Timeline of Irish history
This is a timeline of Irish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Ireland. To read about the background to these events, see History of Ireland. See also the list of Lords and Kings of Ireland and Irish heads of state and the list of years in Ireland.
Mesolithic and neolithic periods
|c. 16,000 BCE||During the Last Glacial Maximum, Ireland is covered in ice sheets|
|c. 12,000 BCE||A narrow channel forms between Prehistoric Ireland and southwest Scotland|
|c. 10,000 BCE||Carbon-dating on bear bones indicate the presence of Paleolithic peoples in County Clare.|
|c. 8000 BCE||Mesolithic hunter-gatherers migrate to Ireland|
|c. 6500 BCE||Mesolithic hunter-gatherers occupy sites such as that at Mount Sandel in Ulster|
|c. 4000 BCE||Agriculture (including the keeping of livestock, and crop farming) has its beginnings in Ireland, at sites such as the Céide Fields in Connacht|
|c. 3500 BCE||The Neolithic peoples of the Boyne Valley build a complex of chamber tombs, standing stones and enclosures over a period of hundreds of years. (Newgrange itself is dated to 3300-2900 BCE).|
Bronze and Iron Ages
|c. 2000 BCE||Bronze Age technologies start to arrive in Ireland, including the moulding of Ballybeg-type flat axes, and the beginnings of copper mining at Ross Island, Killarney and Mount Gabriel.|
|c. 500 BCE||During the Iron Age in Ireland, Celtic influence in art, language and culture begins to take hold.|
|c. 300 BCE||Murder of Clonycavan Man, according to radiocarbon dating|
|c. 200 BCE||La Tène influence from continental Europe influences carvings on the Turoe stone, Bullaun, County Galway.|
|c. 100 BCE||Additional works expand the site at Emain Macha (first occupied in the Neolithic period)|
|c. 100 AD||Construction of a series of defensive ditches between the provinces of Ulster and Connacht|
|c. 140 AD||Ptolemy's Geographia provides the earliest known written reference to habitation in the Dublin area, referring to a settlement in the area as Eblana Civitas|
|c. 220 AD||The Annals of the Four Masters, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, and other semi-historical (non-contemporary) texts, place Cormac mac Airt as a longstanding High King of Ireland. (The Annals date his reign as 226-266, but scholars vary in their assessment of Mac Airt's reign as legend or historical fact)|
|c. 300 AD||Pollen data records from the late Iron Age indicate a resurgence in human activity after a relatively stagnant period|
|c. 400||Niall Noígíallach is placed by Medieval texts as a legendary Goidelic High King of Ireland (the Annals of the Four Masters dates his reign as 378-405)|
|431||Palladius is sent as the first bishop "to the Irish believing in Christ" by Pope Celestine I|
|432||According to the Annals of Ulster (and other chronicles) Saint Patrick returns to Ireland.|
|536||A seemingly global climate event (possibly a volcanic winter) causes crop failures and famine in Ireland.|
|563||Irish monastic influence during the Golden Age peaks with the foundation of monastic schools by Columba and Brendan at Iona and Clonfert. (Columbanus would later set up similar institutions in continental Europe, Fursa in East Anglia and Gaul, Aidan at Lindisfarne. Etc.)|
|664-666||Several sources record a pervasive "yellow plague" on the island.|
|795||First Viking raids on Iona, Rathlin Island, and Inishmurray.|
|830||Óengus of Tallaght writes the Martyrology of Tallaght, the Prologue of which speaks of the last vestiges of paganism in Ireland|
|852||Vikings Ivar Beinlaus and Olaf the White land in Dublin Bay and establish a fortress - close to where the city of Dublin now stands|
|980||The King of Dublin Olaf Cuaran abdicates following defeat at the Battle of Tara to Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill.|
|988-9||Máel Sechnaill demands (and is paid) "tribute" by the Vikings at Dublin (this tribute date is sometimes recognised as the "foundation date" of Dublin as a city)|
|1014||23 April||Defeat of Máel Mórda mac Murchada and Viking forces by the armies of Brian Boru at the Battle of Clontarf marks the beginning of the decline of Viking power in Ireland.|
|1167||Following exile by Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, Dermot MacMurrough seeks support from Henry II of England to reclaim his Kingship.|
|1171||Henry II of England lands at Waterford and declares himself Lord of Ireland.|
|1175||6 October||The Treaty of Windsor consolidates Norman influence in Ireland.|
|1216||12 November||Great Charter of Ireland issued by Henry III of England.|
|1252||The Annals of the Four Masters records a Summer-time heat-wave and drought.|
