His followers continued to agitate against the Jews there: they sacked the Berlin synagogue in 1572 and the following year finally got their way, the Jews being banned from the entire country."[123] (See also Martin Luther and the Jews)
Martin Luther's sermon Admonition against the Jews contains accusations of ritual murder, black magic, and poisoning of wells. Luther recognizes no obligation to protect the Jews.
Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in or even enter his kingdom because they "bring about great evil" (quoting his response to request by Polish king Sigismund II).
10 out of the 30 Jews living in Asolo are killed and their houses are robbed.[124]
Dr. Joseph Hacohen is chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine; soon all Jews are expelled.
Pope Julius III forbids Talmud printing and orders burning of any copy found. Rome's Inquisitor-General, Cardinal Carafa (later Pope Paul IV) has Talmud publicly burnt in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy. About 12,000 copies were destroyed.
Cornelio da Montalcino, a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome.
In Papal Bull Cum nimis absurdum, Pope Paul IV writes: "It appears utterly absurd and impermissible that the Jews, whom God has condemned to eternal slavery for their guilt, should enjoy our Christian love." He renews anti-Jewish legislation and installs a locked nightly ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forces Jewish males to wear a yellow hat, females – yellow kerchief. Owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians is forbidden. It also limits Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
The Martyrs of 1555. 25 Jews in Ancona are hung or burned at the stake for refusing to convert to Christianity as a result of Pope Paul IV’s Bull of 1555.
A rumor is sent around that a poor woman in Sokhachev named Dorothy sold Jews the holy wafer received by her during communion, and that it was stabbed until it bled. The Bishop of Khelm accuses the local Jews, and eventually three Jews along with Dorothy Lazhentzka are arrested, put on the rack, and sentenced to death on charges of host desecration.[125] They were burned at the stake. Before their death, the martyred Jews made a declaration:

"We have never stabbed the host, because we do not believe that the host is the Divine body, knowing that God has no body nor blood. We believe, as did our forefathers, that the Messiah is not God, but His messenger. We also know from experience that there can be no blood in flour."

Jews are temporarily banished from Prague.
Recanati, Italy: a baptized Jew Joseph Paul More enters synagogue on Yom Kippur under the protection of Pope Paul IV and tries to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicts him. Soon after, the Jews are expelled from Recanati.
Pope Pius IV allows Talmud on conditions that it is printed by a Christian and the text is censored.
The Goa Inquisition begins.
Ferdinand I takes an oath to expel the Jews. Mordechai Zemach runs to Rome and convinces Pope Pius IV to cancel the decree.
Russian troops take Polotsk from Lithuania, Jews are given ultimatum: embrace Russian Orthodox Church or die. Around 300 Jewish men, women and children were thrown into ice holes of Dvina river.
Brest-Litovsk: the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector is accused of killing the family's Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and executed in line with the law. King Sigismund II of Poland forbids future charges of ritual murder, calling them groundless.
Jews are temporarily banished from Prague.
Antonio Ghislieri elected and, as Pope Pius V, reinstates the harsh anti-Jewish laws of Pope Paul IV. In 1569 he expels Jews dwelling outside of the ghettos of Rome, Ancona, and Avignon from the Papal States, thus ensuring that they remain city-dwellers.
Jews are allowed to live in France.
Pope Pius V expels all the Jews of Bologna. He then gave their cemetery away and commended all Jewish gravestones to be destroyed.[126]
Pope Pius V issues the Bull Hebraeorum gens sola which orders the expulsion of all Jews who refuse to convert.
Jews in Berlin are forced to leave and their property is confiscated.[84]
The Mexican Inquisition begins.
First auto-da-fé in Mexico.
Pope Gregory XIII issues a Bull which prohibits the use of Jewish doctors.
Three Portuguese conversos are burned at the stake in Rome.[127]
Pope Sixtus V forbids printing of the Talmud.
Jewish quarter of Mikulov (Nikolsburg) burns to ground and 15 people die while Christians watch or pillage. King Philip II of Spain orders expulsion of Jews from Lombardy. His order is ignored by local authorities until 1597, when 72 Jewish families are forced into exile.
Philip II, King of Spain, banished all Jews from the duchy of Milan.[128]
Esther Chiera is executed with one of her sons by the Sultan Murad III’s calvary.[129]
Pope Clement VIII confirms the Papal bull of Paul III that expels Jews from Papal states except ghettos in Rome and Ancona and issues Caeca et obdurata ("Blind Obstinacy"): "All the world suffers from the usury of the Jews, their monopolies and deceit. ... Then as now Jews have to be reminded intermittently anew that they were enjoying rights in any country since they left Palestine and the Arabian desert, and subsequently their ethical and moral doctrines as well as their deeds rightly deserve to be exposed to criticism in whatever country they happen to live."
At least 900 are expelled from Bologna.[126]
10 people are accused of practicing Judaism in Lima, Peru. Four of them are released and one named Francisco Rodríguez, is burned alive.[130]
Francisca Nuñez de Carabajal was a Marrana (Jewish convert to Christianity) in New Spain executed by the Inquisition for "judaizing" in 1596. One of her children, Isabel, in her twenties at the time, was tortured until she implicated the whole of the Carabajal family. The whole family was forced to confess and abjure at a public auto-da-fé, celebrated on Saturday, 24 February 1590. Luis de Carabajal the younger (one of Francisca's sons), along with Francisca and four of her daughters, was condemned to perpetual imprisonment, and another one of Francisca's sons, Baltasar, who had fled upon the first warning of danger, was, along with his deceased father Francisco Rodriguez de Matos, burnt in effigy. In January, 1595, Francisca and her children were accused of a relapse into Judaism and convicted. During their imprisonment they were tempted to communicate with one another on Spanish pear seeds, on which they wrote touching messages of encouragement to remain true to their faith. At the resulting auto-da-fé, Francisca and her children Isabel, Catalina, Leonor, and Luis, died at the stake, together with Manuel Diaz, Beatriz Enriquez, Diego Enriquez, and Manuel de Lucena. Of her other children, Mariana, who lost her reason for a time, was tried and put to death at an auto-da-fé held in Mexico City on 25 March 1601; Anica, the youngest child, being "reconciled" at the same time.
3 Jews in Lublin are brutally tortured and executed by quartering, after a Christian boy is found in a nearby swamp.[131]

Seventeenth century

14 Judaizers are punished in Lima, Peru.[130]
Frei Diogo da Assumpcão, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, burned alive in Lisbon.
16 Judaizers are arrested in Lima, Peru.[130]
The Jesuit order forbids admission to anyone descended from Jews to the fifth generation, a restriction lifted in the 20th century. Three years later Pope Paul V applies the rule throughout the Church, but his successor revokes it.
The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in Hamburg on the condition there is no public worship.
Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the "new Haman of the Jews", leads a raid on Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community.
King Louis XIII of France decrees that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death.
The Guild led by Dr. Chemnitz, "non-violently" forced the Jews from Worms.
Jesuits arrive in Grodno and accuse the Jews of host desecration and blood libel.[106]
Anti-semitic pamphlet Mirror of the Polish Crown is published by professor Sebastian Miczyński. It accuses the Jews of murder, sacrileges, witchcraft, and urges their expulsion. It would go on to inspire anti-Jewish riots across Poland.
Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increases persecution against the Jews, forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. Many keep practicing Judaism in secret.
King Christian IV invites Jews to come and live in Denmark.
Ghetto established in Ferrara, Italy.
Christian theologian Antonio Homem is burned at the stake for pursuing Judaism.
Jews of Vienna forced to live in a ghetto in Leopoldstadt.
Roman Jewish mistress of the son of the duke of Parma is burned alive.[132]
Jewish merchant Moses the Braider is burned alive after being accused of host desecration.
Due to awful conditions in the Jewish Ghetto of Padua, 421 out of the 721 Jews living in the ghetto perish.[133]
King Ladislaus IV of Poland forbids antisemitic books and printings.
Shortly after Miguel Rodriguez is discovered holding onto Jewish rites, an Auto-da-fé is held in the presence of the King and Queen. Miguel and his wife Isabel Alvarez, and 5 others are burned alive publicly.[134]
Jewish-convert and martyr Nicolas Antoine is burned at the stake for heresy.
Jews are banned from Radom.[135]
Anti-Jewish riots take place in Vilna.
Four Jews are publicly tortured and executed in Kraków.
Over 60 Judaizers are burned at the stake at an Auto-da-fé in Lima, Peru. Among those martyred was physician Francisco Maldonado de Silva.
Two Roman Jewish children are forcibly baptized by Pope Urban VIII.[136]
Jews of Lenchitza are accused of ritual murder after a young child is found dead in the woods. The blame falls on the Jews after a local gentile named Foma confesses to the crime then says he had been coerced into doing it by the Jews. Despite the lack of evidence, two Jewish elders named Meyer and Lazar are arrested and tortured, and eventually quartered publicly.[137]
Jewish martyr Judah the Believer is burned at the stake as he recites prayers in Hebrew.
Jewish martyr Isaac de Castro Tartas is burned at the stake while he recites the Shema along with 6 other Jews.[138]
The Ukrainian Cossacks led by Bohdan Chmielnicki massacre about 100,000 Jews and similar number of Polish nobles, 300 Jewish communities destroyed.
Largest Auto-da-fé in the New World. 109 victims, 13 were burned alive and 57 in effigy.[139]
Oliver Cromwell readmits Jews to England.
All Jews are expelled from Isfahan because of the common belief of their impurity. The ones who don't are forced to convert to Islam.
Jews throughout Iran (including 7,000 in Kashan alone) are forced to convert to Islam as a result of persecutions by Abbas II of Persia.[140]
Sephardic poet Antonio Enríquez Gómez is publicly burned in effigy in Seville.[141]
Two Christian Janissaries accuse the Jews of Istanbul of killing a child who had actually been killed by his own father. After killing his own son, he threw his body onto the Jewish quarter in order to implicate the Jews in the crime. Once the Grand Vizier learned the facts of the case from his spies stationed in the Greek quarter, he informed the Sultan and the Janissaries were put to death. 20 Jews were killed in total by the Greek mobs.[142]
1664 May
Jews of Lemberg (now Lvov) ghetto organize self-defense against impending assault by students of Jesuit seminary and Cathedral school. The militia sent by the officials to restore order, instead joined the attackers. About 100 Jews killed.
The majority of Jews in Oran are expelled.[143]
Jews expelled from Vienna.
Raphael Levy is burned at the stake over blood libel. After being offered a chance to convert and live, he declared that he had lived a Jew and would die a Jew.
The Exile of Mawza. It is considered the single most traumatic event experienced collectively by the Jews of Yemen. All Jews living in nearly all cities and towns throughout Yemen were banished by decree of the king, Imām al-Mahdi Ahmad, and sent to a dry and barren region of the country named Mawza to withstand their fate or to die. Only a few communities who lived in the far eastern quarters of Yemen were spared this fate by virtue of their Arab patrons who refused to obey the King’s orders. Many would die along the route and while confined to the hot and arid conditions of this forbidding terrain.
Auto-da-fé in Madrid.
Mob attacks against Jews in Vilna. It was condemned by King John Sobieski, who ordered the punishment of the guilty.
Largest trial against alleged Judaizers in Lisbon, Portugal. 117 were tried in 3 days.
Hungarian rebels known as Kuruc rushes into the town of Uherský Brod, massacring the majority of it’s Jewish inhabitants. Most of the victims were recent refugees who were expelled from Vienna in 1670. One of the Hebrews killed by the mob was Jewish historian Nathan ben Moses Hannover, who was a survivor of the Chmielnicki massacres. Most of the survivors fled to Upper Hungary.
Attack on the Jewish ghetto of Buda.[144]
Only 500 Jews survive after Austrian sieged the city of Buda. Half of them are sold into slavery.[144][145]
Worms is invaded by the French and the Jewish quarter is reduced to ashes.
The Jewish Ghetto of Prague is destroyed by French troops. After it was over 318 houses, 11 synagogues, and 150 Jews were dead.[146]
219 people are convicted of being Jewish in Palma, Majorca. 37 of them are burned to death. Among those martyred is Raphael and his sister Catalina Benito, who although declaring she wanted to live, jumped right into the flames rather than to be baptized.[147][148]
A number of Marrano Jews are burned alive in Évora, Portugal.
A female child is found dead at a church in Sandomierz. The mother of the child first said she placed her body in the church because she could not afford a burial, but after torture accused the Jewish leader Aaron Berek of the local community of murdering her daughter. The mother and Berek were sentenced the death.[149]
A mob attacks the Jewish Quarter of Bamberg but runs away after one Jew stops them by pouring baskets of ripe plums on the attackers. The event is still commemorated on the 29th of Nisan as the Zwetschgen-Ta’anit (Prune-Fest).[150]

Eighteenth century

The Aleinu prayer is prohibited in most of Germany.
After a plague hits Algeria which pushes the Jewish community into poverty, the local ruler decides the plague was caused by the Jews and orders their expulsion. Property is confiscated, synagogues are destroyed, until a sum is paid which further impoverishes the Jews of Algiers.[151]
Johann Andreas Eisenmenger writes his Entdecktes Judenthum ("Judaism Unmasked"), a work denouncing Judaism and which had a formative influence on modern antisemitic polemics.
Blood libel in Sandomierz and expulsion of the town's Jews.
Elector Max Emanuel orders the deportation of all Jews living in Bavaria.[152]
All Jews living in Gibraltar are expelled.
The last Jews of Carniola, Styria and Carinthia are expelled.
Arab creditors set fire to an Ashkenazi synagogue, fed up with debts. Ashkenazic Jews are banned from Jerusalem along with anyone who looks like an Ashkenazi Jew. Some Ashkenazim dressed up like Sephardic Jews in order to fool the authorities.[153]
Maria Barbara Carillo was burned at the stake for heresy during the Spanish Inquisition. She was executed at the age of 95 or 96[154] and is the oldest person known to have been executed at the instigation of the Inquisition.[155] Carillo was sentenced to death for heresy for returning to her faith in Judaism.
Jews of Radom are exiled.[135]
Edict of Catherine I of Russia: "The Jews... who are found in Ukraine and in other Russian provinces are to be expelled at once beyond the frontiers of Russia."
1736: The Haidamaks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews.
María Francisca Ana de Castro, called La bella toledana, a Spanish immigrant to Peru, was arrested in 1726, accused of "judaizing" (being a practicing Jew). She was burned at the stake after an auto de fe in 1736. This event was a major spectacle in Lima, but it raised questions about possible irregular procedures and corruption within the Inquisition.
Blood libel in Jarosław leads to Jews being tortured, some commit suicide to stop the torture and some were tortured until they are dead.[156]
Elizabeth of Russia issues a decree of expulsion of all the Jews out of Russian Empire. Her resolution to the Senate's appeal regarding harm to the trade: "I don't desire any profits from the enemies of Christ". One of the deportees is Antonio Ribera Sanchez, her own personal physician and the head of army's medical dept.
The Russians gain control of Riga and all local Jews are expelled.[157]
Frederick II The Great (a "heroic genius", according to Hitler) limits Breslau to ten "protected" Jewish families, on the grounds that otherwise they will "transform it into complete Jerusalem". He encourages this practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issues Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft: "protected" Jews had an alternative to "either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin" (Simon Dubnow).
Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa orders: "... no Jew is to be tolerated in our inherited duchy of Bohemia" by the end of Feb. 1745. In December 1748 she reverses her position, on condition that Jews pay for readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld (queen's money). In 1752 she introduces the law limiting each Jewish family to one son.
The city of Radom bans Jews from entering.[135]
The Jewish community of Kaunas is expelled.
Jeronimo Jose Ramos, a merchant from Braganza, is burned at the stake for being secretly Jewish.
Several Jews from Alsace are executed after being accused of host desecration.
The Jews of Kaunas are expelled after anti-Jewish riots.[158]
Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews citizenship stating "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony."
All but 6 Jews are expelled from Toruń.[159]
Haidamaks massacre the Jews of Uman, Poland.
Pope Pius VI issues a severe Editto sopra gli ebrei (Edict concerning the Jews). Previously lifted restrictions are reimposed, Judaism is suppressed.
The Jewish community of Basra is massacred.[160]
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II abolishes most of persecution practices in Toleranzpatent on condition that Yiddish and Hebrew are eliminated from public records and judicial autonomy is annulled. Judaism is branded "quintessence of foolishness and nonsense". Moses Mendelssohn writes: "Such a tolerance... is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution".
The Sultan expels the Moroccan Jews for failing to pay an exorbitant ransom.[161]
Ali Burzi Pasha murders hundreds of Libyan Jews.[162]
Jews are expelled from Jedda, most of them flee to Yemen.[163]
Yazid becomes the Sultan of Morocco and immediately orders troops to massacre and plunder the Jewish quarter of Tétouan.
The Touro Synagogue's warden, Moses Seixas, wrote to George Washington, expressing his support for Washington's administration and good wishes for him. Washington sent a letter in response, which read in part:

"... the Government of the United States ... gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance. ... May the children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and figtree, and there shall be none to make him afraid. May the father of all mercies scatter light and not darkness in our paths, and make us all in our several vocations useful here, and in his own due time and way everlastingly happy."

Letter of George Washington to the Hebrew Congregation in Newport, Rhode Island[164]

There is an annual event reading Washington's letter, and speakers at the annual event have included Supreme Court Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Elena Kagan;[165] and Brown University Presidents Ruth Simmons[166] and Christina Paxson.[167]

Eleazer Solomon is quartered for the alleged murder of a Christian girl in Grodno.
Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco.
Catherine II of Russia confines Jews to the Pale of Settlement and imposes them with double taxes.[168]
Napoleon calls for the end of Jewish segregation, ghettoization and the denial of equal rights.

Nineteenth century

200-500 Algerian Jews are massacred in what was dubbed the Black Sabbath massacre.[151]
Head of the Jewish community of Algiers David Bacri is decapitated by the Dey Hadj Ali.
Eight Jews are burned at the stake in Algiers.
Pope Pius VII reestablishes the ghetto in Rome after the defeat of Napoleon.
Turks from Algiers attack Constantine, massacre and pillage Jewish homes, and abduct 17 young Jewish girls whom they bring to their commander.[169]
A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighboring countries: Denmark, Latvia and Bohemia known as Hep-Hep riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany.
Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia: Jewish boys under 18 years of age, known as the Cantonists, were placed in preparatory military training establishments for 25 years. Cantonists were encouraged and sometimes forced to baptize.
Massacre of the Jewish community of Baghdad.
The Persian Jewish population of Tabriz are massacred.
The Jews of Shiraz are forced to convert to Islam.
Clemens Brentano published The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ According to the Meditations of Anne Catherine Emmerich. The "Dolorous Passion" is claimed to reveal a "clear antisemitic strain throughout",[170] with Brentano writing that Emmerich believed that "Jews ... strangled Christian children and used their blood for all sorts of suspicious and diabolical practices."[171]
The 1834 looting of Safed was a month-long attack on the Jewish population of Safed by local Arab and Druze villagers. It was full of large scale looting, as well as the killing and raping of Jews and the destruction of many homes and synagogues. Before the attacks Jews made up over 50% of the population, but a lot of them fled to nearby cities which reduced their presence drastically.
Jewish heroine and martyr Sol Hachuel is publicly decapitated at 17 years old in Fez, Morocco. She is executed for refusing to convert to Islam.
Oppressive constitution for the Jews issued by Czar Nicholas I of Russia.
The 1838 Druze attack on Safed was a plunder of the Jewish community of Safed by the local Druze during the Druze revolt
40+ Persian Jews are killed and the entire Jewish community of Mashhad is forced to convert to Islam in the Allahdad. A lot of them practiced Judaism in secret, which led to the Mashhadi Jews, whom today number in the thousands.
The Damascus affair: false accusations cause arrests and atrocities, culminating in the seizure of sixty-three Jewish children and attacks on Jewish communities throughout the Middle East.
Karl Marx praises Bruno Bauer's essays containing demands that the Jews abandon Judaism, and publishes his work On the Jewish Question: "What is the worldly cult of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly god? Money... Money is the jealous God of Israel, besides which no other god may exist... The god of the Jews has been secularized and has become the god of this world", "In the final analysis, the emancipation of the Jews is the emancipation of mankind from Judaism." This probably led to the antisemitic feeling within communism.
Das Judenthum in der Musik (German for "Jewishness in Music", but normally translated Judaism in Music; spelled after its first publications, according to modern German spelling practice, as ‘Judentum’), is an essay by Richard Wagner which attacks Jews in general and the composers Giacomo Meyerbeer and Felix Mendelssohn in particular. It was published under a pseudonym in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (NZM) of Leipzig in September 1850 and was reissued in a greatly expanded version under Wagner’s name in 1869. It is regarded by some as an important landmark in the history of German antisemitism.
Blood libels in Saratov and throughout Russia.
Edgardo Mortara, a six-year-old Jewish boy whom a maid had baptised during an illness, is taken from his parents in Bologna, an episode which aroused universal indignation in liberal circles.
The Jews of Hamadan are accused of mocking the Ta'zieh ceremonies for Imam Husain, several of them are fined and some have their ears and noses cut off as punishment.[172]
During the American Civil War General Grant issues General Order № 11 (1862), ordering all Jews out of his military district, suspecting them of pro-Confederate sympathy. President Lincoln directs him to rescind the order. Polish Jews are given equal rights. Old privileges forbidding Jews to settle in some Polish cities are abolished.
A Jew in Hamadan is lynched by a Muslim mob, and many others are severely injured after being accused of insulting the Prophet Mohammad.[173]
At least 500 Moroccan Jews are massacred in Marrakech and Fez.
The Jews of Barforush are forcibly converted to Islam. When they are allowed to revert back to Judaism thanks to French and British ambassadors, a Muslim mob kills 18 Jews, burning two of them alive.[174][175]
Samuel Bierfield [?-15 August 1868] is believed to be the first Jew lynched in the United States. Bierfield and his African-American clerk, Lawrence Bowman, were apprehended in Bierfield's store in Franklin, Tennessee and fatally shot by a group of masked men believed to belong to the Ku Klux Klan, on 15 August 1868. No one was ever convicted of the crime, however.[176][177][178]
18 Tunisian Jews are killed in a pogrom and an Arab mob loots Jewish homes and stores, burns synagogues, on Jerba Island.
The 35,000 Jews living in Algeria are granted French citizenship as a result of the Crémieux Decree. This leads to a rise of anti-Semitism in Algeria and across the Middle East.
Speech of Pope Pius IX in regard to Jews: "of these dogs, there are too many of them at present in Rome, and we hear them howling in the streets, and they are disturbing us in all places."
The Southern Baptist Convention passed a "Resolution On Anti-Semitism" stating, "RESOLVED, That we do gratefully remember this day our unspeakable indebtedness to the seed of Abraham, and devoutly recognize their peculiar claims upon the sympathies and prayers of all Gentile Christians, and we hereby record our earnest desire to partake in the glorious work of hastening the day when the superscription of the Cross shall be the confession of all Israel 'Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews'."[179]
20 Jews are killed by a Muslim mob in Demnat, Morocco.
Adolf Stoecker, German antisemitic preacher and politician, founds the Christian Social Party, which marks the beginning of the political antisemitic movement in Germany.
9 Jews in Kutaisi are accused of ritual murder, and eventually are tried and found not guilty.[180]
Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian and politician, justifies the antisemitic campaigns in Germany, bringing antisemitism into learned circles.
Wilhelm Marr coins the term Anti-Semitism to distinguish himself from religious Anti-Judaism.
Pogrom against the Jews in Tlemcen, Algeria.[181]
Pogroms sweep southern Russia, propelling mass Jewish emigration from the Pale of Settlement: about 2 million Russian Jews emigrated in period 1880–1924, many of them to the United States (until the National Origins Quota of 1924 and Immigration Act of 1924 largely halted immigration to the U.S. from Eastern Europe and Russia). The Russian word "pogrom" becomes international.
Jewish population of Algiers is attacked by a Muslim mob.[182]
The Tiszaeszlár blood libel in Hungary arouses public opinion throughout Europe.
First International Anti-Jewish Congress convenes at Dresden, Germany.
A series of "temporary laws" by Tsar Alexander III of Russia (the May Laws), which adopted a systematic policy of discrimination, with the object of removing the Jews from their economic and public positions, in order to "cause one-third of the Jews to emigrate, one-third to accept baptism and one-third to starve" (according to a remark attributed to Konstantin Pobedonostsev)
Russia introduces measures to limit Jews access to education, known as the quota.
Blood libel in Xanten, Germany.
Expulsion of 20,000 Jews from Moscow, Russia. The Congress of the United States eases immigration restrictions for Jews from the Russian Empire. (Webster-Campster report)
Leading Muslims in Jerusalem asked the Ottoman authorities in Constantinople to prohibit the entry of Jews arriving from Russia.
Mulla Abdullah issues a fatwa to kill all the Jews of Hamadan if they refuse to abide by Jewish restrictions. The local Persian Jews were later ordered to become Muslims or face death.[183]
Two Persian Jews go out to sell merchandise and end up killed with all of their property stolen. Their relatives went out to search for the bodies and when they found them, they were killed by the same villagers. Even after many attempts to plea for their, the governor of Savojbolagh County paid them no mind.[173]
Justinas Bonaventure Pranaitis writes The Talmud Unmasked an antisemitic and misleading inaccurate anti-Talmudic work.
Karl Lueger establishes antisemitic Christian Social Party and becomes the Mayor of Vienna in 1897.
The Dreyfus Affair in France. In 1898 Émile Zola publishes open letter J'accuse!
A. C. Cuza organizes the Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest, Romania.
Captain Alfred Dreyfus being dishonorably discharged in France.
Synagogues and Jewish homes are pillaged in Oran.[184]
Synagogues are ransacked and Jews are murdered in Tripolitania.
Violent anti-Jewish riots erupt in Algiers.[184]
Houston Stewart Chamberlain, racist and antisemitic author, publishes his Die Grundlagen des 19 Jahrhunderts which later became a basis of National-Socialist ideology.
Blood libel in Bohemia (the Hilsner case).

