Tibetan pinyin

The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names. It is based on the Lhasa dialect of Standard Tibetan and reflects the pronunciation except that it does not mark tone. It is used within China as an alternative to the Wylie transliteration for writing Tibetan in the Latin script within academic circles; Wylie transliteration (with a v replacing the apostrophe) is more commonly used.

Overview

Onsets overview

Independent onsets in the initial syllable of a word are transcribed as follows:

ཀ་ཁ་
ག་
ང་ཅ་ཆ་
ཇ་
ཉ་ཏ་ཐ་
ད་
ན་པ་ཕ་
བ་
མ་ཙ་ཚ་
ཛ་
ཝ་ཞ་
ཤ་
ཟ་
ས་
ཡ་ར་ལ་ཧ་ཀྱ་ཁྱ་
གྱ་
ཀྲ་ཁྲ་
གྲ་
ཧྲ་ལྷ་རྷ་
gkngjqnydtnbpmzcwxsyrlhgykyzhchshlhrh

For more general case, see #Onsets.

Vowels and final consonant

The 17 vowels of the Lhasa dialect are represented in as follows:

IPATibetan
pinyin
IPATibetan
pinyin
iiĩin
eêen
ɛai/äɛ̃ain/än
aaãan
uuũun
ooõon
ɔo
yüün
øoi/öø̃oin/ön

Ending a syllable, -r is usually not pronounced, but it lengthens the preceding vowel. In the same place, -n usually nasalises the preceding vowel. Consonants at the end of a syllable are transcribed as follows:

IPATibetan
pinyin
pb
ʔg/—
rr
mm
ŋng

Single syllable orthography

The tone of a syllable depends mostly on its initial consonant. In this table, each initial is given in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) with the vowel a and a tone mark to present tone register (high/low).

Onsets

Below is a comprehensive transcription table of onsets of an initial syllable of a word. If the syllable to transcribe is not the first syllable of a word, see #Onset variation.

IPAWylie transliterationTibetan pinyin
p, sp, dp, lpb
rb, sb, sbrb
mpàlb, ’bb
pʰáph, ’php
pʰàbp
rm, sm, dm, smrm
m, mrm
w, db, b[1]w
t, rt, lt, st, tw, gt, bt, brt, blt, bst, bldd
ntálthd
rd, sd, gd, bd, brd, bsdd
ntàzl, bzl, ld, md, ’dd
tʰáth, mth, ’tht
tʰàd, dwt
rn, sn, gn, brn, bsn, mnn
nn
kl, gl, bl, rl, sl, brl, bsll
l, lwl
l̥álhlh
tsáts, rts, sts, rtsw, stsw, gts, bts, brts, bstsz
tsàrdz, gdz, brdzz
ntsàmdz, ’dzz
tsʰátsh, tshw, mtsh, ’tshc
tsʰàdzc
s, sr, sw, gs, bs, bsrs
z, zw, gz, bzs
ʈʂákr, rkr, lkr, skr, tr, pr, lpr, spr, dkr, dpr, bkr, bskr, bsrzh
ʈʂàrgr, lgr, sgr, dgr, dbr, bsgr, rbr, lbr, sbrzh
ɳʈʂàmgr, ’gr, ’dr, ’brzh
ʈʂʰákhr, thr, phr, mkhr, ’khr, ’phrch
ʈʂʰàgr, dr, br, grwch
ʂáhrsh
r, rwr
r̥árhrh
ky, rky, lky, sky, dky, bky, brky, bskygy
rgy, lgy, sgy, dgy, bgy, brgy, bsgygy
ɲcàmgy, ’gygy
cʰákhy, mkhy, ’khyky
cʰàgyky
tɕác, cw, gc, bc, lc, py, lpy, spy, dpyj
tɕàrby, lby, sby, rj, gj, brj, dbyj
ɲtɕàlj, mj, ’j, ’byj
tɕʰách, mch, ’ch, phy, ’phyq
tɕʰàj, byq
ɕásh, shw, gsh, bshx
ɕàzh, zhw, gzh, bzhx
ɲárny, sny, gny, brny, bsny, mny, nyw, rmy, smyny
ɲàny, myny
g.yy
yy
k, rk, lk, sk, kw, dk, bk, brk, bskg
rg, lg, sg, dg, bg, brg, bsgg
ŋkàlg, mg, ’gg
kʰákh, khw, mkh, ’khk
kʰàg, gwk
ŋárng, lng, sng, dng, brng, bsng, mngng
ŋàngng
ʔá—, db
ʔà
h, hwh

Rimes

Below is a comprehensive transcription table of rimes of a final syllable of a word, with IPA transcription for the Lhasa dialect.[2] If the syllable to transcribe is not the final syllable of a word, see Coda variation.