|1297||The first representative Irish Parliament (of the Lordship of Ireland) meets in Dublin.|
|1315||26 May||Edward Bruce arrives in Ireland and rallies many Irish lords against Anglo-Norman control.|
|1366||The Statutes of Kilkenny are passed at Kilkenny to curb the decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland.|
|1398||Gerald FitzGerald, 3rd Earl of Desmond, mysteriously disappears; Gearóid Íarla is forever afterwards judged to be sleeping in a cave under Lough Gur, waiting to gallop out on his silver-shod horse and rescue Ireland at the moment of greatest need.|
|1472||The Annals of the Four Masters records that the King of England sent an exotic animal (possibly a giraffe) to Ireland.|
|1490||An earthquake takes place at Sliabh Gamh in County Mayo.|
|1494||1 December||Edward Poyning, Henry VII of England's Lord Deputy to Ireland, issued a declaration known as Poynings' Law under which the Irish parliament was to pass no law without the prior consent of the English parliament.|
|1497||The Annals of the Four Masters refers to a famine which "prevailed through all Ireland".|
|1534||11 June||Thomas FitzGerald, the 10th Earl of Kildare, publicly renounced his allegiance to Henry VIII of England.|
|1537||3 February||FitzGerald was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.|
|1542||The Irish parliament passed the Crown of Ireland Act, which established a Kingdom of Ireland to be ruled by Henry VIII and his successors.|
|1570||25 February||Pope Pius V issued a papal bull, Regnans in Excelsis, declaring Elizabeth I of England a heretic and releasing her subjects from any allegiance to her.|
|1575||May-Aug||The Annals of the Four Masters record a drought, in which no rain fell "from Bealtaine to Lammas" (May 1 to August 1), which resulted in disease and plague.|
|1577||November||The Annals of the Four Masters record that the Great Comet of 1577 "was wondered at by all universally".|
|1579||16 July||Second Desmond Rebellion: James FitzMaurice FitzGerald, a cousin of the 15th Earl of Desmond, landed a small force of rebels at Dingle.|
|1594||The Nine Years' War commences in Ulster, as Hugh O'Neill and Red Hugh O'Donnell rebel against Elizabeth I's authority in Ulster.|
|1607||14 September||The Flight of the Earls: The departure from Ireland of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell.|
|1609||Plantation of Ulster by Scottish Presbyterians began on a large scale.|
|1641||22 October||Irish Rebellion of 1641: Phelim O'Neill led the capture of several forts in the north of Ireland.|
|1642||Irish Confederate Wars: The Irish Catholic Confederation was established, under the nominal overlordship of Charles I of England, with its capital at Kilkenny.|
|1646||28 March||The Supreme Council of the Irish Catholic Confederation signed an agreement with a representative of Charles I, which procured some rights for Catholics in return for their military support of the royalists in England.|
|The members of the Supreme Council were arrested. The General Assembly renounced the agreement with England.|
|1647||A more favorable agreement was reached with Charles's representative, which promised toleration of Catholicism, a repeal of Poynings' Law, and recognition of lands taken by Irish Catholics during the war.|
|1740||Extreme winters in successive years result in poor harvests, causing a largescale famine in which between 310,000 and 480,000 die.|
|1760||February||Battle of Carrickfergus: A French invasion.|
|1782||After agitation by the Irish Volunteers, the Parliament of Great Britain passed a number of reforms - including the repeal of Poynings' Law - collectively referred to as the Constitution of 1782.|
|1796||December||Expédition d'Irlande: Attempted French invasion.|
|1798||24 May||Battle of Ballymore-Eustace: A miscarried surprise attack on the British garrison at Ballymore in County Kildare was counterattacked and defeated.|
|22 August||Irish Rebellion of 1798: One thousand French soldiers landed at Kilcummin in support of the rebellion.|
|27 August||Battle of Castlebar: A combined French-Irish force defeated a vastly numerically superior British force at Castlebar.|
|Irish Rebellion of 1798: The Republic of Connacht was proclaimed at Castlebar. First United Irishmen rebellion|
|1801||1 January||Acts of Union 1800 came into effect. The Kingdom of Ireland unites with Great Britain: 'United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is formed.|
|1803||23 July||Second United Irishmen rebellion: The Irish nationalist Robert Emmet attempted to seize Dublin Castle.|