Twentieth century

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Roman Catholic Church adhered to a distinction between "good antisemitism" and "bad antisemitism". The "bad" kind promoted hatred of Jews because of their descent. This was considered un-Christian because the Christian message was intended for all of humanity regardless of ethnicity; anyone could become a Christian. The "good" kind criticized alleged Jewish conspiracies to control newspapers, banks, and other institutions, to care only about accumulation of wealth, etc. Many Catholic bishops wrote articles criticizing Jews on such grounds, and, when accused of promoting hatred of Jews, would remind people that they condemned the "bad" kind of antisemitism.[185]

The Kishinev pogrom: 49 Jews murdered.
The first publication of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion hoax in St. Petersburg, Russia (by Pavel Krushevan).
The Limerick boycott was an economic boycott waged against the small Jewish community in Limerick, Ireland. It was accompanied by a number of assaults, stone throwing and intimidation, which caused many Jews to leave the city.
Pogrom in Yekaterinoslav
The 1905 Kiev pogrom was a massacre of 100 Jews.
Alfred Dreyfus was exonerated and reinstated as a major in the French Army.
Over 60 Jews in the Mellah of Casablanca are killed in a pogrom by Kabyle Muslims. Many more were wounded, and a large number of women and children were carried off.[186]
Salomon Reinach and Florence Simmonds refer to "this new antisemitism, masquerading as patriotism, which was first propagated at Berlin by the court chaplain Stöcker, with the connivance of Bismarck."[187] Similarly, Peter N. Stearns comments that "the ideology behind the new anti-Semitism [in Germany] was more racist than religious."[188]
The 1910 Shiraz blood libel was a pogrom of the Jewish quarter in Shiraz, Iran. It was sparked by accusations that the Jews had ritually murdered a Muslim girl. By the end of the pogrom, 12 Jews were killed, 50 or so were wounded, and 6,000 were robbed of all their possessions.
The Tritl, or the 1912 Fez massacre left 42 Moroccan Jews dead.
The Blood libel trial of Menahem Mendel Beilis in Kiev.
World War I prompts the expulsion of 250,000 Jews from Western Russia.
The Leo Frank trial and lynching in Atlanta, Georgia turns the spotlight on antisemitism in the United States and leads to the founding of the Anti-Defamation League.
Attacked for being revolutionaries or counter-revolutionaries, unpatriotic pacifists or warmongers, religious zealots or godless atheists, capitalist exploiters or bourgeois profiteers, masses of Jewish civilians (by various estimates 70,000 to 250,000, the number of orphans exceeded 300,000) were murdered in pogroms in the course of Russian Civil War.
3,000–10,000 Mountain Jews are killed during March Days.
The Lwów pogrom of 1918 was an attack on the Jewish population of Lwów that took place on 21–23 November 1918 during the Polish–Ukrainian War. After the pogrom was over, an estimated 52–150 Jewish residents were killed and hundreds were injured.
The Kiev pogroms of 1919 were a series of pogroms in various places around Kiev carried out by White Volunteer Army troops. There were a total of 1,326 pogroms across Ukraine around that time, in which between 30,000 and 70,000 Jews were massacred. According to some estimates, the pogroms left half a million Jews homeless. The series of events occurred in the following districts:
The Pinsk massacre was the mass execution of thirty-five Jewish residents of Pinsk on 5 April 1919 by the Polish Army.
In February 1919 a brigade of UNR troops killed 1500 Jews in Proskurov.[189]
In Tetiev on 25 March 1919, Cossack troops under the command of Colonels Cherkovsky, Kurovsky and Shliatoshenko murdered 4,000 Jews.[190]
In February 1919 a brigade of UNR troops killed 1,500 Jews in Proskurov.[189]
Martin H. Glynn's article "The Crucifixion of Jews Must Stop!" was published in the October 31, 1919, issue of The American Hebrew; in it he lamented the poor conditions for European Jews after World War I. Glynn referred to these conditions as a potential "holocaust" and asserted that "six million Jewish men and women are starving across the seas".[191][192][193] Robert N. Proctor says that "[this] oddity has been exploited by Holocaust deniers but is simply a remarkable coincidence and nothing more."[194]
During the Russian Civil War the Jews of Uman in eastern Podolia were subjected to two pogroms in 1919, as the town changed hands several times. The first pogrom, in spring, claimed 170 victims; the second one, in summer, more than 90. This time the Christian inhabitants helped to hide the Jews. The Council for Public Peace, with a Christian majority and a Jewish minority, saved the city from danger several times. In 1920, for example, it stopped the pogrom initiated by the troops of General Denikin.[195]
Soviet Yevsektsiya (the Jewish section of the Communist Party) attacks Bund and Zionist parties for "Jewish cultural particularism". In April 1920, the All-Russian Zionist Congress is broken up by Cheka led by Bolsheviks, whose leadership and ranks included many anti-Jewish Jews. Thousands are arrested and sent to Gulag for "counter-revolutionary... collusion in the interests of Anglo-French bourgeoisie... to restore the Palestine state." Hebrew language is banned, Judaism is suppressed, along with other religions.
The Jerusalem pogrom of April 1920 of old Yishuv.
The idea that the Bolshevik revolution was a Jewish conspiracy for the world domination sparks worldwide interest in The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. In a single year, five editions are sold out in England alone. In the US Henry Ford prints 500,000 copies.
In the Spring of 1920, Henry Ford made his personal newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, chronicle what he considered the "Jewish menace". Every week for 91 issues, the paper exposed some sort of Jewish-inspired evil major story in a headline. The most popular and aggressive stories were then chosen to be reprinted into four volumes called The International Jew.[196]
All Jews in Mongolia are expelled.
Jaffa riots in Palestine.
Outbreak of antisemitism in United States, led by Ku Klux Klan.
Soviet Yevsektsiya (the Jewish section of the Communist Party) attacks Bund and Zionist parties for "Jewish cultural particularism". In April 1920, the All-Russian Zionist Congress is broken up by Cheka led by Bolsheviks, whose leadership and ranks included many anti-Jewish Jews. Thousands are arrested and sent to Gulag for "counter-revolutionary... collusion in the interests of Anglo-French bourgeoisie... to restore the Palestine state." Hebrew language is banned, Judaism is suppressed, along with other religions.
Der Stürmer (pronounced [deːɐ̯ ˈʃtʏʁmɐ], lit. "the Attacker") was a weekly tabloid-format Nazi newspaper published by Julius Streicher (a prominent official in the Nazi Party) from 1923 to the end of World War II, with brief suspensions in publication due to legal difficulties. It was a significant part of Nazi propaganda and was vehemently anti-Semitic.[197]
The National Origins Quota of 1924 and Immigration Act of 1924 largely halted immigration to the U.S. from Eastern Europe and Russia; this was meant to restrict Eastern European Jews among others, as a great many of these immigrants coming from Russia and Eastern Europe were Jews (the "outbreak of antisemitism" mentioned in the above entry may have also played a part in the passage of these acts).
The Ku Klux Klan In Prophecy is a 144-page book written by Bishop Alma Bridwell White in 1925 and illustrated by Reverend Branford Clarke.[198][199] This book primarily espouses White's deep fear and hatred of the Roman Catholic Church while also promoting antisemitism, racism against African Americans, white supremacy, and women's equality.[200][201][202]
Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf.
The Schwartzbard trial was a sensational 1927 French murder trial that resulted in a mistrial of international proportions. At the trial Sholom Schwartzbard was accused of murdering the Ukrainian immigrant and head of the Ukrainian government-in-exile Symon Petlura in Paris. While the defendant fully admitted to the crime the trial at the end turned in accusation of Petlura's responsibility for the massive 1919–1920 pogroms in Ukraine in which Schwartzbard had lost all 15 members of his family. Instead of Schwartzbard's murder case the trial was turned into a political case against the Ukrainian government. Schwartzbard was acquitted.
The Massena blood libel was an instance of blood libel against Jews in which the Jews of Massena, New York, were falsely accused of the kidnapping and ritual murder of a Christian girl in September 1928.[203]
The ancient Jewish community of Hebron is massacred by local Muslims over rumors that the Jews were planning to seize control of the Temple Mount.[204]
18-20 Jewish residents of Safed were brutally killed in the 1929 Safed massacre.
Pogrom against the Jews of Bălţi.[205]
In a series of lectures delivered at the University of Virginia in 1933, published under the title After Strange Gods: A Primer of Modern Heresy (1934), T.S. Eliot wrote of societal tradition and coherence, "What is still more important [than cultural homogeneity] is unity of religious background, and reasons of race and religion combine to make any large number of free-thinking Jews undesirable."[206] Eliot never re-published this book/lecture.[207]
Persecution of Jews in Germany rises until they are stripped of their rights not only as citizens, but also as human beings. During this time antisemitism reached its all-time high.[208]
  • Law against Overcrowding of German Schools and Universities
  • Law for the Reestablishment of the Professional Civil Service (ban on professions)
  • The Reich Flight Tax is used to expropriate funds from Jewish émigrés.
2,000 Afghani Jews are expelled from their towns and forced to live in the wilderness.
The 1934 Thrace pogroms were a series of violent attacks that occurred in Tekirdağ, Edirne, Kırklareli, and Çanakkale. Over 15,000 Jews had to flee from the region.
34 Algerian Jews were killed and hundreds were injured by Muslim mobs during the 1934 Constantine pogrom. 200 Jewish stores were raided, the total property damage was estimated at over 150 million Poincare francs. It also sent a quarter of Constantine's Jewish population into poverty.[209]
The first appearance of The Franklin Prophecy on the pages of William Dudley Pelley's pro-Nazi weekly magazine Liberation. According to the US Congress report:

"The Franklin "Prophecy" is a classic antisemitic canard that falsely claims that American statesman Benjamin Franklin made anti-Jewish statements during the Constitutional Convention of 1787. It has found widening acceptance in Muslim and Arab media, where it has been used to criticize Israel and Jews..."[210]

In his 1934 pageant play The Rock, T.S. Eliot distances himself from Fascist movements of the thirties by caricaturing Oswald Mosley's Blackshirts, who 'firmly refuse/ To descend to palaver with anthropoid Jews'.[211] The "new evangels"[212] of totalitarianism are presented as antithetical to the spirit of Christianity.
Nuremberg Laws introduced. Jewish rights rescinded. The Reich Citizenship Law strips them of citizenship. The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor:
  • Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden.
  • Sexual relations outside marriage between Jews and nationals of German or kindred blood are forbidden.
  • Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens of German or kindred blood as domestic servants.
  • Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colors. On the other hand they are permitted to display the Jewish colors.
The Bloody Day in Jaffa refers to various violent attacks on Jews in Jaffa by mobs of Muslims.
The Przytyk pogrom was an altercation between Jewish and Polish peasants, ending with two Jews and one Pole dead.
Cardinal August Hlond, as Primate of Poland issued a pastoral letter on Catholic moral principles.[213] The long (5600-word) letter covered Catholic ethics policy, ethics principles and a section on "sins" (Z Naszych Grzechów) that addressed Christian shortcomings to love one's neighbours in accordance with God's law. The latter section included a brief discussion of the "Jewish problem" (Problem żydowski): "So long as Jews remain Jews, a Jewish problem exists and will continue to exist (...) It is a fact that Jews are waging war against the Catholic church, that they are steeped in free-thinking, and constitute the vanguard of atheism, the Bolshevik movement, and revolutionary activity. It is a fact that Jews have a corruptive influence on morals and that their publishing houses are spreading pornography. It is true that Jews are perpetrating fraud, practicing usury, and dealing in prostitution. It is true that, from a religious and ethical point of view, Jewish youth are having a negative influence on the Catholic youth in our schools."[214] Hlond tempered these remarks with an admission that "not all Jews are this way" and forbade assaults on Jews or attacks on their property. Yet, despite a warning to Catholics not to take an anti-Jewish moral stance, interspersed in the letter's words of friendship was an explicit condemnation of Jewish culture and also Judaism for its rejection of Jesus Christ: "It is good to prefer your own kind when shopping, to avoid Jewish stores and Jewish stalls in the marketplace (...) One should stay away from the harmful moral influence of Jews, keep away from their anti-Christian culture, and especially boycott the Jewish press and demoralizing Jewish publications. (...) We do not honor the indescribable tragedy of that nation, which was the guardian of the idea of the Messiah and from which was born the Savior. When divine mercy enlightens a Jew to sincerely accept his and our Messiah, let us greet him into our Christian ranks with joy."[214] Hlond's letter was criticized by Polish Jewish groups who saw it as offering support and a rationalization for antisemitism.[215] What also caught the attention of historians was the remark about not hating anyone, "not even Jews", implying "not even enemies". Were Jews to be loved as neighbors or enemies?[216] However, while Hlond promoted the expulsion of German civilians after World War II, he had always consistently condemned the Nazi persecution of the Jews.
"The Eternal Jew" was the title of an exhibition of degenerate art (entartete Kunst) displayed at the Library of the German Museum in Munich from 8 November 1937 to 31 January 1938. The exhibition attracted 412,300 visitors, over 5,000 per day.[217]
Ecuador issues an order that states all Ecuadorian Jewish residents not working in agriculture need to leave the country.
Anschluss, pogroms in Vienna, anti-Jewish legislation, deportations to Nazi concentration camps.
  • Decree authorizing local authorities to bar Jews from the streets on certain days
  • Decree empowering the justice Ministry to void wills offending the "sound judgment of the people"
  • Decree providing for the compulsory sale of Jewish real estate
  • Decree providing for the liquidation of Jewish real estate agencies, brokerage agencies, and marriage agencies catering to non-Jews
  • Directive providing for the concentration of Jews in houses
1938 July 6–15
Evian Conference: 31 countries refuse to accept Jews trying to escape Nazi Germany (with the exception of Dominican Republic). Most find temporary refuge in Poland. See also Bermuda Conference.
Arab rioters rush into the Jewish Kiryat Shmuel neighborhood, killing 19 Jews, 11 of whom were children in the 1938 Tiberias massacre.
Father Charles E. Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest, starts antisemitic weekly radio broadcasts in the United States.
Kristallnacht (Night of The Broken Glass). In one night most German synagogues and hundreds of Jewish-owned German businesses are destroyed. Almost 100 Jews are killed, and 10,000 are sent to concentration camps.[218]
Racial legislation introduced in Italy. Anti Jewish economic legislation introduced in Hungary.
Der Giftpilz is a children's book published by Julius Streicher in 1938.[219] The title is German for "the toadstool" or "the poisonous mushroom".[219] The book was intended as anti-Semitic propaganda. The text is by Ernst Hiemer, with illustrations by Philipp Rupprecht (also known as Fips).
The "Voyage of the damned": S.S. St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Germany, is turned back by Canada, Cuba and the US.[220] After they were denied entry to those places, the refugees were finally accepted in various European countries, including Belgium, the Netherlands, the UK, and France. Historians have estimated that approximately a quarter of them died in death camps during World War II.
In this year Ezra Pound returned to Italy from the States and began writing antisemitic material for Italian newspapers. He wrote to James Laughlin that Roosevelt represented Jewry, and signed the letter with "Heil Hitler".
Linen from Ireland is a 1939 German drama film that was part of an ongoing campaign of antisemitism in German cinema of the era, and it also attacked Britain with whom Germany was at war by the time of the film's release.
Robert and Bertram is a 1939 German musical comedy film; it was the only anti-semitic musical comedy released during the Nazi era.
1939 February
The Congress of the United States rejects the Wagner-Rogers Bill, an effort to admit 20,000 Jewish refugee children under the age of 14 from Nazi Germany.[221]
The Holocaust. About 6 million Jews, including about 1 million children, systematically killed by Nazi Germany and other Axis powers. See also Holocaust denial.
Some post-war critics have accused Pope Pius XII, who had his papacy in 1939-1958, of either being overly cautious, or of "not doing enough," or even of "silence" in the face of the Holocaust. Yet, by the writings of Jewish men and women and mainly the Israeli State archives, it is well established that Pope Pius XII supervised a secret rescue network which saved approximately 800,000 Jewish lives.[222]
In the Vichy regime: 10 July 1940 - Pierre Laval induces Parliament to vote complete powers (constituent, legislative, executive and judicial) to Marshal Philippe Pétain who becomes Head of state of the French State (État français). 21 July 1940 - Minister of Justice Raphaël Alibert creates a board to review 500,000 naturalizations accorded since 1927. Withdrawal of nationality for 15,000 people, 40% of whom were Jews. July 1940 - The Germans expel more than 20,000 Alsace-Lorraine Jews to the southern zone. 27 September 1940 - Ordinance on the status of Jews in the Occupied Zone. A census of Jews ("the Tulard file") and obligatory sign indicating "Jew" on shops owned by Jews. 27 September 1940 - A Vichy law allows any foreigner "redundant to the French economy" to be interned among "groups of foreign workers". 3 October 1940 - first law on the status of Jews. French Jewish citizens are excluded from civil service, army, education, the press, radio and film. "Surplus" Jews are excluded from the professions. Article 9: This law is applicable to Algeria, to the colonies, protectorates and mandated territories. 4 October 1940 - prefects can detain foreigners of Jewish extraction in special camps or to assign residence. 7 October 1940 - repeal of the 1871 Crémieux Decree; French nationality is removed from Jews from Algeria. 7 October 1940 - Aryanization of businesses in the Occupied Zone.
Jud Süß is a 1940 Nazi propaganda film produced by Terra Filmkunst at the behest of Joseph Goebbels, and considered one of the most antisemitic films of all time.[223] The film has been characterized as "one of the most notorious and successful pieces of antisemitic film propaganda produced in Nazi Germany."[224] It was a great success in Germany, with some 20 million viewers. Although the film's budget of 2 million Reichsmarks was considered high for films of that era, the box office receipts of 6.5 million Reichsmarks made it a financial success. Heinrich Himmler urged members of the SS and police to watch the movie.[225]
The Rothschilds is a 1940 German film directed by Erich Waschneck. It portrays the role of the Rothschild family in the Napoleonic Wars. The Jewish Rothschilds are depicted in a negative manner, consistent with the anti-Semitic policy of Nazi Germany.
Vom Bäumlein, das andere Blätter hat gewollt is a short anti-Semitic propaganda cartoon produced in 1940 in the Nazi movie studio Zeichenfilm GmbH.
The Eternal Jew (1940) is an antisemitic[226] German Nazi propaganda film,[227] presented as a documentary.
The Farhud pogrom in Baghdad results in 780 Jews dead, over 1,000 wounded.[228]
Gabès pogrom in French Tunisia leaves 8 Jews dead and at least 20 wounded.
In a speech at an America First rally at the Des Moines Coliseum on 11 September 1941, "Who Are the War Agitators?", Charles Lindbergh warned of the Jewish people's "large ownership and influence in our motion pictures, our press, our radio, and our government"[229] and claimed the three groups "pressing this country toward war [are] the British, the Jewish, and the Roosevelt Administration",[230] and said of Jewish groups,
Collaboration of the Vichy regime with the Holocaust: 29 March 1941: creation of the French General Commission for Jewish Affairs (CGQJ), with Xavier Vallat as the first commissioner. 11 May 1941 - Creation of the French Institute for Jewish Affairs, the French Agency for Antisemitic Propaganda, financed by the nazis (Theodor Dannecker) and directed by French antisemitic agitators Paul Sézille (fr), René Gérard (fr) and others. 14 May 1941 - the Billet Vert roundup (fr) organized by the Prefecture of Police with the agreement of the general delegation of the French government in the occupied zone and upon demand by the occupying authorities: 3,747 Jewish foreigners, (out of 6,494 summoned by the prefecture) were crammed into the Pithiviers and Beaune-la-Rolande internment camps under French administration. 2 June 1941 - second law concerning Jews. Compared to the first one, an increasingly stringent definition of who is a Jew, additional professional work restrictions, quotas in University (3%) and the liberal professions (2%). Jews were obligated to take part in a census in the Zone libre. Article 11 of the Statute: "This law is applicable to Algeria, the colonies, protectorates and territories under mandate. This law authorizes prefects to perform administrative detention of Jews of French nationality." 21 July 1941 - Aryanization of Jewish companies in the Zone libre. August 1941: Occupied zone: internment of 3,200 foreign and 1,000 French Jews in various camps including Drancy. December 1941 - Occupied zone: 740 French Jews, members of the liberal and intellectual professions, interned in Compiègne.
January 1942
The Wannsee Conference in Berlin: Nazi officials define the practical arrangements for the "Final Solution", that is to say, the complete extermination of European Jewry, including children.
The Antisemitic Exhibition in Zagreb took place in the Art Pavilion in Zagreb, the capital city of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), in May 1942. According to its organizers, the exhibition sought to expose the "destructive and exploitative work of Croatia's Jews prior to 1941."
Collaboration of the Vichy regime with the Holocaust: 27 March 1942 - The first convoy of Jewish deportees leaves Compiègne (Frontstalag 122) towards an extermination camp. 20 May 1942 - Occupied zone: Compulsory wearing of yellow Jewish star badge. (effective 7 June). 2 July 1942 - Oberg-Bousquet agreement for collaboration between French and German police, in the presence of Reinhard Heydrich, Heinrich Himmler's deputy. 16–17 July 1942 - Roundup of the Vel d'Hiv: arrest of 13,152 "stateless" Jews (3,031 men, 5,802 women and 4,051 children). 19 July 1942 - failed Roundup of Nancy (fr), after Jews were warned overnight to flee by Nancy Police Commissioner for Foreign Affairs Édouard Vigneron. 26–28 August 1942 Zone libre – series of roundups resulting in the deportation of 7,000 people.
Vienna 1910 is a 1943 German biographical film directed by Emerich Walter Emo and starring Rudolf Forster, Heinrich George and Lil Dagover. It is based on the life of Mayor of Vienna Karl Lueger. Its antisemitic content led to it being banned by the Allied Occupation forces following World War II.
Forces occultes is a French film of 1943 that virulently denounces Jews, Freemasonry, and parliamentarianism as part of the Vichy regime's drive against them and seeks to prove a Jewish-Masonic plot.
Collaboration of the Vichy regime with the Holocaust: January 1943 - Roundup of Marseille: destruction of the Old Port and roundups by French authorities. Nearly 2,000 Marseilles Jews arrested and deported. Le Petit Marseillais of 30 January 1943 wrote: "Note that the evacuation operations in the Northern district of the Old Port were carried out exclusively by French police and that no incidents were reported. The Opera district, where many Sephardic families lived, is emptied of its inhabitants. February 1943 - Lyon raid on the premises of the Union générale des israélites de France (fr) (UGIF). September 8, 1943 - surrender of Italy leading to the Allied occupation of Italian-occupied France hitherto spared the roundups. April 1943 - Nîmes and Avignon roundups. September 1943 - roundups of Nice and surrounding area."
The Bermuda Conference was an international conference between the United Kingdom and the United States held from 19 April 1943, through 30 April 1943, at Hamilton, Bermuda. The topic of discussion was the question of Jewish refugees who had been liberated by Allied forces and those who still remained in Nazi-occupied Europe. The only agreement made was that the war must be won against the Nazis. US immigration quotas were not raised nor was the British prohibition on Jewish refugees seeking refuge in the British Mandate of Palestine lifted.
Collaboration of the Vichy regime with the Holocaust: February 1944 - roundups of Grenoble and Isère. 15 August 1944 - last deportation convoy from Clermont-Ferrand.
The 1945 Tripoli pogrom was a violent massacre of the Jewish population of Tripoli by Muslim rioters. After days of violence 140+ Jews were dead and hundreds were injured. In the aftermath 4,000 Jews were left homeless and thousands were reduced to poverty. 9 Synagogues were destroyed, along with thousands of Jewish homes and businesses.
The 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Egypt started as an anti-Zionist demonstration, but it ended with the killing of 5 Egyptian Zionists by a Muslim mob and over 300 other Jews were injured.
The Kielce pogrom. 40 Jews were massacred and 80 other Jews were wounded out of about 200 who had returned home after World War II had ended. 2 non-Jewish Poles were also killed. Controversy was caused by August Hlond's reaction to the Kielce pogrom. While condemning murders, Hlond denied the racist nature of this crime.[231][232] He saw the pogrom as a reaction against Jewish bureaucrats serving the Communist regime.[232] This position was echoed by Cardinal Sapieha, who was reported to have said that the Jews brought it on themselves.[231]
The Kraków pogrom was a post-WW2 pogrom, resulting in the death of Auschwitz survivor Róża Berger.
Nikita Khrushchev, then the first secretary of the Communist party of Ukraine, closes many synagogues (the number declines from 450 to 60) and prevents Jewish refugees from returning to their homes.[233]
The post-WW2 Kunmadaras pogrom was the killing of 6 Jewish Holocaust survivors in Kunmadaras, Hungary.
In 1946, some villagers in Jedwabne, Poland burned at least 340 local Jews alive.[234]
The Miskolc pogrom
Anti-Jewish riots erupt in Aleppo, resulting in some 75 Jews murdered and several hundred wounded.
A mob of Muslim sailors looted Jewish homes and shops in the Manama riots. In the end one Jewish woman was dead and a Synagogue was destroyed.
A three-day riot broke out between the Jews of Aden and the local Muslim population. When it was over, 82 Jews were killed and 76 Jews were injured.
In Austria, the Verbotsgesetz 1947 provided the legal framework for the process of denazification in Austria and the suppression of any potential revival of Nazism. In 1992, it was amended to prohibit the denial or gross minimisation of the Holocaust.