Take "ཨ" to be the consonant (not "◌").

ཨ།ཨའུ།ཨར།ཨལ།
ཨའི།
ཨག།
ཨགས།
ཨབ།
ཨབས།
ཨད།
ཨས།
ཨང༌།
ཨངས།
ཨམ།
ཨམས།
ཨན།
aauarai/äagabai/äangamain/än
[a][au̯][aː][ɛ:][aʡ][əp̚][ɛ][aŋ][am][ɛ̃ː]
ཨི།ཨིའུ།
ཨེའུ།
ཨིར།ཨིལ།
ཨའི།
ཨིག།
ཨིགས།
ཨིབ།
ཨིབས།
ཨིད།
ཨིས།
ཨིང༌།
ཨིངས།
ཨིམ།
ཨིམས།
ཨིན།
iiuiriigibiingimin
[i][iu̯][iː][iː][iʡ][ip̚][i][iŋ][im][ĩː]
ཨུ།ཨུར།ཨུལ།
ཨུའི།
ཨུག།
ཨུགས།
ཨུབ།
ཨུབས།
ཨུད།
ཨུས།
ཨུང༌།
ཨུངས།
ཨུམ།
ཨུམས།
ཨུན།
uurüugubüungumün
[u][uː][yː][uʡ][up̚][y][uŋ][um][ỹː]
ཨེ།ཨེར།ཨེལ།
ཨེའི།
ཨེག།
ཨེགས།
ཨེབ།
ཨེབས།
ཨེད།
ཨེས།
ཨེང༌།
ཨེངས།
ཨེམ།
ཨེམས།
ཨེན།
êêrêêgêbêêngêmên
[e][eː][eː][eʡ][ep̚][e][eŋ][em][ẽː]
ཨོ།ཨོར།ཨོལ།
ཨོའི།
ཨོག།
ཨོགས།
ཨོབ།
ཨོབས།
ཨོད།
ཨོས།
ཨོང༌།
ཨོངས།
ཨོམ།
ཨོམས།
ཨོན།
ooroi/öogoboi/öongomoin/ön
[o][oː][øː][oʡ][op̚][ø][oŋ][om][ø̃ː]

Intersyllable influence

Onset variation

Bare low aspirated variation
  • k*, q*, t*, p*, x*, s*, ky*, ch* become g*, j*, d*, b*, ?*, ?*, gy*, zh* respectively
  • pa* (་བ) and po* (་བོ) become wa and wo respectively

Coda variation

Ngoinjug of next syllable
Prenasalization of next syllable

Examples

Sometimes there is intersyllablic influence:

Tibetan scriptTibetan pinyinWylie (EWTS)Lhasa IPAExplanation
མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ།Mapam Yumcoma-pham g.yu-mtsho[mapʰam jumtsʰo]forward shift of prefix མ
ཁྲ་འབྲུག་དགོན་པ།Changzhug Gönbakhra-’brug dgon-pa[ʈ͡ʂʰaŋʈ͡ʂ˭uk k˭ø̃p˭a]

Examples

Tibetan ScriptWylieTibetan pinyinTournadreother transcriptions
གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེGzhis-ka-rtseXigazêZhikatseShigatse, Shikatse
བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་Bkra-shis-lhun-poZhaxilhünboTrashilhünpoTashilhunpo, Tashilhümpo, etc.
འབྲས་སྤུང་’Bras-spungZhaibungDräpungDrebung
ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་Chos-kyi Rgyal-mtshanQoigyi GyaicainChökyi GyältshänChoekyi Gyaltsen
ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་Thub-bstan Rgya-mtshoTubdain GyacoThuptän GyatshoThubten Gyatso, Thubtan Gyatso, Thupten Gyatso

See also

Notes

  1. as in Namjagbarwa
  2. Brush, Beaumont. "The Status of Coronal in the Historical Development of Lhasa Tibetan Rhymes" (PDF). SIL. Retrieved 9 May 2015.

References

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.