|1829||24 March||Catholic Emancipation: The Catholic Relief Act 1829 was passed, which allowed Catholics to sit in Parliament.|
|1831||3 May||Tithe War: A force of one hundred and twenty armed police forcibly took possession of cattle belonging to a Roman Catholic priest in lieu of his compulsory tithe to the Anglican Church of Ireland.|
|1834||17 December||Dublin and Kingstown Railway is opened as the first commercial railway in Ireland.|
|1836||Tithe War: The passage of the Tithe Commutation Act 1836 reduced the amount of the tithe and changed the manner of payment, which largely ended the unrest|
|1845-1849||Great Irish Famine: A potato blight destroyed two-thirds of Ireland's staple crop and lead to an estimated 1 million deaths and emigration of a further 1 million people.|
|1867||5 March||Fenian Rising.|
|1913||19 August||A Dublin businessman, William Martin Murphy, fired forty workers he suspected of belonging to the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU).|
|26 August||Dublin Lockout: The ITGWU went on strike.|
|1914||18 January||Dublin Lockout: The Trades Union Congress (TUC) rejected a call by the ITGWU to go on strike in their support. The strikers quit the union and returned to work.|
|18 September||Government of Ireland Act, providing for Irish Home Rule, passed but application simultaneously postponed for the duration of World War I.|
|1916||24 April||Easter Rising: The Irish Republican Brotherhood led an action which seized key government buildings in Dublin, and issued the Proclamation of the Irish Republic.|
|29 April||Easter Rising: The leader of the uprising ordered his followers to surrender.|
|1918||18 April||Acting on a resolution of Dublin Corporation, the Lord Mayor convenes a conference at the Mansion House to devise plans to resist conscription.|
|14 December||A general election returns a majority for Sinn Féin.|
|1919||21 January||The First Dáil of the Irish Republic meets and issues a Declaration of Independence from the UK.|
|21 January||Irish War of Independence: Volunteers of the Army of the Irish Republic kill two members of the Royal Irish Constabulary in what is considered to be the first act of the War of Independence.|
|1921||3 May||Northern Ireland is established.|
|1921||6 December||Irish War of Independence: The War of Independence ends when negotiations between the British government and representatives of the de facto Irish Republic conclude with the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the creation of the Irish Free State|
|1922||28 June||Irish Civil War: Bombardment by Michael Collins of Anti-Treaty forces occupying the Four Courts marks the start of the Irish Civil War|
|1923||24 May||Irish Civil War: IRA Chief of Staff Frank Aiken orders volunteers to dump arms - effectively ending the Civil War.|
|1937||29 December||The Constitution of Ireland comes into force replacing the Irish Free State with a new state called "'Éire', or, in the English language, 'Ireland'"|
|1949||August||The Republic of Ireland Act is signed by the President of Ireland abolishing the remaining roles of the British monarch in the government of the Irish state.|
|1955||14 December||Ireland joins the United Nations along with 16 other sovereign states.|
|1969||August||Troops are deployed on the streets of Northern Ireland, marking the start of the Troubles.|
|1972||March||The Parliament of Northern Ireland is prorogued (and abolished the following year).|
|1973||1 January||Ireland joins the European Community along with Britain and Denmark.|
|1973||June||The Northern Ireland Assembly is elected.|
|1974||1 January||A power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive takes office, but resigns in May as a result of the Ulster Workers' Council strike. The Assembly is suspended and later abolished.|
|1985||15 November||The governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom sign the Anglo-Irish Agreement.|
|1990||3 December||Mary Robinson becomes the first female President of Ireland.|
|1995||Ireland enters the Celtic Tiger period which marks great economic growth for Ireland - which continues until 2007.|
|1998||April||The Belfast Agreement is signed. As a result, the Northern Ireland Assembly is elected, to which powers are devolved in 1999 and a power-sharing Executive takes office.|
|1999||Ireland yields its official currency the Irish pound and adopts the Euro.|
|2015||23 May||A 62% to 38% referendum result makes Ireland the first country to legalise same-sex marriage by popular vote.|
- Bradley, Richard (2007). The prehistory of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-521-84811-3.