National Socialism Prohibition Law (1947, amendments of 1992)

§ 3g. He who operates in a manner characterized other than that in § § 3a – 3f will be punished (revitalising of the NSDAP or identification with), with imprisonment from one to up to ten years, and in cases of particularly dangerous suspects or activity, be punished with up to twenty years' imprisonment.[235]

§ 3h. As an amendment to § 3 g., whoever denies, grossly plays down, approves or tries to excuse the National Socialist genocide or other National Socialist crimes against humanity in a print publication, in broadcast or other media.[236]

Antisemitism played a major role in the Jewish exodus from Arab lands. The Jewish population in the Arab Middle East and North Africa has decreased from 900,000 in 1948 to less than 8,000 in 2001.
The Djereda was a pogrom against the tiny Jewish population of Jerada at the hands of the local Muslims. It ended with 43 Jews dead and around 150 Jews injured.
The 1948 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania was a riot between the Jewish and Arab populations of Tripoli. Unlike the previous Tripoli pogrom, the Jewish community of Tripoli fought back against the Muslim rioters. When it was over, 14 Jews and 4 Muslims were dead and many on both sides were injured.
The 1948 Cairo bombings were several bombings which targeted the Jewish population of Cairo. The bombings claimed the lives of 70 Jews and 200 other Jews were wounded.
The Southern Baptist Convention passed a resolution stating in part, "RESOLVED, That communism, fascism, political ecclesiasticism, and anti-Semitism are utterly contrary to the genius of our Baptist concept of freedom and spiritual values."[237]
Solomon Mikhoels, actor-director of the Moscow State Jewish Theater and chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee is killed in a suspicious car accident (see MGB). Mass arrests of prominent Jewish intellectuals and suppression of Jewish culture follow under the banners of campaign on rootless cosmopolitanism and anti-Zionism.
During the Siege of Jerusalem of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Arab armies were able to conquer the part of the West Bank and Jerusalem; they expelled all Jews (about 2,000) from the Old City (the Jewish Quarter) and destroyed the ancient synagogues that were in the Old City as well.
The Menarsha synagogue attack was a grenade attack in the Jewish quarter of Damascus that took 12 lives.
The Night of the Murdered Poets. The thirteen most prominent Soviet Yiddish writers, poets, actors and other intellectuals were executed, among them Peretz Markish, Leib Kwitko, David Hofstein, Itzik Feffer, David Bergelson.[238][239] In 1955 UN General Assembly's session a high Soviet official still denied the "rumors" about their disappearance.
The Prague Trials in Czechoslovakia.
The Doctors' plot false accusation in the USSR. Scores of Soviet Jews dismissed from their jobs, arrested, some executed. The USSR was accused of pursuing a "new antisemitism."[240] Stalinist opposition to "rootless cosmopolitans" – a euphemism for Jews – was rooted in the belief, as expressed by Klement Gottwald, that "treason and espionage infiltrate the ranks of the Communist Party. This channel is Zionism."[241] This newer antisemitism was, in effect, a species of anti-Zionism.
Holocaust Remembrance Day in Israel is inaugurated.[242]
The Alaska Mental Health Enabling Act of 1956 (Public Law 84-830) was an Act of Congress passed to improve mental health care in the United States territory of Alaska. It became the focus of a major political controversy[243] after opponents nicknamed it the "Siberia Bill" and denounced it as being part of a communist plot to hospitalize and brainwash Americans. Campaigners asserted that it was part of an international Jewish, Roman Catholic or psychiatric conspiracy intended to establish United Nations-run concentration camps in the United States.
Antisemitism swept across Poland as part of a purge of Stalinists.[244]
On 28 April 1958, Birmingham, Alabama, 54 sticks of dynamite were placed outside Temple Beth-El in a bombing attempt. According to police reports, the burning fuses were doused by heavy rainfall, preventing the dynamite from exploding.[245] Although the crime was never solved, police considered Bobby Frank Cherry, later convicted of bombing the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, to be a suspect.[246]
The Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple bombing occurred on 12 October 1958. The Temple, on Peachtree Street in Atlanta, Georgia, housed a Reform Jewish congregation. The building was damaged extensively by the dynamite-fueled explosion, although no one was injured. Five suspects were arrested almost immediately after the bombing. One of them, George Bright, was tried twice. His first trial ended with a hung jury and his second with an acquittal. As a result of Bright's acquittal the other suspects were not tried, and no one was ever convicted of the bombing.
Impeachment of Man is a book by Savitri Devi, first published in 1959, in which she recounts a history of the general indifference toward the suffering of non-human life. She puts forth a pro-vegetarian, anti-vivisectionist, biocentric, and misanthropic conservationist point of view. However, she does so within the context of her pro-Hitler and pro-Nazi political views, and devotes space to antisemitism and denouncing Jewish dietary practices.
On 21 March 1959, Pope John XXIII ordered that the word "faithless" (Latin: perfidis) be removed from the prayer for the conversion of the Jews,[247] actually interrupting the Service and asking the prayer to be repeated without that word.[248]:40 This word had caused much trouble in recent times because of misconceptions that the Latin perfidis was equivalent to "perfidious", giving birth to the view that the prayer accused the Jews of treachery (perfidy), though the word is more correctly translated as "faithless" or "unbelieving".[249] Accordingly, the prayer was revised to read:
Let us pray also for the Jews: that almighty God may remove the veil from their hearts; so that they too may acknowledge Jesus Christ our Lord. Let us pray. Let us kneel. Arise. Almighty and eternal God, who dost also not exclude from thy mercy the Jews: hear our prayers, which we offer for the blindness of that people; that acknowledging the light of thy Truth, which is Christ, they may be delivered from their darkness. Through the same our Lord Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Spirit, God, for ever and ever. Amen.[250] On Good Friday of 1963,[251] by mistake the old text of the prayer was given to the deacon, who read "perfidis". Pope John XXIII interrupted the liturgy again, and ordered that the prayer be repeated with the word omitted.[252]
Bobby Fischer made numerous anti-Jewish statements and professed a general hatred for Jews since at least the early 1960s.[253][254] Although Fischer described his mother as Jewish in a 1962 interview,[253] he later denied his Jewish ancestry.[255]
The Badges Act 1960 (Abzeichengesetz 1960) prohibits the public display of Nazi symbols in Austria, and violations are punishable by up to €4000.- fine and up to 1 month imprisonment.
On 25 March,[256] 1960, the synagogue Congregation Beth Israel and its members were subject to an antisemitic attack. About 180 members were attending a Friday evening service to dedicate the new Zemurray Social Hall, and led by then-rabbi Saul Rubin and Rev. John Speaks and Dr. Franklin Denson of First Methodist Church, when windows were smashed and the synagogue fire-bombed. Two members—Alvin Lowi and Alan Cohn—who rushed out to see what was happening were met by Jerry Hunt, a 16-year-old Nazi sympathizer, who wounded them both with a shotgun, then fled. Lowi was just shot in the hand, but one of Cohn's aortas was nicked, and he almost died, requiring 22 US pints (10 l) of blood.[257][258][259] Earlier that week Hunt had attended a rally for antisemitic and white supremacist politician John G. Crommelin, and had had a fight with a Jewish boy over a chess game at the Gadsden Community Centre.[257]
In 1961, a protégé of Harry Elmer Barnes, David Hoggan published Der Erzwungene Krieg (The Forced War) in West Germany, which claimed that Germany had been the victim of an Anglo-Polish conspiracy in 1939. Though Der Erzwungene Krieg was primarily concerned with the origins of World War II, it also down-played or justified the effects of Nazi antisemitic measures in the pre-1939 period.[260] For example, Hoggan justified the huge one billion Reich-mark fine imposed on the entire Jewish community in Germany after the 1938 Kristallnacht as a reasonable measure to prevent what he called "Jewish profiteering" at the expense of German insurance companies and alleged that no Jews were killed in the Kristallnacht (in fact, 91 German Jews were killed in the Kristallnacht).[260]
In his 1962 pamphlet, Revisionism and Brainwashing, Harry Elmer Barnes claimed that there was a "lack of any serious opposition or concerted challenge to the atrocity stories and other modes of defamation of German national character and conduct".[261] Barnes argued that there was "a failure to point out the atrocities of the Allies were more brutal, painful, mortal and numerous than the most extreme allegations made against the Germans".[262] He claimed that in order to justify the "horrors and evils of the Second World War", the Allies made the Nazis the "scapegoat" for their own misdeeds.[263]
"Judaism Without Embellishments" published by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in 1963.
In a 1964 article, "Zionist Fraud", published in the American Mercury, Harry Elmer Barnes wrote: "The courageous author [Rassinier] lays the chief blame for misrepresentation on those whom we must call the swindlers of the crematoria, the Israeli politicians who derive billions of marks from nonexistent, mythical and imaginary cadavers, whose numbers have been reckoned in an unusually distorted and dishonest manner."[264] Using Rassinier as his source, Barnes claimed that Germany was the victim of aggression in both 1914 and 1939, and that reports of the Holocaust were propaganda to justify a war of aggression against Germany.[262]
Nasser told a German newspaper in 1964 that "no person, not even the most simple one, takes seriously the lie of the six million Jews that were murdered [in the Holocaust]."[265][266]
The Roman Catholic Church under Pope Paul VI issues the document Nostra aetate as part of Vatican II, repudiating the doctrine of Jewish guilt for the Crucifixion.
In 1964, French historian Paul Rassinier published The Drama of the European Jews. Rassinier was himself a concentration camp survivor (he was held in Buchenwald for having helped French Jews escape the Nazis), and modern-day holocaust deniers continue to cite his works as scholarly research that questions the accepted facts of the Holocaust. Critics argued that Rassinier did not cite evidence for his claims and ignored information that contradicted his assertions; he nevertheless remains influential in Holocaust denial circles for being one of the first deniers to propose that a vast Zionist/Allied/Soviet conspiracy faked the Holocaust, a theme that would be picked up in later years by other authors.[267]
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88–352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted July 2, 1964) is a landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the United States[268] that outlawed discrimination based on religion, race, color, sex, or national origin.[269]
The Frankfurt Auschwitz trials, known in German as der Auschwitz-Prozess, or der zweite Auschwitz-Prozess, (the "second Auschwitz trial") was a series of trials running from 20 December 1963 to 19 August 1965, charging 22 defendants under German criminal law for their roles in the Holocaust as mid- to lower-level officials in the Auschwitz-Birkenau death and concentration camp complex. Hans Hofmeyer led as Chief Judge the "criminal case against Mulka and others" (reference number 4 Ks 2/63).

Overall, only 789 individuals of the approximately 6,500 surviving SS personnel who served at Auschwitz and its sub-camps were ever tried, of which 750 received sentences.[270] Unlike the first trial in Poland held almost two decades earlier, the trials in Frankfurt were not based on the legal definition of crimes against humanity as recognized by international law, but according to the state laws of the Federal Republic.[271]

Allen Ginsberg stated that, in a private conversation in 1967, Ezra Pound told the young poet, "my poems don't make sense." He went on to supposedly call himself a "moron", to characterize his writing as "stupid and ignorant", "a mess". Ginsberg reassured Pound that he "had shown us the way", but Pound refused to be mollified:

'Any good I've done has been spoiled by bad intentions – the preoccupation with irrelevant and stupid things,' [he] replied. Then very slowly, with emphasis, surely conscious of Ginsberg's being Jewish: 'But the worst mistake I made was that stupid, suburban prejudice of anti-semitism.'[272]

In 1967, Congregation Beth Israel moved to its current location, a building on Old Canton Road[273] described by Jack Nelson as "an octagonal structure dominated by a massive roof".[274] On 18 September 1967 the new building was wrecked by a dynamite bomb placed by Klan members in a recessed doorway.[275][276][277] According to Nelson, the explosion had "ripped through administrative offices and a conference room, torn a hole in the ceiling, blown out windows, ruptured a water pipe and buckled a wall."[278] The perpetrators were not discovered.[276] In November of that year the same group planted a bomb that blew out the front of the house of Dr. Perry Nussbaum (Beth Israel's rabbi from 1954 to 1973), while he and his wife were sleeping there.[275][276][277]
All Jewish men in Egypt were placed in camps in 1967 during the Six-Day War, and they were kept there for more than two years; Karaite Jews were the last to leave.[279]
State-supported anti-Semitism swept across Poland in 1968, not subsiding until 1971, by which time half of Poland's Jews had fled Poland.[244]
During the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, the leadership of Beth Israel spoke out against the Ku Klux Klan's attacks on black churches. In response, Thomas Tarrants of Mobile, Alabama, who had helped bomb the synagogue building of a different synagogue, Beth Israel Congregation, and its rabbi's house there (see previous entry in this timeline)[280][281] bombed Beth Israel's education building on 28 May 1968.[282][283] The force of the blast knocked down several walls of the education building and caved in part of the roof while also destroying a door at the opposite end of the synagogue building.[283] A hole approximately 24 inches (61 cm) in diameter was left in the concrete floor, and damages were estimated to be around $50,000 (equivalent to $352,000 today).[284] According to Sammy Feltenstein, past president of Congregation Beth Israel, pieces of stained glass that survived the bombing were salvaged and adorn the front window of the synagogue today.[285] Later that year, on 30 June, Tarrants[286] returned to Meridian to bomb the home of Meyer Davidson, an outspoken leader of the Jewish community, on 29th Avenue.[282][285] But the FBI and police chief Roy Gunn convinced Raymond and Alton Wayne Roberts, local Klan members, to gather information about the Klan's operations, and leaders of the Jewish communities in Jackson and in Meridian had raised money to pay the two informants, who tipped off the FBI about the attack before it happened.[280]
David Hoggan explicitly denied the Holocaust in 1969 in a book entitled The Myth of the Six Million, which was published by the Noontide Press, a small Los Angeles publisher specializing in antisemitic literature.[287]
The rise of Zionology in the Soviet Union. In 1983, the Department of Propaganda and the KGB's Anti-Zionist committee of the Soviet public orchestrates formally "anti-Zionist" campaign.
Polish 1968 political crisis. The state-organized antisemitic campaign in the People's Republic of Poland under guise of "anti-Zionism" drives out most of remaining Jewish population.
The ancient Jewish community of Hebron, which had been destroyed in the 1929 Hebron massacre, is revived at Kiryat Arba. The community, in 1979 and afterwards, moves into Hebron proper and rebuilds the demolished Abraham Avinu Synagogue, the site of which had been used by Jordan as a cattle-pen.
The Alhambra Decree was formally revoked on 16 December 1968.[288]
The Fair Housing Act (Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968) in the United States introduced meaningful federal enforcement mechanisms. It outlawed:
  • Refusal to sell or rent a dwelling to any person because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
  • Discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin in the terms, conditions or privilege of the sale or rental of a dwelling.
  • Advertising the sale or rental of a dwelling indicating preference of discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin.
  • Coercing, threatening, intimidating, or interfering with a person's enjoyment or exercise of housing rights based on discriminatory reasons or retaliating against a person or organization that aids or encourages the exercise or enjoyment of fair housing rights.
Lyndon LaRouche and his ideas have been called antisemitic since at least the mid-1970s by dozens of individuals and organizations in countries across Europe and North America. LaRouche and his followers have responded to these allegations by claiming that LaRouche has Jewish supporters and by denying the accusations.
Canada has no legislation specifically restricting the ownership, display, purchase, import or export of Nazi flags. However, sections 318-320 of the Criminal Code,[289] adopted by Canada's parliament in 1970 and based in large part on the 1965 Cohen Committee recommendations,[290] provide law enforcement agencies with broad scope to intervene if such flags are used to communicate hatred in a public place (particularly sections 319(1), 319(2), and 319(7).[290]
After the Second Vatican Council, the Good Friday prayer for the Jews was completely revised for the 1970 edition of the Roman Missal. Because of the possibility of a misinterpretation similar to that of the word "perfidis" (see above in 1959), the reference to the veil on the hearts of the Jews, which was based on 2 Corinthians 3:14, was removed. The 1973 ICEL English translation of the revised prayer is as follows:
Let us pray for the Jewish people, the first to hear the word of God, that they may continue to grow in the love of his name and in faithfulness to his covenant. (Prayer in silence. Then the priest says:) Almighty and eternal God, long ago you gave your promise to Abraham and his posterity. Listen to your Church as we pray that the people you first made your own may arrive at the fullness of redemption. We ask this through Christ our Lord. Amen.[291]
The ban on Jewish immigration to Israel from the Soviet Union was lifted in 1971 leading to the 1970s Soviet Union aliyah.
The Southern Baptist Convention passed a resolution stating in part, "we point out particularly one area of concern known as anti-Semitism, which some think erroneously is inherent in Christianity, and which we disavow."[292]
To further the goal of reconciliation, the Catholic Church established an internal International Catholic-Jewish Liaison Committee and the International Jewish Committee for Interreligious Consultations. (This Committee is not a part of the Church's Magisterium.)
The Southern Baptist Convention passed a "Resolution On Anti-Semitism" stating in part, "Therefore, be it RESOLVED, That this Convention go on record as opposed to any and all forms of anti-Semitism; that it declare anti-Semitism unchristian; that we messengers to this Convention pledge ourselves to combat anti-Semitism in every honorable, Christian way.

