Timeline of Iranian history

Millennia: 1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd
Centuries: 7th BC · 6th BC · 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC · See also · References · Bibliography · External links

7th century BC

625 BCCyaxares the Great declared himself King of the Medes.

6th century BC

550 BCThe Achaemenid Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great.
676 BCCyrus captured Babylon, freed thousands of slaves and issued a declaration of human rights which would later be inscribed into the Cyrus Cylinder.
525 BCPersia conquers Egypt.

1st century BC

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th

7th century

636Arab invasion brings end of Sassanid dynasty and start of Islamic rule.[1]

9th century

821Tahir ibn Husayn, an Iranian general under the Abbasid Caliphate, declared the establishment of the independent Tahirid Dynasty .
867Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari founded the Saffarid dynasty.

10th century

928Mardavij founded the Ziyarid dynasty.
934The Shi'ite Buyid dynasty was founded.

11th century

1010The poet Ferdowsi finished writing the epic poem Shahnameh, a touchstone of the modern Persian language.

12th century

1189Third Crusade: Teutonic Knights destroyed several cities of the Middle East. As a result of the conflict, the safety of both Christian and Muslim unarmed pilgrims is guaranteed throughout the Levant.

13th century

1219The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia begins after two diplomatic missions to Khwarezm sent by Genghis Khan are massacred. In 1220 and 1221, Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat, Tus and Nishapur were razed, and the whole populations were slaughtered. Shah Muhammad II of Khwarezm flees; he dies on an island off the Caspian coast.

16th century

1501Ismail I established himself in Tabriz and declared himself the king (shah) of Iran.
151423 AugustBattle of Chaldiran: The Ottoman Empire inflicted a severe defeat on a numerically inferior Persian force, opening the northwestern Iranian Plateau to their occupation.
7 SeptemberThe Ottoman sultan entered Tabriz.
A mutiny in the Ottoman army forced the sultan to withdraw.
152423 MayIsmail died. He was succeeded by his son Tahmasp I.
159021 MayThe Treaty of Istanbul (1590) was signed between Iran and the Ottoman Empire, under which Iran ceded the Caucasus and western Iranian territories, for several years.

17th century

1609NovemberBattle of DimDim: The Persian army laid siege to a Kurdish fortress on the banks of Lake Urmia.
1610Battle of DimDim: The fortress was taken, and its occupants were massacred.
162919 JanuaryAbbas I of Persia died. His grandson Safi of Persia succeeded him.
1639The Treaty of Zuhab was signed between Persia and the Ottoman Empire, decisively partitioning the Caucasus between the two (with the greater part remaining Iranian,) and establishing what remains the border between Iran, Turkey, and Iraq.
1642Safi died. He was succeeded by Abbas II of Persia.
1666Abbas died. He was succeeded by Suleiman I of Persia.

18th century

170921 AprilMirwais Khan Hotak, the leader of the Ghilzai clan and mayor of Kandahar, killed the Persian-appointed governor George XI of Kartli and declared himself King of Persia.
1722JulyRusso-Persian War (1722-1723): A Russian military expedition sailed to prevent the territories in disintegrating neighboring Safavid Iran fall into Ottoman hands.
172312 SeptemberTreaty of Saint Petersburg (1723): The envoy of the shah signed a peace treaty ceding the cities of Derbent and Baku and the provinces of Shirvan, Guilan, Mazandaran and Astrabad to the Russian Empire.
17464 SeptemberThe Treaty of Kerden was signed between the Ottoman Empire and Iran, reaffirming the border drawn in the Treaty of Zuhab and allowing Iranian pilgrims to visit Mecca.
179511 SeptemberBattle of Krtsanisi: The Persian army demolished the armed forces of Kartl-Kakheti, captured Tbilisi, and reconquered eastern Georgia, which comprised the territories of the Kartli-Kakheti.
1796AprilPersian Expedition of 1796: The tsarina of Russia launched a military expedition to punish Persia for its incursion into the Russian protectorate of Kartl-Kakheti.

19th century

1804Russo-Persian War (1804-1813): Russian forces attacked the Persian settlement Ganja.
181324 OctoberRusso-Persian War (1804–1813): According to the Treaty of Gulistan, the Persian Empire ceded all its North Caucasian and swaths of its Transcaucasian territories to Russia, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, and most of the contemporary Republic of Azerbaijan.
182616 JulyRusso-Persian War (1826-1828): The Persian army invaded the recently Russian-annexed territories in order to reclaim the lost regions.
182821 FebruaryRusso-Persian War (1826–1828) Facing the possibility of a Russian conquest of Tehran and with Tabriz already occupied, Persia signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay; decisive and final cession of the last Caucasian territories of Iran comprising modern-day Armenia, the remainder of the Azerbaijan Republic that was still in Iranian hands, and Igdir (modern-day Turkey).
188121 SeptemberPersia officially recognized Russia's annexation of Turkmenistan in the Treaty of Akhal.

20th century

192531 MarchSolar Hijri calendar legally adopted in Iran.[2]
194121 AugustAnglo-Soviet invasion of Iran: Three Soviet armies invaded Iran from the north.
17 SeptemberAnglo-Soviet invasion of Iran: The Soviet and British armed forces met in Tehran.
1945NovemberThe Soviet Union established the Azerbaijan People's Government in Iranian Azerbaijan.
194622 JanuaryThe Soviet-backed Kurdish Republic of Mahabad declared its independence from Iran.
2 MarchIran crisis: British troops withdrew from Iran. The Soviet Union violated its prior agreement and remained.
9 MayIran crisis: The Soviet Union withdrew from Iran.
11 DecemberIran regained control over the territory of the Azerbaijan People's Government.
15 DecemberIran conquered Mahabad.
1953AugustMohammad Mosaddegh is overthrown in a coup engineered by the British and American intelligence services. Fazlollah Zahedi is proclaimed as prime minister and the Shah returns.[3]
197911 FebruaryIranian Revolution: The Iranian Monarchy collapsed in a popular revolution.
1 AprilA referendum passed which made Iran an Islamic republic.
198022 SeptemberIraq launched a full-scale invasion of Iran. The Iran–Iraq War would last until August 1988. The tactics used by both sides were similar to those used during World War I,[4] including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across trenches, manned machine-gun posts, bayonet charges, human wave attacks across a no-man's land, and extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas by the Iraqi government against Iranian troops, civilians, and Iraqi Kurds.
198820 AugustThe Iran–Iraq War ends in a stalemate. The Iran–Iraq War was the deadliest conventional war ever fought between regular armies of developing countries.[5]

21st century

20018 JuneIranian presidential election, 2001: President Mohammad Khatami was reelected with vast majority.
200524 JuneIranian presidential election, 2005: Ahmadinejad defeated the more liberal Rafsanjani.
200912 JuneIranian presidential election, 2009: Ahmadinejad re-elected for a second time after defeated Mousavi.
13 June2009–10 Iranian election protests: Protests in Iran over election results.

See also

Cities in Iran:


  1. "Iran profile – timeline". bbc.com. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  2. "Calendars". Encyclopædia Iranica. 1990.
  3. "Iran profile – timeline". www.bbc.org. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  4. Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran (3rd print ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521528917.
  5. Fürtig, Henner (2012). "Den Spieß umgedreht: iranische Gegenoffensive im Ersten Golfkrieg" [Turning of the Tables: the Iranian counter-offensive during the first Gulf War]. Damals (in German). No. 5. pp. 10–13.


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