- "Bear bone opens new chapter in Ireland's archaeology". Irish Times. 21 March 2016.
- O'Brian, William (2005). Ross Island: Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland. Oxbow books. ISBN 978-0-9535620-3-9.
- Johnston, Wesley; Abbot, Patrick. "Celtic Ireland in the Iron Age". History of Ireland. WesleyJohnston.com. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Moody, T.W; Martin, F.X; Byrne, F.J, eds. (1982). A New History of Ireland VIII: A Chronology of Irish History to 1976 - A Companion to Irish History Part I. Oxford Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-821744-7.
- Geoffrey Keating, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn 1.42, 43, 44, 45, 46
- Francis J. Byrne, Irish Kings and High Kings, Four Courts press, 2001, p. 65-69
Wikisource - Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 12. Wikisource.
- Welch, Robert (2003). The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192800800.
- Charles-Edwards, Thomas M (2000). Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0521037167.
- Foster, RF (1989). The Oxford Illustrated History of Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Annals. Annals of Ulster and Annals of the Four Masters.
Palladius, having been consecrated by Celestine, bishop of the city of Rome, is sent to Ireland [...] in the eighth year of Theodosius.
- Annals of Ulster - U432. Annals of Ulster. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
Year U432: Patrick arrived in Ireland in the ninth year of the reign of Theodosius the Less and in the first year of the episcopate of Xistus, 42nd bishop of the Roman Church. So Bede, Maxcellinus and Isidore compute in their chronicles.
- R. B. Stothers (26 January 1984). "Mystery cloud of AD 536". Nature. 307: 344–345. doi:10.1038/307344a0. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Annals of Ulster - Part 105. Annals of Ulster. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
U536.3 Failure of bread
- Duffy, S (2005). The Concise History of Ireland. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 9780717138104.
- Annals of the Four Masters - Part 49. Annals of the Four Masters. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Weston Joyce, Patrick (1903). Medicine and Medical Doctors. Longmans.
- Ó Corráin, Donnchadh. "Vikings & Ireland" (PDF). Cork, Ireland: University College Cork. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Ó Corráin, Donnchadh (1972). Ireland Before the Normans. The Gill history of Ireland. Gill and MacMillan.
Wikisource - Treaty of Windsor. Wikisource. "Text reads: This is the agreement which was made at Windsor in the octaves of Michaelmas [October 6] in the year of Our Lord 1175"
- Annals of the Four Masters - Part 9. Annals of the Four Masters. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
Great heat and drought prevailed in this Summer, so that people crossed the beds of the principal rivers of Ireland with dry feet. The reaping of the corn crops of Ireland was going on twenty days before Lammas 1 August, and the trees were scorched by the heat of the sun.
- Moody, TW; Martin, FX, eds. (1967). The Course of Irish History. Cork, Ireland: The Mercier Press. p. 370.
- Annals of the Four Masters - Part 10. Annals of the Four Masters. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
A wonderful animal was sent to Ireland by the King of England. She resembled a mare, and was of a yellow colour, with the hoofs, of a cow, a long neck, a very large head, a large tail, which was ugly and scant of hair. She had a saddle of her own. Wheat and salt were her usual food. She used to draw the largest sled-burden by her tail. She used to kneel when passing under any doorway, however high, and also to let her rider mount.
- Annals of the Four Masters - Part 12. Annals of the Four Masters. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
There was an earthquake at Sliabh Gamh, by which a hundred persons were destroyed, among whom was the son of Manus Crossagh O'Hara. Many horses and cows were also killed by it, and much putrid fish was thrown up; and a lake, in which fish is now caught, sprang up in the place.
- Annals of the Four Masters - Part 13. Annals of the Four Masters. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
Great famine prevailed through all Ireland in this and the following year, so that people ate of food unbecoming to mention, and never before heard of as having been introduced on human dishes.
- Vaughan, W.E; Fitzpatrick, A.J, eds. (1978). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy. ISBN 0901714100.
- Cottrell, Peter (2009). The War for Ireland, 1913-1923. Oxford: Osprey. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-84603-9966.
- "Ireland becomes first country to approve same-sex marriage by popular vote". Irish Times. 24 May 2015.