Be it further RESOLVED, That Southern Baptists covenant to work positively to replace all anti-Semitic bias with the Christian attitude and practice of love for Jews, who along with all other men, are equally beloved of God."[293]

11 Israeli Olympic athletes are taken hostage and eventually tortured and killed in the Munich massacre.
The bodies of four Syrian Jewish women are discovered raped, murdered and mutilated in the Zabdani Mountains. They also found the remains of two Jewish boys, victims of an earlier massacre. They were murdered for attempting to flee to Israel.
Did Six Million Really Die? The Truth At Last[294] is a Holocaust denial pamphlet allegedly written by British National Front member Richard Verrall under the pseudonym Richard E. Harwood and published by Ernst Zündel in 1974.
The United Nations passed a resolution determining that "Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination." (It was revoked in 1991, as mentioned below.)
Arthur Butz's The Hoax of the Twentieth Century: The case against the presumed extermination of European Jewry was published.
David Irving's Holocaust denying book Hitler's War was published.[295]
In fall 1977, in suburban St. Louis, Missouri, Joseph Paul Franklin hid in the bushes near a synagogue and fired on a group attending services. In this incident, Franklin killed forty-two-year-old Gerald Gordon and wounded Steven Goldman and William Ash.
In a 1977 Globe-Democrat column discussing John Toland's biography of Adolf Hitler, Pat Buchanan wrote:

Though Hitler was indeed racist and anti-Semitic to the core, a man who without compunction could commit murder and genocide, he was also an individual of great courage, a soldier's soldier in the Great War, a political organizer of the first rank, a leader steeped in the history of Europe, who possessed oratorical powers that could awe even those who despised him... Hitler's success was not based on his extraordinary gifts alone. His genius was an intuitive sense of the mushiness, the character flaws, the weakness masquerading as morality that was in the hearts of the statesmen who stood in his path.[296]

Buchanan supporters say the paragraph is taken out of context.[297] They point out that in the same review Buchanan praised Winston Churchill for seeing that "Hitler was marching along the road toward a New Order where Western civilization would not survive" and concluded that modern-day statesmen were not following that example.[296]

National Socialist Party of America v. Village of Skokie, 432 U.S. 43 (1977) (also known as Smith v. Collin; sometimes referred to as the Skokie Affair), was a United States Supreme Court case dealing with freedom of assembly. The outcome was that the Illinois Supreme Court ruled that the use of the swastika is a symbolic form of free speech entitled to First Amendment protections and determined that the swastika itself did not constitute "fighting words." Its ruling allowed the National Socialist Party of America to march.[298]
In 1978 Willis Carto founded the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), an organization dedicated to publicly challenging the commonly accepted history of the Holocaust.[299]
In December 1978 and January 1979, Robert Faurisson, a French professor of literature at the University of Lyon, wrote two letters to Le Monde claiming that the gas chambers used by the Nazis to exterminate the Jews did not exist.
A House Joint resolution 1014 designated 28 and 29 April 1979 as "The Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust (DRVH)." After that the Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust (DRVH) has been an annual 8-day period designated by the United States Congress for civic commemorations and special educational programs that help citizens remember and draw lessons from the Holocaust.
When the Anti-Defamation League accused Lyndon LaRouche of antisemitism in 1979, he filed a $26-million libel suit; however, the case failed when Justice Michael Dontzin of the New York Supreme Court ruled that it was fair comment, and that the facts "reasonably give rise" to that description.[300][301]
"Jewish Princess" is a song by Frank Zappa released on his album Sheik Yerbouti in 1979. The song is a humorous look at the Jewish-American princess stereotype which attracted attention from the Anti-Defamation League, to which Zappa denied an apology, arguing: "Unlike the unicorn, such creatures do exist — and deserve to be 'commemorated' with their own special opus". In an interview with Spin magazine he was almost offended saying, "…as if to say there is no such thing as a Jewish Princess. Like I invented this?"[302] Biographer Barry Miles claimed in his book, Frank Zappa (Atlantic Books of London, 2005), that the ADL asked the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to ban the record from being played on the air - a symbolic effort given that the song was not being played anyway.
In 1980, the Institute for Historical Review promised a $50,000 reward to anyone who could prove that Jews were gassed at Auschwitz. Mel Mermelstein wrote a letter to the editors of the LA Times and others including The Jerusalem Post. The IHR wrote back, offering him $50,000 for proof that Jews were, in fact, gassed in the gas chambers at Auschwitz. Mermelstein, in turn, submitted a notarized account of his internment at Auschwitz and how he witnessed Nazi guards ushering his mother and two sisters and others towards (as he learned later) gas chamber number five. Despite this, the IHR refused to pay the reward. Represented by public interest attorney William John Cox, Mermelstein subsequently sued the IHR in the Superior Court of Los Angeles County for breach of contract, anticipatory repudiation, libel, injurious denial of established fact, intentional infliction of emotional distress, and declaratory relief (see case no. C 356 542). On 9 October 1981, both parties in the Mermelstein case filed motions for summary judgment in consideration of which Judge Thomas T. Johnson of the Superior Court of Los Angeles County took "judicial notice of the fact that Jews were gassed to death at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland during the summer of 1944,"[303][304] judicial notice meaning that the court treated the gas chambers as common knowledge, and therefore did not require evidence that the gas chambers existed. On 5 August 1985, Judge Robert A. Wenke entered a judgment based upon the Stipulation for Entry of Judgment agreed upon by the parties on 22 July 1985. The judgment required IHR and other defendants to pay $90,000 to Mermelstein and to issue a letter of apology to "Mr. Mel Mermelstein, a survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau and Buchenwald, and all other survivors of Auschwitz" for "pain, anguish and suffering" caused to them.[304]
Early 1980s
Jesse Jackson was criticized in the early 1980s for remarks made to a reporter where he referred to New York City as "Hymietown".[305][306] (Hymie is a pejorative term for Jews.) Jackson ultimately acknowledged he had used the term, and said he had been wrong; however, he also said that he had considered the conversation with the reporter to be off-the-record at the time he made the remarks.[306] Jackson apologized during a speech before national Jewish leaders in a Manchester, New Hampshire synagogue, but an enduring split between Jackson and many in the Jewish community continued at least through the 1990s.[306]
The Southern Baptist Convention passed a "Resolution On Anti-Semitism" stating in part, "Be it therefore RESOLVED, That the messengers at the 1981 Southern Baptist Convention meeting in Los Angeles, June 9–11, 1981, commend our Southern Baptist Convention leaders as they seek sincere friendship and meaningful dialogue with our Jewish neighbors."[307]
Elana Steinberg was killed by her husband Steven Steinberg, who claimed that she was a "spoiled, over-indulged brat - the stereotypical Jewish American Princess," and that she made him insane by spending and insisting that he become more successful; he was found not guilty.[308]
From 1981 to 1982, Holocaust denier Ernst Zündel had his mailing privileges suspended by the Canadian government on the grounds that he had been using the mail to send hate propaganda, a criminal offence in Canada. Zündel then began shipping from a post office box in Niagara Falls, New York, until the ban on his mailing in Canada was lifted in January 1983.
A bomb placed by neo-Nazis exploded outside the Jewish hunter of Nazis Simon Wiesenthal's house in Vienna on 11 June 1982, after which police guards were stationed outside his home 24 hours a day.[309][310]
The thesis of the 1982 doctoral dissertation of Mahmoud Abbas, a co-founder of Fatah and president of the Palestinian National Authority, was "The Secret Connection between the Nazis and the Leaders of the Zionist Movement".[311][312][313] In his 1983 book The Other Side: the Secret Relationship Between Nazism and Zionism based on the dissertation, Abbas denied that six million Jews had died in the Holocaust; dismissing it as a "myth" and a "fantastic lie".[314] At most, he wrote, 890,000 Jews were killed by the Germans. Abbas claimed that the number of deaths has been exaggerated for political purposes. "It seems that the interest of the Zionist movement, however, is to inflate this figure [of Holocaust deaths] so that their gains will be greater. This led them to emphasize this figure [six million] in order to gain the solidarity of international public opinion with Zionism. Many scholars have debated the figure of six million and reached stunning conclusions—fixing the number of Jewish victims at only a few hundred thousand."[313][315][316][317][318] In his March 2006 interview with Haaretz, Abbas stated, "I wrote in detail about the Holocaust and said I did not want to discuss numbers. I quoted an argument between historians in which various numbers of casualties were mentioned. One wrote there were 12 million victims and another wrote there were 800,000. I have no desire to argue with the figures. The Holocaust was a terrible, unforgivable crime against the Jewish nation, a crime against humanity that cannot be accepted by humankind. The Holocaust was a terrible thing and nobody can claim I denied it."[319] While acknowledging the existence of the Holocaust in 2006 and 2014,[320] Abbas has defended the position that Zionists collaborated with the Nazis to perpetrate it. In 2012, Abbas told Al Mayadeen, a Beirut TV station affiliated with Iran and Hezbollah, that he "challenges anyone who can deny that the Zionist movement had ties with the Nazis before World War II".[321]
The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod officially disassociates itself from "intemperate remarks about Jews" in Luther's works. Since then, many Lutheran church bodies and organizations have issued similar statements. (See Martin Luther and the Jews)
On the evening of 18 June 1984, Alan Berg was fatally shot in the driveway of his Denver home by members of the white nationalist group The Order. His provocative talk show sought to flush out "the anti-Semitism latent in the area's conservative population". He succeeded in provoking members of The Order to engage him in conversations on this talk show and his "often-abrasive on-air persona" ignited the anger of The Order.[322][323] Subsequently, members of The Order involved in the killing were identified as being part of a group planning to kill prominent Jews.[324] Ultimately, two members of The Order, David Lane and Bruce Pierce, were convicted for their involvement in the case, though neither of homicide.
In 1984, James Keegstra, a Canadian high-school teacher, was charged under the Canadian Criminal Code for "promoting hatred against an identifiable group by communicating anti-Semitic statements to his students". During class, he would describe Jews as a people of profound evil who had "created the Holocaust to gain sympathy." He also tested his students in exams on his theories and opinion of Jews.

Keegstra was charged under s 281.2(2) of the Criminal Code (now s 319(2), which provides that "Every one who, by communicating statements, other than in private conversation, wilfully promotes hatred against any identifiable group" commits a criminal offence.[325] He was convicted at trial before the Alberta Court of Queen's Bench. The court rejected the argument, advanced by Keegstra and his lawyer, Doug Christie, that promoting hatred is a constitutionally protected freedom of expression as per s 2(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Keegstra appealed to the Alberta Court of Appeal. That court agreed with Keegstra, and he was acquitted. The Crown then appealed the case to the Supreme Court of Canada, which rule by a 4–3 majority that promoting hatred could be justifiably restricted under s 1 of the Charter. The Supreme Court restored Keegstra's conviction.[326] He was fired from his teaching position shortly afterwards.[327]

At a meeting of the Nation of Islam at Madison Square Garden in 1985, Louis Farrakhan said of the Jews: "And don't you forget, when it's God who puts you in the ovens, it's forever!"[328]
On 24 December 1985, David Lewis Rice, a follower of the right-wing extremist group the Duck Club, gained entry to the Seattle home of civil litigation[329][330] attorney Charles Goldmark using a toy gun and pretending to be a deliveryman.[331] He tied the family up, chloroformed them into unconsciousness, beat them with a steam iron, and stabbed them.[331] Rice mistakenly believed the family to be Jewish and Communist.[332] In 1998, he pleaded guilty to the crimes[333] in exchange for avoiding the death penalty. The Goldmark Murders remain one of the most notorious antisemitic hate crimes as well as politically motivated killings in recent memory in the United States, even though the victims were not actually Jewish and Communist as the killer mistakenly believed.
Ronald Reagan visited a German military cemetery in Bitburg to lay a wreath with West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl. It was determined that the cemetery held the graves of forty-nine members of the Waffen-SS. Reagan issued a statement that called the Nazi soldiers buried in that cemetery as themselves "victims," a designation which ignited a stir over whether Reagan had equated the SS men to victims of the Holocaust; Pat Buchanan, Reagan's Director of Communications, argued that the president did not equate the SS members with the actual Holocaust.[334] Now strongly urged to cancel the visit,[335] the president responded that it would be wrong to back down on a promise he had made to Chancellor Kohl. He ultimately attended the ceremony where two military generals laid a wreath.[336]
Leo Frank was posthumously pardoned by the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles.
In Israel, a law to criminalize Holocaust denial was passed by the Knesset on 8 July 1986.
On 13 September 1987 Jean-Marie Le Pen said, "I ask myself several questions. I'm not saying the gas chambers didn't exist. I haven't seen them myself. I haven't particularly studied the question. But I believe it's just a detail in the history of World War II." He was condemned under the Gayssot Act and ordered to pay 1.2 million francs (183,200 euros).[337]
Pat Buchanan called for ending prosecution of Nazi camp guards, saying it was "running down 70-year-old camp guards."[338]
In 1987, Bradley R. Smith, a former media director of the Institute for Historical Review,[339] founded the Committee for Open Debate on the Holocaust (CODOH).[340]
John Koehler was the communications director for five working days under President Ronald Reagan; Koehler, who was an immigrant from Germany, had been in Hitler Youth.[341]
Since 1987
Activities of Pamyat and other "nonformal" ultra-nationalist organizations in the Soviet Union.
In 1988, the American historian Arno J. Mayer published a book entitled Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?, which did not explicitly deny the Holocaust, but lent support to Holocaust denial by stating that most people who died at Auschwitz were the victims of "natural causes" such as disease, not gassing.[342] Mayer also cited the works of Holocaust deniers Arthur Butz and Paul Rassinier in his book's bibliography. Critics such as Lucy Dawidowicz criticized Mayer's citation of deniers, and argued that his statements about Auschwitz were factually incorrect.[343] Holocaust expert Robert Jan van Pelt has noted that Mayer's book is as close as a mainstream historian has ever come to supporting Holocaust denial.[344] Holocaust deniers such as David Irving have often cited Mayer’s book as one reason for embracing Holocaust denial.[344] Though Mayer has been often condemned for his statement about the reasons for the Auschwitz death toll, his book does not deny the use of gas chambers at Auschwitz, as Holocaust deniers often claim.[345]

Some mainstream Holocaust historians have labeled Mayer a denier. The Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer wrote that Mayer "popularizes the nonsense that the Nazis saw in Marxism and Bolshevism their main enemy, and the Jews unfortunately got caught up in this; when he links the destruction of the Jews to the ups and downs of German warfare in the Soviet Union, in a book that is so cocksure of itself that it does not need a proper scientific apparatus, he is really engaging in a much more subtle form of Holocaust denial".[346]

Defenders of Mayer argue that his statement that "Sources for the study of the gas chambers at once rare and unreliable" has been taken out of context, particularly by Holocaust deniers.[347] Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman observe that the paragraph from which the statement is taken asserts that the SS destroyed the majority of the documentation relating to the operation of the gas chambers in the death camps, which is why Mayer feels that sources for the operation of the gas chambers are "rare" and "unreliable".[348]

In February 1988, an improperly drawn swastika[349] and anti-Semitic slogans and "Jesus Lives; You Can't Kill Him" and "Accept Hitler, Respect Christ" were plastered across the synagogue Bet Shira Congregation, and 30 windows were smashed.[350][351] In response, a neighboring church put a Star of David on its lawn, and its parish donated $1,000 towards repairing the windows.[350][352][353] Miami Sunset High School students painted over the anti-Semitic slurs spray-painted by the vandals.[354] Four teenagers, three of whom were football players at Miami Palmetto High School, were sentenced for having vandalized the synagogue to 200 hours of community service and ordered to pay the $14,800 ($30,600 today) in damages.[355][356]
Finland has no specific legislation aimed at controlling ownership, display, purchase, import or export of Nazi flags, however the Criminal Code (39/1889)[357] (especially Chapter 11 'War crimes and offences against humanity' Section 8)[357] may be applied where an offence has been directed at a person belonging to a national, racial, ethnic or other population group due to his/her membership in such a group.


Ruth Bader Ginsburg objected to the United States Supreme Court bar inscribing its certificates "in the year of our Lord", at the request of some Orthodox Jews who opposed it, and due to her objection, Supreme Court bar members have since been given other choices of how to inscribe the year on their certificates.[359]
On five occasions in six weeks vandals shot at windows at the synagogue Bet Shira Congregation.[360][361] Three teenagers, two of them students at Palmetto High School, were arrested for shooting out the windows.[362]
For his portrayal of Jewish nightclub owners Moe and Josh Flatbush in the 1990 film Mo' Better Blues, Spike Lee drew the ire of the Anti Defamation League, B'nai B'rith, and other such Jewish organizations. The Anti-Defamation League claimed that the characterizations of the nightclub owners "dredge up an age-old and highly dangerous form of anti-Semitic stereotyping", and stated it was "...disappointed that Spike Lee – whose success is largely due to his efforts to break down racial stereotypes and prejudice – has employed the same kind of tactics that he supposedly deplores."[363] Lee eventually responded in an editorial in The New York Times,[364] alleging "a double standard at work in the accusations of anti-Semitism" given the long history of negative portrayals of African-Americans in film: "Not every black person is a pimp, murderer, prostitute, convict, rapist or drug addict, but that hasn't stopped Hollywood from writing these roles for African-Americans". Lee argues that even if the Flatbush brothers are stereotyped figures, their "10 minutes of screen time" is insignificant when compared to "100 years of Hollywood cinema... [and] a slew of really racist, anti-Semitic filmmakers". According to Lee, his status as a successful African-American artist has led to hostility and unfair treatment: "Don't hold me to a higher moral standard than the rest of my filmmaking colleagues... Now that young black filmmakers have arisen in the film industry, all of a sudden stereotypes are a big issue... I think it's reaching the point where I'm getting reviewed, not my films." Ultimately, however, Lee refused to apologize for his portrayal of the Flatbush brothers: "I stand behind all my work, including my characters, Moe and Josh Flatbush... if critics are telling me that to avoid charges of anti-Semitism, all Jewish characters I write have to be model citizens, and not one can be a villain, cheat or a crook, and that no Jewish people have ever exploited black artists in the history of the entertainment industry, that's unrealistic and unfair."[365]
In France, the Gayssot Act, voted for on 13 July 1990, makes it illegal to question the existence of crimes that fall in the category of crimes against humanity as defined in the London Charter of 1945, on the basis of which Nazi leaders were convicted by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1945–46. When the act was challenged by Robert Faurisson, the Human Rights Committee upheld it as a necessary means to counter possible antisemitism.[366]
In a 1990 column defending John Demjanjuk, Pat Buchanan said:

Diesel engines do not emit enough carbon monoxide to kill anybody. In 1988, 97 kids, trapped 400 feet (120 m) underground in a Washington, DC, tunnel while two locomotives spewed diesel exhaust into the car, emerged unharmed after 45 minutes. Demjanjuk's weapon of mass murder cannot kill.[367]

When asked for his source, Buchanan said, "somebody sent it to me." Critic Jamie McCarthy says this claim may have come from the German American Information and Education Association's newsletter, a publication he accused of anti-Semitism and Holocaust denial. He also argues that:

Unlike the locomotive engineer in Buchanan's example, who was concerned with saving the lives of trapped people, the Nazis had no qualms about opening the engine's throttle and restricting the air intake.[368]

The Washington Post had reported in 1989, before the controversy, that:

An Amtrak train had been stalled in a tunnel for half an hour, and smoke from the diesel engine had filled the first car, where there were 97 fifth-grade pupils and 27 adult chaperones. [EMT Cynthia] Brown boarded the train, guided the passengers — most of whom suffered from smoke inhalation — from the car and assisted those who needed immediate attention.[369]

French literature professor Robert Faurisson was convicted and punished for Holocaust denial under the Gayssot Act in 1990.
The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, published in 1991, is a book that asserts that Jews dominated the Atlantic slave trade.[370][371][372] The book is 334 pages, includes 1,275 footnotes and over 3,000 sources, including Jewish journals, encyclopedias, newspapers and other publications. Jewish scholars and rabbis, Court records, shipping and estate records, runaway slave notices, auction notices, published sermons, census data, slave bills of sale and tax records are cited. Volume Two of The Secret Relationship was published in 2010, with the subtitle "How Jews Gained Control of the Black American Economy".[373] The book has been labeled an Antisemitic canard by some historians including Saul S. Friedman, who contends that Jews had a minimal role in New World slave trade.[374] Henry Louis Gates, Jr., head of the department of Afro-American studies at Harvard University, called the book "the Bible of new anti-Semitism" and added that "the book massively misinterprets the historical record, largely through a process of cunningly selective quotations of often reputable sources".[375]

The book was criticized for being antisemitic, and for failing to provide an objective analysis of the role of Jews in the slave trade. Common criticisms were that the book used selective quotes, made "crude use of statistics,"[376] and was purposefully trying to exaggerate the role of Jews.[377]

Historian Ralph A. Austen criticized the book, saying that the "distortions are produced almost entirely by selective citation rather than explicit falsehood.... more frequently there are innuendos imbedded in the accounts of Jewish involvement in the slave trade,"[378] and "[w]hile we should not ignore the anti-Semitism of The Secret Relationship..., we must recognize the legitimacy of the stated aim of examining fully and directly even the most uncomfortable elements in our [Black and Jewish] common past."[379] Austen acknowledges that the book was the first book on the subject aimed at a non-scholarly audience.[380]

In 1995, the American Historical Association (AHA) issued a statement condemning "any statement alleging that Jews played a disproportionate role in the Atlantic slave trade."[381]

The publication of The Secret Relationship spurred retorts published specifically to refute the thesis of The Secret Relationship:

  • 1992 – Harold Brackman, Jew on the Brain: A Public Refutation of the Nation of Islam's The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews.
  • 1992 – David Brion Davis, "Jews in the Slave Trade," in Culturefront (Fall 1992) pp 42–45.
  • 1993 – Seymour Drescher, "The Role of Jews in the Atlantic Slave Trade," Immigrants and Minorities, 12 (1993), pp 113–125.
  • 1993 – Marc Caplan, Jew-Hatred As History: An Analysis of the Nation of Islam's "The Secret Relationship" (Published by the Anti Defamation League).
  • 1998 – Eli Faber, Jews, Slaves, and the Slave Trade: Setting the Record Straight, New York University Press.
  • 1999 – Saul S. Friedman, Jews and the American Slave Trade, Transaction.

A post-1991 scholar who analyzed the role of Jews in the overall Atlantic slave trade concluded that it was "minimal," and only identified certain regions (such as Brazil and the Caribbean) where the participation was "significant."[382]

Wim Klooster wrote: "In no period did Jews play a leading role as financiers, shipowners, or factors in the Transatlantic or Caribbean slave trades. They possessed far fewer slaves than non-Jews in every British territory in North America and the Caribbean. Even when Jews in a handful of places owned slaves in proportions slightly above their representation among a town's families, such cases do not come close to corroborating the assertions of The Secret Relationship."[383]

The Anti-Defamation League states that Volume Two of The Secret Relationship blames Jews for "promoting a myth of black racial inferiority and makes a range of conspiratorial accusations about Jewish involvement in the slave trade and in the cotton, textiles, and banking industries".[384]

The United Nations's resolution determining that "Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination" was revoked.
The Crown Heights riot was a three-day racial riot that occurred from 19–21 August 1991 in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York City. It turned black residents and Orthodox Jewish residents against each other, causing deteriorated racial relations. The riots began on 19 August 1991, after two children of Guyanese immigrants were unintentionally struck by an automobile in the motorcade of Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the leader of a Jewish religious sect. One child died and the second was severely injured. This event was said to cause tensions between Jewish and black residents to erupt.

In its wake, several Jews were seriously injured; one Orthodox Jewish man was killed; and a non-Jewish man, apparently mistaken by rioters for a Jew, was killed by a group of black men. The riots were a major issue in the 1993 mayoral race, contributing to the defeat of Mayor David Dinkins, an African American, who was blamed for an ineffective police response. Ultimately, black and Jewish leaders developed an outreach program between their communities to help calm and possibly improve racial relations in Crown Heights over the next decade.[385]

In December 1991 the American Historical Association issued the following statement: The American Historical Association Council strongly deplores the publicly reported attempts to deny the fact of the Holocaust. No serious historian questions that the Holocaust took place. This followed a strong reaction by many of its members and commentary in the press against a near-unanimous decision that the AHA had made in May 1991 that studying the significance of the Holocaust should be encouraged. The association's May 1991 statement was in response to an incident where certain of its members had questioned the reality of the Holocaust. The December 1991 declaration is a reversal of the AHA's earlier stance that the association should not set a precedent by certifying historical facts.[386]
Second Hebron massacre. Baruch Goldstein, a Jew, kills several Muslim worshippers; this leads to riots that kill both Muslims and Jews.
On 1 March 1994, on the Brooklyn Bridge in New York City, Lebanese-born immigrant Rashid Baz shot at a van of 15 Chabad-Lubavitch Orthodox Jewish students that was traveling on the Brooklyn Bridge, killing one and injuring three others.[387] See 1994 Brooklyn Bridge shooting.
AMIA bombing against the Jewish community of Buenos Aires.
In February 1995 a Japanese magazine named Marco Polo, a 250,000-circulation monthly published by Bungei Shunju, ran a Holocaust denial article by physician Masanori Nishioka which stated:

The 'Holocaust' is a fabrication. There were no execution gas chambers in Auschwitz or in any other concentration camp. Today, what are displayed as 'gas chambers' at the remains of the Auschwitz camp in Poland are a post-war fabrication by the Polish communist regime or by the Soviet Union, which controlled the country. Not once, neither at Auschwitz nor in any territory controlled by the Germans during the Second World War, was there 'mass murder of Jews' in 'gas chambers.'[388]

The Los Angeles-based Simon Wiesenthal Center instigated a boycott of Bungei Shunju advertisers, including Volkswagen, Mitsubishi, and Cartier. Within days, Bungei Shunju shut down Marco Polo and its editor, Kazuyoshi Hanada, quit, as did the president of Bungei Shunju, Kengo Tanaka.[389]

In Belgium, Holocaust denial was made illegal in 1995.
In Turkey, in 1996, the Islamic preacher Harun Yahya distributed thousands of copies of a book which was originally published the previous year, entitled Soykırım Yalanı ("The Holocaust Lie") and mailed unsolicited texts to American and European schools and colleges.[390] The publication of Soykırım Yalanı sparked much public debate.[391] This book claims, "what is presented as Holocaust is the death of some Jews due to the typhus plague during the war and the famine towards the end of the war caused by the defeat of the Germans."[392] In March 1996, a Turkish painter and intellectual, Bedri Baykam, published a strongly worded critique of the book in the Ankara daily newspaper Siyah-Beyaz ("Black and White"). A legal suit for slander was brought against him. During the trial in September, Baykam exposed the real author of the book as Adnan Oktar.[391] The suit was withdrawn in March 1997.[393][394]
The depiction of Jews in some of T.S. Eliot's poems has led several critics to accuse him of anti-Semitism. This case has been presented most forcefully in a study by Anthony Julius: T. S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism, and Literary Form (1996).[395][396] In "Gerontion", Eliot writes, in the voice of the poem's elderly narrator, "And the jew squats on the window sill, the owner [of my building] / Spawned in some estaminet of Antwerp."[397] Another well-known example appears in the poem, "Burbank with a Baedeker: Bleistein with a Cigar". In this poem, Eliot wrote, "The rats are underneath the piles. / The jew is underneath the lot. / Money in furs."[398] Interpreting the line as an indirect comparison of Jews to rats, Julius writes, "The anti-Semitism is unmistakable. It reaches out like a clear signal to the reader." Julius's viewpoint has been supported by literary critics such as Harold Bloom,[399] Christopher Ricks,[207] George Steiner,[207] Tom Paulin[400] and James Fenton.[207]
This year the European Parliament, of which Jean-Marie Le Pen was then a member, removed his parliamentary immunity so that Le Pen could be tried by a German court for comments he made at a December 1996 press conference before the German Republikaner party. Echoing his 1987 remarks in France (see above), Le Pen stated: "If you take a 1,000-page book on World War II, the concentration camps take up only two pages and the gas chambers 10 to 15 lines. This is what one calls a detail." In June 1999, a Munich court found this statement to be "minimizing the Holocaust, which caused the deaths of six million Jews," and convicted and fined Le Pen for his remarks.[401] Le Pen retorted ironically: "I understand now that it's the Second World War which is a detail of the history of the gas chambers."[402]
Jean-Marie Le Pen accused Jacques Chirac of being "on the payroll of Jewish organizations, and particularly of the B'nai B'rith."[403][404]
In Luxembourg, Article 457–3 of the Criminal Code, Act of 19 July 1997 outlaws Holocaust denial and denial of other genocides.[405] The punishment is imprisonment for between 8 days and 6 months and/or a fine.[405]
In a May 1998 interview with ABC's John Miller, Osama bin Laden stated that the Israeli state's ultimate goal was to annex the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East into its territory and enslave its peoples, as part of what he called a "Greater Israel".[406] He stated that Jews and Muslims could never get along and that war was "inevitable" between them, and further accused the U.S. of stirring up anti-Islamic sentiment.[406] He claimed that the U.S. State Department and U.S. Department of Defense were controlled by Jews, for the sole purpose of serving the Israeli state's goals.[406]
In a December 1998 interview with Pakistani journalist Rahimullah Yusufzai, Osama bin Laden stated that Operation Desert Fox was proof that Israeli Jews controlled the governments of the United States and United Kingdom, directing them to kill as many Muslims as they could.[407]
Holocaust Remembrance Day has been commemorated as a national remembrance day in Sweden every year since 1999.
Abraham Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League, in an 11 October 1999, letter to the Washington Post claimed that A Republic, Not an Empire by Pat Buchanan "defends Charles Lindbergh against charges of anti-Semitism, not mentioning the infamous 1940 [sic] speech in which he accused the Jews of warmongering." Pat Buchanan denies this and points out Foxman's error, saying that he mentioned the 1941 speech to say it "ignited a national firestorm," which lingered after the aviator's death, and shows "the explosiveness of mixing ethnic politics and foreign policy."[408]
Richard Baumhammers was arrested in Paris, France for striking a 50-year-old female bartender named Vivianne Le Garrac because he "believed she was Jewish". Baumhammers then told both Le Garrac and the arresting officers that he was "mentally ill." The police took Baumhammers to the psychiatric ward of the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris for evaluation, then detained him at a police station. By week's end, he left on a flight for Spain.[409]
There were arson attacks against three synagogues in Sacramento -- Congregation B'nai Israel, Congregation Beth Shalom, and Knesset Israel Torah Center. The fires caused over $1 million in damage. On 17 March 2000, brothers Benjamin Matthew Williams and James Tyler Williams were charged with setting the three synagogue fires and a 2 July fire at the Country Club Medical center, which housed an abortion clinic.[410] The charges carried up to 235 years in prison.[411] Matthew Williams later admitted to reporters that he was one of eight or nine men who set fire to the synagogues and the clinic; he also claimed that his brother Tyler had not been involved.[412]
1999 August 10
Buford O. Furrow, Jr. kills mail carrier Joseph Santos Ileto and shoots five people in the August 1999 Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting.

Twenty-first century

Craig Raine, in his books In Defence of T. S. Eliot (2001) and T. S. Eliot (2006), sought to defend Eliot from the charge of anti-Semitism. Reviewing the 2006 book, Paul Dean stated that he was not convinced by Raine's argument. Nevertheless, he concluded, "Ultimately, as both Raine and, to do him justice, Julius insist, however much Eliot may have been compromised as a person, as we all are in our several ways, his greatness as a poet remains."[207] In another review of Raine's 2006 book, the literary critic Terry Eagleton also questioned the validity of Raine's defense of Eliot's character flaws as well as the entire basis for Raine's book, writing, "Why do critics feel a need to defend the authors they write on, like doting parents deaf to all criticism of their obnoxious children? Eliot's well-earned reputation [as a poet] is established beyond all doubt, and making him out to be as unflawed as the Archangel Gabriel does him no favours."[413]
Richard Baumhammers walked to the home of his next-door neighbor, a 63-year-old Jewish woman named Anita "Nicki" Gordon and fatally shot her, then set her house on fire.[414] Some time after that, he drove to the Beth El Congregation in Scott Township, where Gordon was a member of the synagogue. There, he fired into the windows of the synagogue, then exited his vehicle and spray-painted two red swastikas on the building.[415] Baumhammers later drove to the Ahavath Achim Congregation in Carnegie where he shattered the synagogue's glass windows with gunfire.
In April 2000 the International League against Racism and Anti-Semitism and Union des étudiants juifs de France (the Union of French Jewish Students) brought a case against Yahoo! in which it objected to the auctioning of Nazi memorabilia, in France, via Yahoo!'s website on the basis that it contravened Article R645-1.[416] Though a French judge initially ordered Yahoo! to take measures to make it impossible for users in France to purchase any Nazi memorabilia through the Yahoo! site, in December 2001, the US District Court for the Northern District of California ruled that Yahoo! would be shielded from the judgement of the French court.[417]
The Temple Beth El building, but not the sanctuary, was heavily damaged[418] in an arson attack on 13 October 2000.[419] Palestinian-American Ramsi Uthman was convicted in the attack.[420] Ahed Shehadeh was convicted of aiding and abetting the arson.[419] According to Shehadeh's testimony, after Uthman set fire to the Temple, he yelled "I did this for you, God!"[421] In exchange for his testimony Shehadeh received a five-year prison sentence, and was released in 2008. Uthman received the maximum possible sentence of 25 years, to be served in New York's Attica Correctional Facility, although he will be eligible for parole in 2021.[422] The building reopened in 2001[418] after repairing some $700,000 of damage from the attack.[421]
Firebombing of a New York synagogue (Conservative Synagogue Adath Israel of Riverdale), 2000 New York terror attack.
The Canadian provinces of Alberta,[423] Manitoba and Nova Scotia[424] enacted legislation to recognize Holocaust Memorial Day in 2000.[425]
On 22 November 2000, Judge Edward R. Korman announced a settlement of the World Jewish Congress lawsuit against Swiss banks with his approval of a plan featuring the payment of $1.25 billion into funds controlled by the Israeli Banking Trust. Judah Gribetz was appointed Special Master to administer the plan, which is sometimes called the Gribetz Plan after its chief author.[426]
David Irving v Penguin Books and Deborah Lipstadt is a case in English law, decided in 2000, against American author Deborah Lipstadt and her publisher Penguin Books, filed in an English court by the British author David Irving in 1996, asserting that Lipstadt had libeled him in her book Denying the Holocaust. The court ruled that the Irving's claim of libel relating to English defamation law and Holocaust denial was not valid because his deliberate distortion of evidence has been shown to be substantially true. English libel law puts the burden of proof on the defence, meaning that it was up to Lipstadt and her publisher to prove that her claims of Irving's deliberate misrepresentation of evidence to conform to his ideological viewpoints were substantially true. Lipstadt hired British-Jewish lawyer Anthony Julius while Penguin hired libel experts Kevin Bays and Mark Bateman of media law firm Davenport Lyons. Richard J. Evans, an established historian, was hired by the defence to serve as an expert witness. Evans spent two years examining Irving's work, and presented evidence of Irving's misrepresentations, including evidence that Irving had knowingly used forged documents as source material. Upon mutual agreement, the case was argued as a bench trial before Mr. Justice Charles Gray, who produced a written judgment 333 pages long in favour of the defendants, in which he detailed Irving's systematic distortion of the historical record of World War II.
During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Does it have anything to do with the failed peace talks?" ... "So I think we need to be very suspicious of any kind of partnerships between the Jews at that kind of level because we know that their interest primarily has to do with money and these kind of things."[427]

NAACP President Kweisi Mfume immediately suspended Alcorn and condemned his remarks. Mfume stated, "I strongly condemn those remarks. I find them to be repulsive, anti-Semitic, anti-NAACP and anti-American. Mr. Alcorn does not speak for the NAACP, its board, its staff or its membership. We are proud of our long-standing relationship with the Jewish community and I personally will not tolerate statements that run counter to the history and beliefs of the NAACP in that regard."[427]

Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn criticized the NAACP, saying, "I can't support the leadership of the NAACP. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[427] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. For this reason I gladly offer my resignation and my membership to the NAACP because I cannot work under these constraints."[428]

Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. Bush's rival Republican presidential campaign. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[427]

Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Lieberman was to be welcomed as a positive step."[429] The leaders of the American Jewish Congress praised the NAACP for its quick response, stating that: "It will take more than one bigot like Alcorn to shake the sense of fellowship of American Jews with the NAACP and black America... Our common concerns are too urgent, our history too long, our connection too sturdy, to let anything like this disturb our relationship."[430]

During the World Conference against Racism 2001, in Durban, two delegations, the United States and Israel, withdraw from the conference due to their objections to a draft document equating Zionism with racism.
Every year since 2001, there has been an annual national memorial to the victims of the Holocaust in the United Kingdom.
In Belgium in 2001, Roeland Raes, the ideologue and vice-president of one of the country's largest political parties, the Vlaams Belang (formerly named Vlaams Blok, Flemish Bloc), gave an interview on Dutch TV where he cast doubt over the number of Jews murdered by the Nazis during the Holocaust. In the same interview he questioned the scale of the Nazis' use of gas chambers and the authenticity of Anne Frank's diary. In response to the media assault following the interview, Raes was forced to resign his position but vowed to remain active within the party.[431] Three years later, the Vlaams Blok was convicted of racism and chose to disband. Immediately afterwards, it legally reformed under the new name Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) with the same leaders and the same membership.[432]
Slovakia criminalized denial of fascist crimes in general in late 2001; in May 2005, the term "Holocaust" was explicitly adopted by the penal code and in 2009, it became illegal to deny any act regarded by an international criminal court as genocide.
Untersturmführer Julius Viel was convicted in 2001 of shooting seven Jewish prisoners from the Theresienstadt concentration camp in 1945.[433][434]
2001 May 4
At the 17th meeting of the International Liaison Committee in New York, Catholic Church officials state that they will change how Judaism is dealt with in Catholic seminaries and schools. In part, they state:
The curricula of Catholic seminaries and schools of theology should reflect the central importance of the Church's new understanding of its relationship to Jews....Courses on Bible, developments by which both the Church and rabbinic Judaism emerged from early Judaism will establish a substantial foundation for ameliorating "the painful ignorance of the history and traditions of Judaism of which only negative aspects and often caricature seem to form part of the stock ideas of many Christians". (See notes on the Correct Way to Present Jews and Judaism in Catholic Preaching and Catechesis, #27, 1985[435])
...Courses dealing with the biblical, historical and theological aspects of relations between Jews and Christians should be an integral part of the seminary and theologate curriculum, and not merely electives. All who graduate from Catholic seminaries and theology schools should have studied the revolution in Catholic teaching on Jews and Judaism from Nostra aetate to the prayer of Pope John Paul II in Jerusalem at the Western Wall on 26 March 2000....For historic reasons, many Jews find it difficult to overcome generational memories of anti-Semitic oppression. Therefore: Lay and Religious Jewish leaders need to advocate and promote a program of education in our Jewish schools and seminaries – about the history of Catholic-Jewish relations and knowledge of Christianity and its relationship to Judaism....Encouragement of dialogue between the two faiths does involve recognition, understanding and respect for each other's beliefs, without having to accept them. It is particularly important that Jewish schools teach about the Second Vatican Council, and subsequent documents and attitudinal changes that opened new perspectives and possibilities for both faiths.
In a letter released in late 2002, Osama Bin Laden stated that Jews controlled the civilian media outlets, politics, and economic institutions of the United States.[436]
In Romania, Emergency Ordinance No. 31 13 March 2002 prohibits Holocaust denial. It was ratified on 6 May 2006. The law also prohibits racist, fascist, xenophobic symbols, uniforms and gestures: proliferation of which is punishable with imprisonment from between six months to five years.
During the Watergate affair, there were suggestions that Billy Graham had agreed with many of President Richard Nixon's antisemitic opinions, but he denied them and stressed his efforts to build bridges to the Jewish community. In 2002, the controversy was renewed when declassified "Richard Nixon tapes" confirmed remarks made by Graham to Nixon three decades earlier.[437] Captured on the tapes, Graham agreed with Nixon that Jews control the American media, calling it a "stranglehold" during a 1972 conversation with Nixon, and suggesting that if Nixon was re-elected, they might be able to do something about it.[438] When the tapes were made public, Graham apologized[439][440] and said, "Although I have no memory of the occasion, I deeply regret comments I apparently made in an Oval Office conversation with President Nixon ... some 30 years ago. ... They do not reflect my views and I sincerely apologize for any offense caused by the remarks."[441] According to Newsweek magazine, "[T]he shock of the revelation was magnified because of Graham's longtime support of Israel and his refusal to join in calls for conversion of the Jews."[440]
On 4 July 2002, a lone gunman opened fire at the airline ticket counter of El Al, Israel's national airline, at Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. Two people were killed and four others were injured before the gunman was fatally shot by a security guard after also being wounded by him. This was the 2002 Los Angeles International Airport shooting.
Pat Buchanan said

There was nothing immoral, or unwise, about the isolationists' position of 1940–41. Because of the courageous efforts of Lindbergh and America First, the United States stayed out of the war until Hitler threw the full force of his war machine against Stalin. Thus, the Soviet Union, not America’s young, bore the brunt of defeating Nazi Germany.[442]

In an interview for the magazine Lyon Capitale in January 2002, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala described "the Jews" as "a sect, a fraud, which is the worst of all, because it was the first" and said he preferred "the charisma of bin Laden to that of Bush".[443]
During a 2002 white supremacist terror plot, a pair of white supremacists planned to bomb a series of institutions and people associated with African American and American Jewish communities.[444][445][446] Targets included the United States Holocaust Museum, the New England Holocaust Memorial; well-known Jews, including Steven Spielberg; and black leaders, including Rev. Jesse Jackson.[444]
Massive European wave of attacks on Jews and Jewish institutions between March and May, with largest number of attacks occurring in France.
In January 2002, the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal delivered a ruling in a complaint involving Holocaust denier Ernst Zündel's website, in which it was found to be contravening the Canadian Human Rights Act. The court ordered Zündel to cease communicating hate messages.
Bulgaria officially designates 10 March as Holocaust Remembrance Day and the "Day of the Salvation of the Bulgarian Jews and of the Victims of the Holocaust and of the Crimes against Humanity".[447]
The Southern Baptist Convention passed a resolution "On Anti-Semitism" stating in part, "RESOLVED, That the messengers to the Southern Baptist Convention meeting in Phoenix, Arizona, June 17–18, 2003, denounce all forms of anti-Semitism as contrary to the teachings of our Messiah and an assault on the revelation of Holy Scripture; and be it further

RESOLVED, That we affirm to Jewish people around the world that we stand with them against any harassment that violates our historic commitments to religious liberty and human dignity; and be it finally

RESOLVED, That we call on governmental and religious leaders across the world to stand against all forms of bigotry, hatred, or persecution."[448]

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals's "Holocaust on your Plate" exhibition consisted of eight 60-square-foot (5.6 m2) panels, each juxtaposing images of the Holocaust with images of factory-farmed animals. Photographs of concentration camp inmates were displayed next to photographs of battery chickens, and piled bodies of Holocaust victims next to a pile of pig carcasses. Captions alleged that "like the Jews murdered in concentration camps, animals are terrorized when they are housed in huge filthy warehouses and rounded up for shipment to slaughter. The leather sofa and handbag are the moral equivalent of the lampshades made from the skins of people killed in the death camps."[449]

The exhibition was funded by an anonymous Jewish philanthropist,[450] and created by Matt Prescott, who lost several relatives in the Holocaust. Prescott said: "The very same mindset that made the Holocaust possible – that we can do anything we want to those we decide are 'different or inferior' – is what allows us to commit atrocities against animals every single day. ... The fact is, all animals feel pain, fear and loneliness. We're asking people to recognize that what Jews and others went through in the Holocaust is what animals go through every day in factory farms."[450]

However, Abraham Foxman, chairman of the Anti-Defamation League, said the exhibition was "outrageous, offensive and takes chutzpah to new heights ... The effort by PETA to compare the deliberate systematic murder of millions of Jews to the issue of animal rights is abhorrent."[450] Stuart Bender, legal counsel for the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, wrote to PETA asking them to "cease and desist this reprehensible misuse of Holocaust materials."[451]

On 20 February 2009, the German Federal Constitutional Court dismissed a legal move challenging an appeal court's ruling that People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals's campaign was not protected by free speech laws. While not entering formal proceedings to decide in the matter, the court expressed severe doubts as to whether the campaign constituted an offense against human rights in its opinion to dismiss the appeal, as had been found by the orderly courts, but acceded to the other grounds of the former rulings that the campaign constituted a trivialization of the Holocaust and hence a severe violation of living Jews' personality rights.[452] The subtleties of the ruling are sometimes not reflected adequately in press reports.[453]

On Yom Ha'atzmaut 2003, a Molotov cocktail was thrown through one of the synagogue Valley Beth Shalom's stained-glass windows.
2003 October 16
The Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohammed draws a standing ovation at the 57-member Organisation of the Islamic Conference for his speech. An excerpt: "[Muslims] are actually very strong. 1.3 billion people cannot be simply wiped out. The Nazis killed 6 million Jews out of 12 million. But today the Jews rule this world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them. They invented socialism, communism, human rights and democracy so that persecuting them would appear to be wrong so they may enjoy equal rights with others. With these they have now gained control of the most powerful countries. And they, this tiny community, have become a world power."
Romania officially denied the Holocaust occurred on its territory up until the Wiesel Commission in 2004.[454][455]
National Holocaust Memorial Day has been recognized in Greece since 2004.Greek: Εθνική Ημέρα Μνήμης Ολοκαυτώματος (Ethniki Imera Mnimis Olokaftomatos), since 2004.[456]
The film The Passion of The Christ was released in 2004. Before the film was even released, there were prominent criticisms of perceived antisemitic content in the film. 20th Century Fox told New York Assemblyman Dov Hikind they had passed on distributing the film in response to a protest outside the News Corporation building. Hikind warned other companies that "they should not distribute this film. This is unhealthy for Jews all over the world."[457]

A joint committee of the Secretariat for Ecumenical and Inter-religious Affairs of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Department of Inter-religious Affairs of the Anti-Defamation League obtained a version of the script before it was released in theaters. They released a statement, calling it

one of the most troublesome texts, relative to anti-Semitic potential, that any of us had seen in twenty-five years. It must be emphasized that the main storyline presented Jesus as having been relentlessly pursued by an evil cabal of Jews, headed by the high priest Caiaphas, who finally blackmailed a weak-kneed Pilate into putting Jesus to death. This is precisely the storyline that fueled centuries of anti-Semitism within Christian societies. This is also a storyline rejected by the Roman Catholic Church at Vatican II in its document Nostra aetate, and by nearly all mainline Protestant churches in parallel documents. ... Unless this basic storyline has been altered by Mr. Gibson, a fringe Catholic who is building his own church in the Los Angeles area and who apparently accepts neither the teachings of Vatican II nor modern biblical scholarship, The Passion of the Christ retains a real potential for undermining the repudiation of classical Christian anti-Semitism by the churches in the last forty years.[458]

The ADL itself also released a statement about the yet-to-be-released film:

For filmmakers to do justice to the biblical accounts of the passion, they must complement their artistic vision with sound scholarship, which includes knowledge of how the passion accounts have been used historically to disparage and attack Jews and Judaism. Absent such scholarly and theological understanding, productions such as The Passion could likely falsify history and fuel the animus of those who hate Jews.[459]

Rabbi Daniel Lapin, the head of the Toward Tradition organization, criticized this statement, and said of Foxman, the head of the ADL, "what he is saying is that the only way to escape the wrath of Foxman is to repudiate your faith".[460]

In The Nation, reviewer Katha Pollitt said: "Gibson has violated just about every precept of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops own 1988 'Criteria' for the portrayal of Jews in dramatizations of the Passion (no bloodthirsty Jews, no rabble, no use of Scripture that reinforces negative stereotypes of Jews, etc.) [...] The priests have big noses and gnarly faces, lumpish bodies, yellow teeth; Herod Antipas and his court are a bizarre collection of oily-haired, epicene perverts. The 'good Jews' look like Italian movie stars (Italian sex symbol Monica Bellucci is Mary Magdalene); Mary, who would have been around 50 and appeared 70, could pass for a ripe 35."[461] Jesuit priest Fr. William Fulco, S.J., of Loyola Marymount University—and the film's Hebrew dialogue translator—specifically disagreed with that assessment, and disagreed with concerns that the film accused the Jewish community of deicide.[462]

One specific scene in the film perceived as an example of anti-Semitism was in the dialogue of Caiaphas, when he states "His blood [is] on us and on our children!", a quote historically interpreted by some as a curse taken upon by the Jewish people. Certain Jewish groups asked this be removed from the film. However, only the subtitles were removed; the original dialogue remains in the Hebrew soundtrack.[463] When asked about this scene, Gibson said: "I wanted it in. My brother said I was wimping out if I didn't include it. But, man, if I included that in there, they'd be coming after me at my house. They'd come to kill me."[464] In another interview when asked about the scene, he said, "It's one little passage, and I believe it, but I don't and never have believed it refers to Jews, and implicates them in any sort of curse. It's directed at all of us, all men who were there, and all that came after. His blood is on us, and that's what Jesus wanted. But I finally had to admit that one of the reasons I felt strongly about keeping it, aside from the fact it's true, is that I didn't want to let someone else dictate what could or couldn't be said."[465]

Additionally, the film's suggestion that the Temple's destruction was a direct result of the Jews' actions towards Jesus could also be interpreted as an offensive take on an event which Jewish tradition views as a tragedy, and which is still mourned by many Jews today on the fast day of Tisha B'Av.[466]

Asked by Bill O'Reilly if his movie would "upset Jews", Gibson responded, "It's not meant to. I think it's meant to just tell the truth. I want to be as truthful as possible."[467] In a Globe and Mail newspaper interview, he added: "If anyone has distorted Gospel passages to rationalize cruelty towards Jews or anyone, it's in defiance of repeated Papal condemnation. The Papacy has condemned racism in any form. ... Jesus died for the sins of all times, and I'll be the first on the line for culpability".[468]

Conservative columnist Cal Thomas also disagreed with allegations of antisemitism, saying "To those in the Jewish community who worry that the film [...] might contain anti-Semitic elements, or encourage people to persecute Jews, fear not. The film does not indict Jews for the death of Jesus."[469] Two Orthodox Jews, Rabbi Daniel Lapin and conservative talk-show host and author Michael Medved, also vocally rejected claims that the film is anti-Semitic. They have noted the film's many sympathetic portrayals of Jews: Simon of Cyrene (who helps Jesus carry the cross), Mary Magdalene, the Virgin Mary, St. Peter, St. John, Veronica (who wipes Jesus' face and offers him water) and several Jewish priests who protest Jesus' arrest (Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea) during Caiaphas' trial of Jesus.

Bob Smithouser of Plugged in Online believed that film was trying to convey the evils and sins of humanity rather than specifically targeting Jews, stating: "The anthropomorphic portrayal of Satan as a player in these events brilliantly pulls the proceedings into the supernatural realm—a fact that should have quelled the much-publicized cries of anti-Semitism since it shows a diabolical force at work beyond any political and religious agendas of the Jews and Romans."[470]

Moreover, Senior Vatican officer Cardinal Darío Castrillón Hoyos, who has seen the film, addressed the matter so:

Anti-Semitism, like all forms of racism, distorts the truth in order to put a whole race of people in a bad light. This film does nothing of the sort. It draws out from the historical objectivity of the Gospel narratives sentiments of forgiveness, mercy, and reconciliation. It captures the subtleties and the horror of sin, as well as the gentle power of love and forgiveness, without making or insinuating blanket condemnations against one group. This film expressed the exact opposite, that learning from the example of Christ, there should never be any more violence against any other human being.[471]

The first National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust in Romania was held in 2004.[472]
2004 April
United Talmud Torah school library is firebombed in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
2004 May
Jewish organizations and leaders protest Estonia's erection of a statue commemorating Alfons Rebane, an Estonian SS volunteer accused of serving as a "a Nazi executioner"[473] who was "responsible for the slaughter of thousands of Jews and Russians between 1941 and 1945."[473]
2004 June
A series of attacks on Jewish cemeteries in Wellington, New Zealand.
2004 September
The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, a part of the Council of Europe, called on its member nations to "ensure that criminal law in the field of combating racism covers anti-Semitism" and to penalize intentional acts of public incitement to violence, hatred or discrimination, public insults and defamation, threats against a person or group, and the expression of antisemitic ideologies. It urged member nations to "prosecute people who deny, trivialize or justify the Holocaust". The report was drawn up in wake of a rise in attacks on Jews in Europe. The report said it was Europe's "duty to remember the past by remaining vigilant and actively opposing any manifestations of racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance... Anti-Semitism is not a phenomenon of the past and... the slogan 'never again' is as relevant today as it was 60 years ago." ()
The European Union has recognized International Holocaust Remembrance Day since 2005.[474]
In 2005 the United States had a "moment of silence" on the 60th anniversary of the surrender of Nazi Germany.
Dieudonné M'bala M'bala declared during a press conference in Algiers that the Central Council of French Jews CRIF (Conseil représentatif des institutions juives de France) was a "mafia" that had "total control over French policy exercise", called the commemoration of the Holocaust "memorial pornography"[475] ("pornographie mémorielle"), and claimed that the "Zionists of the Centre National de la Cinématographie," which "control French cinema" prevented him from making a film about the slave trade.[476][477] Dieudonné was also trying to appear as a spokesman for French blacks, but, after some initial sympathy, notably from the novelist Calixthe Beyala, the journalists Antoine Garnier and Claudy Siar, as well as the founding members of the Conseil représentatif des associations noires (CRAN), he increasingly met with their rejection.[478]
In 2005 the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood leader, Mohammed Mahdi Akef, denounced what he called "the myth of the Holocaust" in defending Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's denial of the Holocaust.[479]
2005 September
Throughout the Polish election Radio Maryja continued to promote antisemitic views, including denial of the facts of the Jedwabne pogrom in 1941. Their support of right-wing conservative Law and Justice party is considered a major factor in their electoral victory.[480]
A group of 15 members of the State Duma of Russia demands that Judaism and Jewish organizations be banned from the country. In June, 500 prominent Russians demand that the state prosecutor investigate ancient Jewish texts as "anti-Russian" and ban Judaism. The investigation was launched, but halted among international outcry.
The 2005 Los Angeles bomb plot was a 2005 effort by a group of ex-convicts calling themselves Jamiyyat Ul-Islam Is-Saheeh to bomb several military bases, a number of synagogues, and an Israeli consulate in California.[481]

On 31 August 2005, Kevin James and three other men were indicted on terrorism charges related to conspiracy to attack military facilities in the Los Angeles area and of attempting to fund their campaign by robbing gas stations in Southern California over the previous three months. Kevin James, a Muslim convert, was accused of founding a radical Islamic group called J.I.S (Jam’iyyat Ul-Islam Is-Saheehجمعية الإسلام الصحيح, Arabic for "Assembly of Authentic Islam") from his cell in Folsom Prison in California, and of recruiting fellow inmates to join his mission to kill infidels.[482]

Prince Harry was photographed at Highgrove House at a "Colonial and Native" themed costume party wearing a Nazi German Afrika Korps uniform with a swastika armband.[483] He later issued a public statement apologising for his behavior.[484]
International Holocaust Remembrance Day was designated by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 60/7 on 1 November 2005 during the 42nd plenary session.[485]
2005 December
Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad widens the hostility between Iran and Israel by denying the Holocaust during a speech in the Iranian city of Zahedan. He made the following comments on live television: "They have invented a myth that Jews were massacred and place this above God, religions and the prophets." Continuing, he suggested that if the Holocaust had occurred, that it was the responsibility of Europeans to offer up territory to Jews: "This is our proposal: give a part of your own land in Europe, the United States, Canada or Alaska to them [the Jews] so that the Jews can establish their country." See Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel
On 11 December 2006, the Iranian state-sponsored "International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust" opened to widespread condemnation.[486] The conference, called for by and held at the behest of Ahmadinejad,[487] was widely described as a "Holocaust denial conference" or a "meeting of Holocaust deniers",[488] though Iran denied it was a Holocaust denial conference.[489] A few months before it opened, the Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi stated: "The Holocaust is not a sacred issue that one can't touch. I have visited the Nazi camps in Eastern Europe. I think it is exaggerated."[490]
John Gudenus received a one-year suspended sentence for breaking the Verbotsgesetz, Austria's laws against denying or diminishing the Holocaust.[491] Gudenus had suggested that it was necessary to verify the existence of gas chambers in Nazi Germany and later remarked that there had been gas chambers in Poland but not in Germany.[491]
In 2006, Mel Gibson was arrested for driving under the influence (DUI) while speeding in his vehicle with an open container of alcohol, which is illegal in much of the United States. According to the arrest report, Gibson exploded into an angry tirade when the arresting officer would not allow him to drive home. Gibson climaxed with the words, "Fucking Jews... the Jews are responsible for all the wars in the world. Are you a Jew?"[492][493]
In 2006, sixty of Arthur Butz's colleagues from the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science faculty signed a censure describing Butz's Holocaust denial as "an affront to our humanity and our standards as scholars".[494] The letter also called for Butz to "leave our Department and our University and stop trading on our reputation for academic excellence".[494]
The Netherlands rejected a draft law proposing a maximum sentence of one year on denial of genocidal acts in general, although specifically denying the Holocaust remains a criminal offense there.
Dieudonné M'bala M'bala was sentenced to a penalty of €4,500 for defamation after having called a prominent Jewish television presenter a "secret donor of the child-murdering Israeli army".[495]
2006 February
A French Jew, Ilan Halimi is kidnapped and tortured to death for 23 days in what Paris police have officially declared an antisemitic act.[496] The event causes international outcry.[497] On 9 May, the Helsinki Commission held a briefing titled "Tools for Combating Anti-Semitism: Police Training and Holocaust Education".[498]
2006 February
In February 2006 David Irving was convicted in Austria, where Holocaust denial is illegal, for a speech he had made in 1989 in which he denied the existence of gas chambers at Auschwitz.[499] Irving was aware of the outstanding arrest warrant, but chose to go to Austria anyway "to give a lecture to a far-right student fraternity".[499] Although he pleaded guilty to the charge, Irving said he had been "mistaken", and had changed his opinions on the Holocaust. "I said that then, based on my knowledge at the time, but by 1991 when I came across the Eichmann papers, I wasn't saying that anymore and I wouldn't say that now. The Nazis did murder millions of Jews."[500] Irving served 13 months of a 3-year sentence in an Austrian prison, including the period between his arrest and conviction, and was deported in early 2007.[499]
2006 July
Naveed Afzal Haq kills Pamela Waechter and injures five others in the July 2006 Seattle Jewish Federation shooting.
2006 December
The International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust was a two-day conference that opened on 11 December 2006 in Tehran, Iran; many saw it as a conference rife with antisemitism, anti-Zionism, and Holocaust denial.
Elie Wiesel was attacked in a San Francisco hotel by 22-year-old Holocaust denier Eric Hunt in February 2007, but was not injured. Hunt was arrested the following month and charged with multiple offenses.[501][502]
In May 2007 Ekrem Ajanovic, a Bosniak MP in the Bosnian Parliament proposed a legislation on criminalizing the denial of Holocaust, genocide and crimes against humanity. This was the first time that somebody in Bosnia and Herzegovina's Parliament proposed such a legislation. Bosnian Serb MPs voted against this legislation and proposed that such an issue should be resolved within the Criminal Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[503] Following this, on 6 May 2009 Bosniak MPs Adem Huskic, Ekrem Ajanovic and Remzija Kadric proposed to the BH parliament a change to the Criminal Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina where Holocaust, genocide and crimes against humanity denial would be criminalized.[504] Bosnian Serb MPs have repeatedly been against such a legislation claiming that the law "would cause disagreement and even animosity" according to SNSD member Lazar Prodanovic.[505]
In October 2007, a tribunal declared Spain's Holocaust denial law unconstitutional.[506]
On 15 November 2007, an appellate court sentenced Dieudonné M'bala M'bala to a €5,000 fine because he had characterized "the Jews" as "slave traders" after being attacked in le Théâtre de la Main d'Or.[507]
In 2007 Italy rejected a Holocaust denial law proposing a prison sentence of up to four years.
On 15 February 2007, Holocaust denier Ernst Zündel was convicted on 14 counts of incitement under Germany's Volksverhetzung law, which bans the incitement of hatred against a portion of the population, and given the maximum sentence of five years in prison.[508]
On 7 July 2007, the Vatican released Pope Benedict XVI's motu proprio entitled, Summorum Pontificum which permitted more widespread celebration of Mass according to the "Missal promulgated by Pope John XXIII in 1962". Jewish reactions to the motu proprio underlined their concern that the traditional formulation of the Good Friday prayer for the Jews, which Jews felt offensive, would be more broadly used.

In the form in which they appear in the 1962 Missal, the set of prayers in which that of the Jews is included are for: the Holy Church, the Supreme Pontiff; all orders and grades of the faithful (clergy and laity); public officials (added in 1955, replacing an older prayer for the Holy Roman Emperor, not used since the abdication of Francis II in 1806 but still printed in the Roman Missal); catechumens; the needs of the faithful; heretics and schismatics; the conversion of the Jews (without the word "perfidis"); the conversion of pagans.

In later editions of the Missal, the prayers are for: the Church; the Pope, the clergy and laity of the Church; those preparing for baptism; the unity of Christians, the Jewish people; those who do not believe in Christ; those who do not believe in God; all in public office; those in special need.[509]

2007 August/September
The Jewish state, Israel, is shocked to find a neo-Nazi group of immigrants (from Russia) called Patrol 36 committing vandalism and voicing anti-Semitic rhetoric within its borders. Some members had immigrated under the Law of Return. One of that group's members was a grandchild of a Holocaust survivor, and all were of Jewish descent. The group was violent against gays, Ethiopian Jews, haredi Jews, and drug addicts.[510]
2007 and 2008
Pope Benedict XVI, via the document Summorum Pontificum, officially revives the Tridentine mass, which contains a Good Friday prayer asking for the conversion of the Jews. This leads to criticism from Jewish leaders, charging that the prayer is anti-Semitic. The Vatican subsequently issues a statement condemning anti-Semitism, but is reluctant to remove the prayer. and Benedict visits the Park East Synagogue in an April 2008 visit to New York, which is apparently well-received, with the congregants and the Pope exchanging gifts with each other.[511][512]

Jewish communities around the world are rocked by firebombings, assaults, and death threats during a spate of Antisemitic incidents during the Gaza War.

On 8 September 2009, the Harvard Crimson school paper ran a paid Holocaust denial ad from Bradley R Smith. It was quickly criticized and an apology was issued from the editor, claiming it was a mistake.[513]
The Southern Baptist Convention passed a resolution stating in part, "RESOLVED, That we join in prayer for the peace of Jerusalem (Psalm 122:6-7), calling upon world leaders to renounce the growing tide of anti-Semitism".[514]
On 26 June 2008, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala was sentenced in the highest judicial instance to a €7,000 fine for his characterization of Holocaust commemorations as "memorial pornography".[476]
On 26 December 2008, at an event at the Parc de la Villette in Paris, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala awarded the Holocaust denier Robert Faurisson an "insolent outcast" prize [prix de l'infréquentabilité et de l'insolence]. The award was presented by one of Dieudonné's assistants, Jacky, dressed in a concentration camp uniform with a yellow badge. This caused a scandal[515] and earned him his sixth court conviction to date.
The universal permission given to priests by Pope Benedict XVI in 2007 to celebrate as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite the Tridentine Mass as printed in the 1962 Roman Missal was followed by complaints from Jewish groups and some Catholic leaders over what they perceived as a return to a supersessionist theology that they saw expressed in the 1960 Good Friday prayer for the Jews. In response to the complaints, Pope Benedict amended the Good Friday prayer.[516] On 6 February 2008, the Vatican newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano, published a note [517] of the Secretariat of State announcing that Pope Benedict XVI had amended the Good Friday prayer for the Jews contained in the 1962 Roman Missal, and decreeing that the amended text "be used, beginning from the current year, in all celebrations of the Liturgy of Good Friday according to the aforementioned Missale Romanum".

The new prayer reads as follows:

Let us also pray for the Jews: That our God and Lord may illuminate their hearts, that they acknowledge Jesus Christ is the Savior of all men. (Let us pray. Kneel. Rise.) Almighty and eternal God, who want that all men be saved and come to the recognition of the truth, propitiously grant that even as the fullness of the peoples enters Thy Church, all Israel be saved. Through Christ Our Lord. Amen.[518]

Even the new formulation met with reservations from groups such as the Anti-Defamation League. They considered the removal of "blindness" and "immersion in darkness" with respect to the Jews an improvement over the original language in the Tridentine Mass, but saw no reason why the prayer in the rite as revised by Paul VI was not used instead.

2008 26–29 November
Mumbai, India: Nariman House, a Chabad Lubavitch Jewish centre in Colaba known as the Mumbai Chabad House, was taken over by two Pakistani terrorists and several residents were held hostage. The house was stormed by NSG commandos and, after a long battle, the two attackers were killed. Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife Rivka, who was six months pregnant, were murdered with other hostages inside the house by the attackers. Indian forces found the body of six hostages inside the house.
Swedish television broadcast an interview recorded at the Society of St. Pius X's seminary in Zaitzkofen, Bavaria. During the interview, Richard Williamson expressed a belief that Nazi Germany did not use gas chambers during the Holocaust and that a total of between 200,000 and 300,000 Jews were killed. Based upon these statements, the Bishop was immediately charged with and convicted of Holocaust denial by a German court. The Holy See declared that Pope Benedict had been unaware of Williamson's views when he lifted the excommunication of four bishops including him, and that Williamson would remain suspended from his episcopal functions until he unequivocally and publicly distanced himself from his position on the Holocaust.[519][520] In 2010 Williamson was convicted of incitement in a German court in relation to those views; the conviction was later vacated on appeal[521] but then reinstated on retrial in early 2013.[522] He appealed again, but his appeal was rejected.
In August 2009, Hamas refused to allow Palestinian children to learn about the Holocaust, which it called "a lie invented by the Zionists" and referred to Holocaust education as a "war crime".[523]
On 27 February 2009, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala was ordered to pay 75,000 Canadian dollars in Montreal to singer and actor Patrick Bruel for defamatory statements. He had called Bruel a "liar" and an "Israeli soldier".[524]
On 26 March 2009, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala was fined €1,000 and ordered to pay €2,000 in damages for having defamed Elisabeth Schemla, a Jewish journalist who ran the now-defunct Proche-Orient.info website. He declared on 31 May 2005 that the website wanted to "eradicate Dieudonné from the audiovisual landscape" and had said of him that "he's an anti-Semite, he's the son of Hitler, he will exterminate everyone".[525]
On 27 October 2009, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala was sentenced to a fine of €10,000 for "public insult of people of Jewish faith or origin" related to his show with Robert Faurisson.[526] Dieudonné appealed to the European Court of Human Rights, which rejected his case on 10 November 2015.[527]
On 29 January 2009, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala celebrated the 80th birthday of Holocaust denier Robert Faurisson in his theater, in the midst of a representative gathering of Holocaust deniers, right-wing radicals, and radical Shiites.[528]
Kevin Myers attracted criticism for a 2009 article for the Irish Independent in which he claims: "There was no holocaust (or Holocaust, as my computer software insists) and six million Jews were not murdered by the Third Reich. These two statements of mine are irrefutable truths".[529][530][531] In the article, Myers criticises the 6-million figure – though he says "millions of Jews were murdered" – and criticises the term holocaust because "[m]ost Jewish victims of the Third Reich were not burnt in the ovens in Auschwitz. They were shot by the hundreds of thousands in the Lebensraum of the east, or were worked or starved to death in a hundred other camps, across the Reich." Overall, he states: "I'm a holocaust denier; but I also believe that the Nazis planned the extermination of the Jewish people, as far as their evil hands could reach."[531]
Tapes were released in which Billy Graham is heard in a 1973 conversation with Richard Nixon referring to Jews and "the synagogue of Satan". A spokesman for Graham said that Graham has never been an antisemite and that the comparison (in accord with the context of the quotation in the Book of Revelation[532]) was directed specifically at those claiming to be Jews, but not holding to traditional Jewish values.[533]
In a 14 April 2009, column, Pat Buchanan likened the persecution of John Demjanjuk to that of Jesus Christ on Calvary Hill, stating:

It is the same Satanic brew of hate and revenge that drove another innocent Man up Calvary that first Good Friday 2,000 years ago.[534]

2009 April
Members of the Lithuanian Jewish community report significant increases in anti-Semitism. Local Jewish leader Simonas Aperavicius notes anti-Semitism in the Lithuanian media.[535]
2009 May
On 20 May 2009, US law enforcement arrested four men in connection with a plot to shoot down military airplanes flying out of an Air National Guard base in Newburgh, New York, and blow up two synagogues in the Riverdale community of the Bronx.[536][537] The group, led by James Cromitie, was tried and all four were convicted. It was later brought to light that the four men were actually encouraged into participating in the plot by the FBI. The men argue that this was a case of entrapment. See 2009 Bronx terrorism plot.
2009 June
A lone 88-year-old gunman and Neo-Nazi, James von Brunn enters the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., shooting and fatally wounding Stephen Tyrone Johns, a security officer of African-American descent.[538] See: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum shooting
In 2010 the Parliament of Hungary adopted legislation punishing the denial of the genocides committed by National Socialist or Communist systems, without mentioning the word "Holocaust".[539]
On 8 June 2010, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala was sentenced to a fine of €10,000 for defamation towards the International League against Racism and Anti-Semitism, which he had called "a mafia-like association that organizes censorship".[540]
In 2011, the first man was charged with Holocaust denial in Budapest. The Court sentenced the man to 18 months in prison, suspended for three years, and probation. He also had to visit either Budapest's memorial museum, Auschwitz or Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. He chose his local Holocaust Memorial Center and had to make three visits in total and record his observations.[541]
In 2011, J. Z. Knight stated, among other things, "Fuck God’s chosen people! I think they have earned enough cash to have paid their way out of the goddamned gas chambers by now."[542]
The 2011 Manhattan terrorism plot was a conspiracy by two Muslim Arab-Americans to bomb various targets in the Manhattan borough of New York City, New York, USA. They had planned to attack an unspecified synagogue and one of them expressed interest in blowing up a church and the Empire State Building. New York City law enforcement arrested the two suspects, 26-year-old Ahmed Ferhani and 20-year-old Mohamed Mamdouh, in a sting operation on 11 May 2011. Their plot was motivated primarily by "hatred of infidels and anti-semitism" according to the authorities.[543]
After the town of Wunsiedel became the scene of pilgrimages and neo-Nazi demonstrations every August on the date of Rudolf Hess's death, the parish council decided not to allow an extension on the grave site's lease when it expired in 2011.[544] With the eventual consent of his family, Hess's grave was re-opened on 20 July 2011 and his remains were exhumed, and then cremated. His ashes were scattered at sea by family members; the gravestone, which bore the epitaph "Ich hab's gewagt" ("I have dared"), was destroyed.[545]
2012 March
Mohammed Merah, a 23-year-old Algerian Muslim kills four Jews (including three children) outside a school in Toulouse, France.[546]
Jew Pond, a small body of water in Mont Vernon, New Hampshire, is officially renamed Carleton Pond.[547]
Section 335 of the Act C of 2012 on the Criminal Code of Hungary regulates the "use of symbols of totalitarianism", including the swastika, the insignia of the SS, the arrow cross, the hammer and sickle, and the five-pointed red star.[548]
In February 2012, a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints performed a posthumous baptism for Simon Wiesenthal's parents without proper authorization.[549] After his own name was submitted for proxy baptism, Elie Wiesel spoke out against the unauthorized practice of posthumously baptizing Jews and asked presidential candidate and Latter-day Saint Mitt Romney to denounce it. Romney's campaign declined to comment, directing such questions to church officials.[550]
In an interview with CNN, newly elected Iranian President Hassan Rouhani was quoted as condemning the Holocaust, stating, "I can tell you that any crime that happens in history against humanity, including the crime the Nazis created towards the Jews as well as non-Jews is reprehensible and condemnable. Whatever criminality they committed against the Jews, we condemn."[551] Iranian media later accused CNN of fabricating Rouhani’s comments.[552]
In December, while performing onstage, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala was recorded saying about prominent French Jewish radio journalist Patrick Cohen: "Me, you see, when I hear Patrick Cohen speak, I think to myself: ‘Gas chambers... too bad.”’"[553]
On 31 December, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala released a 15-minute video proposing that "2014 will be the year of the quenelle!".[554] In it, Dieudonné attacks "bankers" and "slavers", so as not to say "Jews"[555] and end up in a lawsuit, and calls upon his followers, "quenelleurs"—those who listen and follow him—towards a hatred of Jews.[555]
Louis Farrakhan made antisemitic comments during his 16–17 May 2013 visit to Detroit[556] and in his weekly sermons titled "The Time and What Must Be Done", begun during January 2013.[557]
In his official 2013 Nowruz address, Supreme Leader of Iran Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei questioned the veracity of the Holocaust, remarking that "The Holocaust is an event whose reality is uncertain and if it has happened, it's uncertain how it has happened."[558][559] This was consistent with Khamenei's previous comments regarding the holocaust.[560]
On 6 January, France's interior minister Manuel Valls said that performances considered anti-Semitic may be banned by local officials. Within hours, Bordeaux became the first French city to ban Dieudonné M'bala M'bala when mayor Alain Juppé canceled a local appearance planned as part of a scheduled national tour,[561] followed closely by Nantes,[562] Tours, Orleans, Toulouse, Limoges, and Biarritz. The show in Switzerland will go on as scheduled, while other cities are still studying the situation.[563] The Paris Prefect of Police on 10 January prohibited Dieudonné from staging his next three upcoming shows at his Paris theatre.[564] In February, Dieudonné was banned from entry in the United Kingdom.[565]
2014 April 14
Antisemitic Ku Klux Klan leader Frazier Glenn Cross, also known as Frazier Glenn Miller, kills three non-Jewish people at a Jewish community center and a Jewish retirement in home in Overland Park, Kansas, the day before the start of Passover.[566][567]
2014 May
Residents of a village in Spain called Castrillo Matajudíos ("Jew-killer Camp") since 1627 vote to change the name of the village to the older name Castrillo Mota de Judíos ("Hill of Jews Camp").[568][569] The name is changed in June 2015.[570]
The Mayors United Against Antisemitism initiative was developed by the American Jewish Committee in July 2015 and launched in Europe later in 2015.[571]
The Porte de Vincennes siege occurred at a Hypercacher kosher superette in Porte de Vincennes (20th arrondissement of Paris) in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo shooting two days earlier, and concurrently with the Dammartin-en-Goële hostage crisis in which the two Charlie Hebdo gunmen were cornered.

Amedy Coulibaly had pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, and was a close friend of Saïd Kouachi and Chérif Kouachi (whom he had met in jail in 2005), the gunmen in the Charlie Hebdo attack. Armed with a submachine gun, an assault rifle, and two Tokarev pistols, he entered and attacked the people in the kosher food superette. He had a female accomplice, speculated to be his wife, Hayat Boumeddiene.[572] Coulibaly murdered four Jewish hostages, and held fifteen other hostages during a siege in which he demanded that the Kouachi brothers not be harmed. The police ended the siege by storming the store and killing Coulibaly.

On 10 January 2015, following the Charlie Hebdo shooting, the Porte de Vincennes siege of a kosher supermarket, and the 1,500,000-strong "march against hatred" in Paris, Dieudonné M'bala M'bala wrote on Facebook "As far as I am concerned, I feel I am Charlie Coulibaly."[573] In this way he mixed the popular slogan "Je suis Charlie", used to support the journalists killed at the Charlie Hebdo magazine, with a reference to Amedy Coulibaly who was responsible for the hostage-taking at the kosher supermarket which included the killing of four Jews.[574] On 13 January, Dieudonné was arrested in Paris, accused of publicly supporting terrorism,[575] based on his earlier Facebook comments where he appeared to support the kosher supermarket gunman Amedy Coulibaly.[576] Dieudonné's arrest over his "Je suis Charlie Coulibaly" comments sparked discussion over a perceived hypocrisy concerning freedom of speech, contrasting his bans and arrest, with the freedom for Charlie Hebdo to publish controversial cartoons of Muhammad.[577][578]
In 2015, the House of Cartoon and the Sarcheshmeh Cultural Complex in Iran organized the International Holocaust Cartoon Competition, a competition in which artists were encouraged to submit cartoons on the theme of Holocaust denial. Hamshahri, a popular Iranian newspaper, held a similar contest in 2006.
Within hours of his being announced as Jon Stewart's successor, attention was drawn on the Internet to several jokes that Trevor Noah had made through his Twitter account, which were criticized as being offensive to women and Jews,[579][580][581] and to be making fun of the Holocaust.[582] Noah responded by tweeting, "To reduce my views to a handful of jokes that didn't land is not a true reflection of my character, nor my evolution as a comedian."[583] Comedy Central stood behind Noah, saying in a statement, "Like many comedians, Trevor Noah pushes boundaries; he is provocative and spares no one, himself included... To judge him or his comedy based on a handful of jokes is unfair. Trevor is a talented comedian with a bright future at Comedy Central."[584] Mary Kluk, chairperson of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies (SAJBD), said that the jokes were not signs of anti-Jewish prejudice and that they were part of Noah's style of comedy.[585]
In March 2015, Louis Farrakhan accused Jews of involvement in the September 11 attacks.[586]
In June 2015 Laurent Louis got a suspended 6-month sentence for breaking the 1995 Belgian law against Holocaust denial and lost his right to run for office in the next six years. He filed an appeal.[587] Louis was ordered by the Belgian Court of Appeal in 2017, in lieu of a sentence and fine, to visit one Nazi concentration camp a year for the next five years.[588][589]
January 2015
In January 2015, the Hungarian court ordered far-right on-line newspaper Kuruc.info to delete its article denying the Holocaust published in July 2013, which was the first ruling in Hungary of its kind.[590] The Association for Civil Liberties (TASZ) offered free legal aid to the website as a protest against restrictions on freedom of speech,[591] but the site refused citing the liberal views of the association, and also refused to delete the article.[592]
January 2015
Spray-painted swastikas were drawn on the outside wall of a Jewish fraternity at U.C. Davis, on the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz from the Nazis.[593]
January 2015
La Mort aux Juifs was a hamlet under the jurisdiction of the French commune of Courtemaux in the Loiret department in north-central France. Its name has been translated as "Death to Jews"[594][595] or "The death of the Jews".[596] Under pressure from the national authorities, the municipal council retired the name in January 2015.[597] A similar request about the name had been denied in 1992.[598] The area is now split between the nearby hamlets of Les Croisilles and La Dogetterie.
2015 January 10
French terrorist Amedy Coulibaly takes hostages in a kosher supermarket in Paris in the course of the Charlie Hebdo shooting.[599] He claims in the media that he wanted to kill Jews.[600]
2015 March
Stanford University student senate candidate Molly Horwitz was asked by a student group how her Jewish faith would affect her decision-making.[593]
2015 October
The Catholic Church in Poland publishes a letter referring to antisemitism as a sin against the commandment to love one's neighbor. The letter also acknowledged the heroism of those Poles who risked their lives to shelter Jews as Nazi Germany carried out the Holocaust in occupied Poland. The bishops who signed the letter cited the Polish Pope John Paul II who was opposed to antisemitism, and believed in founding Catholic-Jewish relations.[601]
2015 October
Facebook has been accused of being a public platform used to incite terrorism. In October 2015, 20,000 Israelis claimed that Facebook was ignoring Palestinian incitement on its platform and filed a class-action suit demanding that Facebook remove all posts "containing incitement to murder Jews".[602]
2015 December
The Vatican releases a 10,000-word document that, among other things, states that Jews do not need to be converted to find salvation, and that Catholics should work with Jews to fight antisemitism.[603][604][605]
2015 December
The United Nations officially recognizes Yom Kippur, stating that from then on no official meetings will take place on the day.[606] As well, the United Nations states that, beginning in 2016, they will have nine official holidays and seven floating holidays which each employee will be able to choose one of.[606] It stated that the floating holidays will be Yom Kippur, Day of Vesak, Diwali, Gurpurab, Orthodox Christmas, Orthodox Good Friday, and Presidents' Day.[606] This is the first time the United Nations officially recognizes any Jewish holiday.[606]
Natasha Waldorf of Alameda, who was Jewish, was subjected to two boys sending her text messages that included the word "kike" and other anti-Semitic insults, and the picture of product mascot Mr. Clean in a Nazi uniform called "Mr. Ethnic Cleansing." Two other students joked about the Holocaust and, when she confronted them, told her that "Hitler should have finished the job."[607]
Amidst an ongoing controversy in the Labour Party about antisemitism, Naz Shah was discovered by blogger Paul Staines in April 2016 to have reposted a Facebook meme in August 2014 supporting the relocation of Israel to the USA.[608] Shah also commented on the post, suggesting the plan might "save them some pocket money".[609] In July 2014, she wrote on Facebook about a newspaper poll concerning alleged Israeli war crimes in the Gaza conflict that "The Jews are rallying to the poll" and in September appeared to compare Israeli policies to those of Adolf Hitler.[610] Shah asserted that her views on Israel had moderated in the 20 months since the post and on 26 April 2016 she resigned from her unpaid post as John McDonnell's PPS[611] while still holding her seat on the Home Affairs Select Committee investigating the rise of antisemitism in the UK. She was suspended by the Labour Party on 27 April 2016,[612] forfeiting all roles.
In April 2016, Ken Livingstone commented publicly on the suspension of Labour MP Naz Shah; she had been removed from the party after it was revealed that she had made comments on Facebook suggesting that Israeli Jews should be relocated to the United States.[613] Livingstone stated that Shah's postings, which were made before she became an MP at the 2015 general election, were "completely over the top" and "rude",[614] although he did not deem them antisemitic.[615] He asserted that there is a "well-orchestrated campaign by the Israel lobby to smear anybody who criticises Israeli policy as antisemitic",[616] and also stated that Adolf Hitler "was supporting Zionism before he went mad and ended up killing six million Jews".[614]

He defended his claims by reference to Lenni Brenner's Zionism in the Age of the Dictators,[617] and many commentators suggested that Livingstone was referring to the Haavara Agreement between Nazi Germany and the Zionist Federation of Germany.[618][619][620][621] Livingstone's statements were criticised by historians,[622][623] among them Roger Moorhouse, who said that they were historically inaccurate.[624] He also became involved in a public argument on the subject with the Labour MP John Mann.[625]

Livingstone was subsequently suspended from Labour Party membership "for bringing the party into disrepute".[626] Over 20 Labour MPs called for Livingstone's suspension, while Jon Lansman, founder of the pro-Corbyn Momentum group, called for Livingstone to leave politics altogether,[626] and Khan called for his expulsion from the party.[617] In a subsequent interview, Livingstone expressed regret both for mentioning Hitler and for offending Jews but added that "I'm not going to apologise for telling the truth."[627][628] Corbyn announced that the decision to expel Livingstone would be made by a National Executive Committee internal inquiry, whilst Livingstone insisted that he would be exonerated on the basis of Brenner's book, saying "how can the truth be an offence?"[629] Following this controversy, Livingstone has questioned whether or not he has Jewish ancestry on his mother's side stating that Greville Janner used to speculate whether or not he was Jewish because "my grandmother’s name was Zona."[630]

Livingstone was sacked in Spring 2016 by LBC. He was quoted by The Daily Telegraph as saying this was because of his comments about Hitler.[631]

The U.C. Board of Regents approved a set of Principles Against Intolerance, which condemns "anti-Semitism" and which, in an opening contextual statement, includes "anti-Semitic forms of anti-Zionism" as something that has "no place at the University of California." The principles, passed unanimously at a 23 March board meeting in San Francisco, apply to students and faculty at all 10 U.C. campuses, though the document includes no enforcement mechanism or consequences for violations.[632]
An ethics rule of the American Bar Association now forbids comments or actions that single out someone on the basis of religion, as well as other factors.[633]
Richard B. Spencer and his organization drew considerable media attention in the weeks following the 2016 presidential election, where, in response to his cry "Hail Trump, hail our people, hail victory!", a number of his supporters gave the Nazi salute similar to the Sieg Heil chant used at the Nazis' mass rallies. Spencer has defended their conduct, stating that the Nazi salute was given in a spirit of "irony and exuberance".[634]
The campus chapter of Students for Justice in Palestine at the University of California, Irvine was sanctioned because they disrupted a program hosted by a Jewish campus group in May and intimidated Jewish students.[635]
Ted Nugent posted an image on his Facebook page implying that Jews were responsible for gun control.[636] Nugent's antisemitic rant sparked outrage and gun owners called for his NRA resignation.[637]
The nations that make up the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe began a three-year initiative to promote awareness and learning about anti-Semitism and to help the security of Jewish communities.[638]
On 13 November 2016, Steve Bannon, formerly the executive chair of Breitbart News, was appointed chief strategist and senior counselor to President-elect Donald Trump.[639] This appointment drew opposition from the Anti-Defamation League, the Council on American–Islamic Relations, the Southern Poverty Law Center, Democrat Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid, and some Republican strategists, because of statements in Breitbart News that were alleged to be racist or anti-Semitic.[640][641][642][643][644]

Ben Shapiro,[644][645][646] Bernard Marcus of the Republican Jewish Coalition,[647] Morton Klein[648] and the Zionist Organization of America,[647] Pamela Geller,[649] Shmuley Boteach,[650] and David Horowitz[651] defended Bannon against the allegations of antisemitism. Alan Dershowitz first defended Bannon and said there was no evidence he was anti-semitic,[652][653] but in a later piece stated that Bannon and Breitbart had made bigoted statements against Muslims, women, and others.[654] The ADL said "we are not aware of any anti-Semitic statements from Bannon", while adding "under his stewardship, Breitbart has emerged as the leading source for the extreme views of a vocal minority who peddle bigotry and promote hate."[655] Shapiro, who previously worked for Breitbart, said that he has no evidence of Bannon being racist or an anti-Semite, but that he was "happy to pander to those people and make common cause with them in order to transform conservatism into European far-right nationalist populism",[656] an assertion supported by other sources and his alluding to Front National politician Marion Maréchal-Le Pen as "the new rising star".[657]

In December 2016, the neo-Nazi and white supremacist website The Daily Stormer published a list of six local Jews in Whitefish, Montana along with their personal information, claiming that they were harming the business of Richard Spencer's mother and asking readers to "take action" against them.[658][659][660] Whitefish police increased local patrols, and monitored Internet activity; Montana politicians and community groups responded with various efforts to focus attention on the question of antisemitism.[661][662] On 28 Dec. 2016, Spencer indicated that he did not want to bring ongoing national attention to Whitefish with his political views, and an offer was made to call off a proposed armed march against Jews, Jewish businesses and people who support either in the town.[663][664] The march was postponed because the proper permitting materials were not submitted and the required fee was not paid.[665]
The Court of Appeals of Liège confirmed a first instance sentence of two months of jail time and a 9.000 euros fine for Dieudonné M'bala M'bala's anti-Semitic remarks in a performance on Herstal on 14 March 2012.[666]
With the beginning of the year, a wave of threats, including bomb threats, were made against Jewish Community Centers and other Jewish institutions in the United States.[667] Juan M. Thompson, an African American former journalist for The Intercept, was arrested and charged with making at least eight of the hoax threats, as well as a threat made against the Anti-Defamation League, while allegedly impersonating a former girlfriend.[668] Another suspect, an unidentified 19-year-old Israeli-American man, was arrested in Ashkelon, Israel and charged with responsibility for "dozens" of the threats.[669]
Brutal Murder of Sarah Halimi in Paris 4 April 2017. The murderer is a Muslim migrant from Mali, commenced a typical hate crime, crying "Allahu Abkar", mentioning his victim's ethnicity and religion but pretended to be mad and still hidden in psychology hospital instead of prison.
Sebastian Gorka appeared on Fox News on the evening of the U.S. presidential inauguration wearing a badge, tunic, and ring associated with Order of Vitéz.[670][671] According to some sources, Gorka was a member of the Order of Vitéz by inheritance, a group the US State Department lists as a Nazi-linked group.[670][672] This has given rise to claims that Gorka himself carries sympathy for the Nazis.[673][674][675][676] His father, Paul Gorka, was never a member of this Order and received a "Vitéz" (literally: "Valiant") medal from Hungarian exiles "for his resistance to dictatorship" in 1979.[677] Gorka himself stated that he wears this medal in remembrance of his father, who was awarded the decoration for his efforts to create an anti-Communist, pro-democracy organization at the university he attended in Hungary.[678] Robert Kerepeszki, Hungarian expert of the Order of Vitéz, has confirmed that there were ruptures in the organization of the Order of Vitéz on the question of Nazism during the war, many of them died fighting against Hungarian Nazis, and Gorka's medal had nothing to do with the war period, but was awarded "for his resistance to dictatorship."[679][675][680]
Leaders of one of two successor organisations of the Vitézi Rend stated that Sebastian Gorka was an official member of the Historical Vitézi Rend faction, to which he is said to have taken a lifelong oath of loyalty. Gorka denied the allegations.[681] The Anne Frank Center for Mutual Respect, the National Jewish Democratic Council, and the Interfaith Alliance have called for Gorka's resignation over his ties to Hungarian far-right groups.[682] The Anti-Defamation League has asked Gorka to disavow the Hungarian far-right groups that he has been associated with.[683] Democratic Senators Ben Cardin, Dick Durbin and Richard Blumenthal sent a letter to the Department of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security requesting that the DHS look into whether Gorka "illegally procured his citizenship" by omitting membership in Historical Vitézi Rend, which could have been grounds for keeping him out of the country.[684][685][686]
Chicago Dyke March organizers singled out and approached a group of women carrying Jewish pride flags and began questioning them on their political stance in regards to Zionism and Israel, and then after a discussion asked them to leave the event, insisting that their presence "made people feel unsafe".[687] The organizers attributed the responses of the women and the white star of David, featured at the center of the rainbow flag as a "zionist expression". This prompted widespread accusations of antisemitism.[688]
In the early morning hours of 28 June 2017, one of the 9 feet (2.7 m) glass panels on the New England Holocaust Memorial was smashed with a rock.[689][690]
In Ukraine, some men vandalized the Space of Synagogues [Holocaust] memorial display; they wrote neo-Nazi slogans and the English words "white power", and drew a swastika and ultranationalist Ukrainian symbols.[691]
Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary, made a speech in which he called Miklós Horthy an "exceptional statesman" and gave him the credit for the survival of Hungary. The U.S. Holocaust Museum then issued a statement denouncing Orbán and the Hungarian government for trying to "rehabilitate the reputation of Hungary’s wartime leader, Miklos Horthy, who was a vocal anti-Semite and complicit in the murder of the country’s Jewish population during the Holocaust."[692]
The BBC removed a line from one of its online articles which had offended Jews and Muslims; the line had stated, "The Holocaust is a sensitive topic for many Muslims because Jewish survivors settled in British-mandate Palestine, on land which later became the state of Israel."[693]
Antisemitic fliers were circulated around Lakewood, New Jersey.[694]
An antisemitic banner was found in front of a Holocaust memorial at a synagogue in Lakewood, New Jersey.[694]
Fliers were found around Little Italy saying among other things, "We are killing off the entire white race by making them addicted to cocaine, crack, meth, spiked marijuana, ecstasy, spice, heroine, hash and other poisons, Adolph Hilter’s [sic] Nazi’s [sic] killed off six million ugly Jews by telling them to go into showers to get cleaned up for their new lives, then they locked the shower doors and poisoned them all to death with a deadly gas, and finally they grabbed all of the dead Jew’s properties."[695]
The chairpersons of Chicago SlutWalk wrote, "We still stand behind Dyke March Chicago’s decision to remove the Zionist contingent from their event, & we won’t allow Zionist displays at ours", referring to a then-upcoming demonstration of theirs. The Chicago SlutWalk's organizers made the following declaration about the Star of David, "its connections to the oppression enacted by Israel is too strong for it to be neutral & IN CONTEXT [at the Dyke March Chicago event] it was used as a Zionist symbol."[696]
A resolution was passed by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors against "verbal and violent anti-Semitic assaults, both nationally and in the Bay Area"; the resolution also contained a promise to "stand in solidarity with Jewish and other communities whenever they are targeted or marginalized."[697]
A Jewish cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri was vandalized in an apparent anti-Semitic incident in February 2017,[698] after which Linda Sarsour worked with other Muslim activists to launch a crowdfunding campaign to raise money to repair the damage and restore the gravesites. More than $125,000 was raised, and Sarsour pledged to donate any funds not needed at the cemetery to other Jewish community centers or sites targeted by vandalism. She said the fundraising effort would "send a united message from the Jewish and Muslim communities that there is no place for this type of hate, desecration, and violence in America".[699][700] St. Louis's United Hebrew Congregation Senior Rabbi, Brigitte S. Rosenberg, whose congregants had family members buried in the vandalized cemetery, called the campaign "a beautiful gesture".[701] However, the project generated some controversy as the funds were not distributed as quickly as some had expected.[702] In 2018, Alzado Harris confessed to the desecration.[703][704]
Imam Sheikh Ammar Shahin gave an anti-semitic sermon at the Islamic Center of Davis, but apologized for it a few days later.[705]
At the end of July 2017, Kevin Myers contributed an article entitled "Sorry, ladies - equal pay has to be earned" to the Irish edition of The Sunday Times about the lower income of female presenters working for the BBC,[706] after it was reported that two thirds of the BBC's top paid stars were men and only one of its top ten best paid presenters is a woman.[707] He speculated: "Is it because men are more charismatic performers? Because they work harder? Because they are more driven? Possibly a bit of each"[708] and that men might be paid more because they "work harder, get sick less frequently and seldom get pregnant".[709] Myers further alleged that Claudia Winkleman and Vanessa Feltz are higher paid than other female presenters because they are Jewish.[709] He wrote: "Jews are not generally noted for their insistence on selling their talent for the lowest possible price, which is the most useful measure there is of inveterate, lost-with-all-hands stupidity". The editor of the Irish edition, Frank Fitzgibbon, issued a statement saying in part "This newspaper abhors anti-Semitism and did not intend to cause offence to Jewish people". Martin Ivens, editor of The Sunday Times, said the article should not have been published. Ivens and Fitzgibbon apologised for publishing it.[708] After complaints from readers and the Campaign Against Antisemitism, the article was removed from the website.[709] It has been announced by the newspaper that Myers will not write for The Sunday Times again.[706] Myers was defended by the chair of the Jewish Representative Council of Ireland, Maurice Cohen, who said that Myers was not antisemitic, but had rather "inadvertently stumbled into an antisemitic trope. … Branding Kevin Myers as either an antisemite or a Holocaust denier is an absolute distortion of the facts."[710] Myers apologised for this article on radio, saying that "it is over for me professionally as far as I can see", and that "I think they [Jewish people] are the most gifted people who have ever existed on this planet and civilisation owes an enormous debt to them – I am very, very sorry that I should have so offended them."[711]

The Unite the Right rally was a gathering of far-right groups in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, on 11 and 12 August 2017.[712][713] On the evening of Friday, 11 August, a group of white nationalistsvariously numbered at dozens,[714] around 100,[715] and hundreds[712]marched through the University of Virginia's campus while chanting things including "Jews will not replace us",[713] and the Nazi slogan "Blood and Soil".[712][714][716][715] On 12 August protesters and counterprotesters gathered at Emancipation Park (formerly known as Lee Park). White nationalist protesters chanted Nazi-era slogans,[713] including "Blood and Soil".[716][717] They shouted among other things, "Jews will not replace us."[713] Some held posters targeting Jews that read "the Goyim know", using the Hebrew word for non-Jews, as well as "the Jewish media is going down".[712] Also on 12 August, an attendee drove his car into a crowd of people protesting the rally, killing 32-year-old Heather D. Heyer and injuring 19 others, in what police have called a deliberate attack.[718][719][720] The driver was identified as James Alex Fields Jr.; following the crash, his former high school history teacher said he was a Nazi sympathizer who held white supremacist views and was infatuated with Adolf Hitler.[718][721][722] Two hours before the crash, a New York Daily News photographer snapped James brandishing a wooden shield emblazoned with the logo for neo-Nazi group Vanguard America, standing alongside its members. However, after he was arrested, the group issued a statement denying he was a member and saying "the shields were freely handed out to anyone in attendance."[723]

Several internet companies, such as domain registrar GoDaddy and video game chat application Discord, shut down services for neo-Nazi, white supremacist, alt-right website The Daily Stormer for violation of terms of service, and in response to the violence in Charlottesville, Virginia (see above item).[724][725]
On 14 August 2017, the New England Holocaust Memorial was damaged for the second time in as many months, by a 17-year-old who threw a rock at one of the glass panels.[726]
Two classroom windows at Temple Israel in Alameda were smashed.[727]
Ruth Thomann, the manager of the Paradies Arosa hotel in Switzerland, stated that it was wrong of her to post signs telling "Jewish guests" to shower before entering the pool and to use the refrigerator at set times, which she had done that year.[728]
Extremists marked the death of Adolf Hitler's deputy, Rudolf Hess, in Berlin. However, protestors blocked them from going to the former Spandau prison, where Hess hanged himself in 1987.[729]
Antisemitic graffiti was written on the walls of Oakland's Temple Sinai on Rosh Hashanah.[730]
ProPublica stated in September that a website was able to target ads at Facebook users who were interested in "how to burn Jew" and "Jew hater". Facebook removed the categories and said it would try to stop them from appearing to potential advertisers.[731]
An October 18 cartoon in the Daily Californian depicting Alan Dershowitz was denounced as anti-semitic by UC Berkeley Chancellor Carol Christ; Dershowitz agreed that the cartoon was anti-semitic.[732][733] In an editorial on 25 October, Daily Californian editor Karim Doumar stated, "The criticisms we received reaffirms for us a need for a more critical editing eye, and a stronger understanding of the violent history and contemporary manifestations of anti-Semitism."[733]
In October 2017, Nigel Farage asserted in a LBC radio broadcast that the "Jewish lobby" in the United States was more concerning to him than Russian interference in American politics, saying: "There are other very powerful lobbies in the United States of America, and the Jewish lobby, with its links with the Israeli government, is one of those strong voices...There are about 6 million Jewish people living in America, so as a percentage it's quite small, but in terms of influence it's quite big."[734][735] Farage's remarks were condemned by the Campaign Against Antisemitism[735] and the Anti-Defamation League, which said that Farage's comment "plays into deep-seated anti-Semitic tropes" and was fuel for extremist conspiracy theories.[734]
Lecturer Hatem Bazian was denounced by UC Berkeley for retweeting cartoons the school decided had "crossed the line" into anti-Semitism. Bazian apologized and said "the image is offensive and does not represent my views or the anti-racist work that I do."[736] The cartoons were first tweeted by Ron Hughes and later retweeted by Bazian.[736]
When Linda Sarsour was scheduled to deliver a commencement speech at the City University of New York (CUNY) in June 2017, some American conservatives strongly opposed her selection as speaker.[737][738] Dov Hikind, a Democratic Party state assemblyman in New York, sent Governor Andrew Cuomo a letter objecting to the choice of Sarsour as speaker, signed by 100 Holocaust survivors.[737][739] Hikind objected to Sarsour's role based on her previously having spoken alongside Rasmea Odeh, who was convicted by an Israeli court for taking part in a bombing that killed two civilians in 1969.[737] Sarsour maintained that she had nothing to apologize for, saying that questions existed about the integrity of Odeh's conviction, that her beliefs had been misrepresented, and that criticism of Israeli policies was being conflated with anti-Semitism. She ascribed the critical reaction to her speech to her prominent role as an organizer for the 2017 Women's March.[737][739] The university chancellor, the dean of the college, and a group of professors defended her right to speak, as did some Jewish groups,[737][739] including Jews for Racial and Economic Justice.[740] A group of prominent left-leaning Jews signed an open letter condemning attacks on Sarsour and promising "to [work] alongside her for a more just and equal society".[741] Jonathan Greenblatt of the Anti-Defamation League defended Sarsour's First Amendment right to speak despite opposing her views on Israel.[742][743] A rally in support of Sarsour took place in front of New York's City Hall. Constitutional scholar Fred Smith Jr. tied the controversy to broader disputes over freedom of speech in America.[737]
Academy of the Holy Cross in Maryland fired Greg Conte because of his involvement with a white nationalist think tank, Richard Spencer’s National Policy Institute.[744][745] Conte had also written on Twitter that “Hitler did not commit any crimes.”[744]
It was announced that Germany agreed to grant monetary compensation to Jews who were persecuted in Algeria during World War II; this marks the first time for Jews who resided in Algeria between July 1940 and November 1942 to be compensated by the German government.[746][747]
On 16 March 2018, Trayon White posted a video on his official Facebook page showing snow flurries falling, alluding to the Rothschild family conspiring to manipulate the weather. In his post, he stated, "Y'all better pay attention to this climate control, man, this climate manipulation ... And that's a model based off the Rothschilds controlling the climate to create natural disasters they can pay for to own the cities, man. Be careful."[748] The comment was widely reported in the Washington media as an endorsement of an anti-Semitic conspiracy theory.[749] The Washington City Paper reported on 19 March that this was not the first time White alluded to a Jewish conspiracy to control global weather.[750] White later apologized for making the statement,[748] and said he was working with Jews United for Justice to develop a deeper understanding of anti-semitism.[750]
Austrian foreign minister Karin Kneissl recalled diplomat Jürgen-Michael Kleppich from Israel after he was photographed wearing a t-shirt with slogans linked to Nazism.[751]
In April of 2018, Syracuse University permanently expelled Theta Tau after video of members surfaced that the university chancellor considered to be "extremely racist, anti-Semitic, homophobic, sexist and hostile to people with disabilities."[752]
Israeli lawmakers Yuval Steinitz and Oren Hazan accused Jerusalem-born actress Natalie Portman of antisemitism and sought to revoke her citizenship, with Hazan calling her a "little hyprocrite liar", after she decided not to travel to Israel and accept the US$2 million Genesis Prize.[753]
The Echo Music Prize was heavily criticized worldwide when Farid Bang and Kollegah received the award for best hip hop/urban album in April 2018. The nominated album, Jung, Brutal, Gutaussehend 3 (English: "Young, brutal, handsome 3"), contains the track "0815", in which the artists refer to their muscles as being more defined than those of Auschwitz inmates. The duo was even allowed to perform this track during the ceremony, despite heavy protests weeks before the award show. This was much criticized, and as a consequence, the Echo Music Prize was discontinued.[754]
An Israeli man wearing a yarmulke was attacked in Berlin; the attacker allegedly beat him with a belt and shouted, "Yehudi" — the Arabic word for Jew. Authorities stated that the man who was assaulted and another man wearing a yarmulke were insulted by three men and then whipped by one. In response to this, thousands of Germans took part in rallies against antisemitism, many of them wearing yarmulkes.[755]
On February 25, 2018, Tamika Mallory attended an anti-Semitic Louis Farrakhan speech, where she was directly acknowledged by Farrakhan.[756] Farrakhan made multiple inflammatory comments during his three-hour speech. He claimed that "the powerful Jews are my enemy", that "the Jews have control over agencies of those agencies of government" like the FBI, that Jews are "the mother and father of apartheid", and that Jews are responsible for "degenerate behavior in Hollywood turning men into women and women into men".[757] Mallory was criticized for her support of Louis Farrakhan, as well as her support of Assata Shakur, a former Black Liberation Army member convicted of murder.[758][759][760]
On April 17, 2018, Tamika Mallory criticized Starbucks for allowing the ADL, an organization dedicated to fighting anti-Semitism, to participate in a company-wide racial bias training after the arrest of two black men at a Starbucks in Philadelphia, claiming that the "ADL attacks black and brown people".[761]
Patrick Little, a Republican candidate for the Senate in California, was openly anti-semitic and even called for a United States "free from Jews."[762]
Paul Nehlen, a Republican candidate for Wisconsin’s first congressional district, often made anti-semitic remarks on social media.[762]
John Fitzgerald, an anti-semite and Holocaust denier, was a Republican candidate for the House of Representatives.[763]
Walter Stolper of Florida was arrested after attempting to burn down his condo to "kill all the f------ Jews".[764]
Arthur J. Jones, an American neo-Nazi far-right white nationalist and Holocaust denier,[765][766] was the Republican candidate for Illinois's 3rd congressional district.
Antisemitic graffiti was discovered at Congregation Shaarey Tefilla in Indiana.[767]
U.S. Magistrate Mark Hornsby of Louisiana ruled that Jews are racially protected under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, in a case regarding Joshua Bonadona's claim Louisiana College’s president, Rick Brewer, refused to approve his hiring because of what he allegedly called Joshua's "Jewish blood."[768][769]
Stanford University student Hamzeh Daoud, who posted Facebook messages promising to "fight Zionists on campus", resigned as a resident assistant and said he would begin therapy.[770]
Antisemitic graffiti was found on the house where Elie Wiesel was born.[771]
Two people painted swastikas on a rainbow crosswalk in Toronto’s Gay Village.[772]
Detention Officers Howard Costner and Jesse Jones of Spalding County were fired because of their online comments expressing sympathy for Hitler and American neo-Nazis.[773]
Antisemite Steve West won the Republican Missouri House primary election in the 15th District.[774]
Germany lifted a blanket ban on Nazi symbolism in video games, including the swastika.[775]

See also


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  2. Tal Ilan, "Hannah, Mother of Seven," at the Jewish Women's Archive
  3. Seven Holy Maccabee Martyrs, at the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America website.
  4. 2 Maccabees 7:20, New English Bible.
  5. 2 Maccabees 7:36, Authorised Version. George Bull says of this verse, "I scarce know where to find an instance of greater faith" (in the resurrection and immortality) "and fortitude in any of our Christian martyrologies than here." Sermon VIII, cited in The Old Testament According to the Authorised Version With Brief Commentary by Various Authors. The Apocryphal Books: Esdras to Maccabees (Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1902).
  6. Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Gittin Folio 57.
  7. "Cicero, Marcus Tullius°". Jewish Virtual Library.
  8. Cahnman, Werner (30 November 2003). Jews and Gentiles: A Historical Sociology of Their Relations. Routledge. p. 12.
  9. Vrettos, Theodore (27 November 2001). Alexandria: City of the Western Mind. Free Press. p. 7.
  10. 1 2 Wikipedia: Masada
  11. 1 2 3 Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome; Cunliffe, Barry. The Holy Land. Oxford Archaeological Guides (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 378–381.
  12. Duncan B. Campbell, "Capturing a desert fortress: Flavius Silva and the siege of Masada", Ancient Warfare Vol. IV, no. 2 (Spring 2010), pp. 28–35. The dating is explained on pp. 29 and 32.
  13. "Project Gutenberg Titles by Flavius Josephus".
  14. Lehmann, Clayton Miles (May–September 1998). "Palestine: History: 135–337: Syria Palaestina and the Tetrarchy". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 17 July 2006. Retrieved 19 July 2006.
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  16. Life of Constantine Vol. III Ch. XVIII by Eusebius
  17. Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, Book VII, Chapter 13
  18. "Cyril of Alexandria, Against Julian: Critical edition of books 1-10, page 503". Archived from the original on 2011-11-02.
  19. Alexandria in Late Antiquity: Topography and Social Conflict By Christopher Haas, JHU Press, 4 Nov 2002 - History - 520 pages, Part IV "Jewish Community"
  20. Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, Book VII, Chapter 16
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  250. Oremus et pro Iudæis: ut Deus et Dominus noster auferat velamen de cordibus eorum; ut et ipsi agnoscant Iesum Christum Dominum nostrum. (Oremus. Flectamus genua. Levate) Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui Iudæos etiam a tua misericordia non repellis: exaudi preces nostras, quas pro illius populi obcæcatione deferimus; ut, agnita veritatis tuæ luce, quæ Christus est, a suis tenebris eruantur. Per eumdem Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum filium tuum, qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus: per omnia sæcula sæculorum. Amen. (Roman Missal, 1962 typical edition, pages 173-174)
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