The Holocaust in Albania

The Holocaust in Albania consisted of crimes committed against Jews in the Albanian Kingdom by German, Italian and Albanian collaborationist forces while the country was under Italian and German occupation during the Second World War. Throughout the war, nearly 2,000 Jews sought refuge in Albania-proper. Most of these Jewish refugees were treated well by the local Albanian population, despite the fact that the country was occupied first by Fascist Italy, and then by Nazi Germany. Albanians, following a traditional custom of hospitality known as besa, often sheltered Jewish refugees in mountain villages, and transported them to Adriatic ports from where they fled to Italy. Other Jews joined resistance movements throughout the country.

For the 500 Jews who lived in Albanian-dominated Kosovo, the experience was starkly different and about 40 percent did not survive the war. With the surrender of Italy in September 1943, German forces occupied Albania, Kosovo and other territories that had been annexed to the country. In 1944, an Albanian Waffen-SS division was formed, which arrested and handed over to the Germans a further 281 Jews from Kosovo who were subsequently deported to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where many were killed. In late 1944, the Germans were driven out of Albania-proper and the country became a communist state under the leadership of Enver Hoxha. Around the same time, Axis forces in the Albanian-annexed regions of Kosovo and western Macedonia were defeated by the Yugoslav Partisans, who subsequently reincorporated these areas into the newly established Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.

Approximately 600 Jews were killed in Greater Albania during the war. Albania-proper emerged from the war with a population of Jews eleven times greater than at the beginning, numbering around 1,800 individuals. Most of these subsequently emigrated to Israel, but several hundred remained until the fall of Communism in the early 1990s before they did the same. As of 2011, 69 Albanians have been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations for the role they played in saving Jews during the Holocaust.

Background

According to the census of 1930, 24 Jews lived in Albania. In 1937, the Jewish community, which then numbered nearly 300, was granted official recognition in the country by King Zog. Before the war, most Albanian Jews lived mostly in the southern part of the country, mostly in the city of Vlora which had once been around a third Jewish in earlier centuries[1]. The Jewish community in Kosovo, part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, numbered approximately 500.[2]

Prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, most Albanians had never had contact with Jews because of the small number of them in the country. As a result, antisemitism was less widespread in Albania than in other countries.[3] Additionally, in the late Ottoman era, Albanian national ideology had developed in such a way that it claimed affiliation with no one religion and aimed for reconciliation between the different faiths in the country[4]; once independent, leaders of Albania began to implement this ideology of religious reconciliation, and this became marked under the rule of King Zog, who codified the equality of "all faiths", and pursued a policy of not only promoting but arguably also increasing religious diversity in Albania.[5] During the 1930s, the Jewish community became increasingly integrated into the social structure of Albanian society, with official government recognition on 2 April 1937[6], while King Zog went further and aided Jewish immigration to Albania and helped the integration of new Jewish arrivals.[5] In 1934, Herman Bernstein, the American ambassador in Albania who happened to be himself Jewish, remarked that ews did not suffer discrimination in Albania because "Albania happens to be one of the rare lands in Europe today where religious prejudice and hate do not exist".[6]

With the rise of Nazism, a number of German and Austrian Jews took refuge in Albania, and the Albanian embassy in Berlin continued to issue visas to Jews until the end of 1938, at a time when no other European country was willing to do so.[7] Critical to emergence of this development was the American ambassador in Albania, Herman Bernstein, who was himself Jewish and remained active in Albanian Jewish affairs until his death in 1935. Beginning in 1933, Bernstein's efforts resulted in a many Jews escaping from Germany and Austria into Albania as the Nazis consolidated power in Central Europe, some of which using Albania as a transit point from which to escape to the US, Turkey or South America.[5] King Zog actively participated in bringing these Jews to Albania but also was concerned with their welfare once they arrived; their emigration was made possible by Albanian consulates in Central European countries which issued tourist and transit visas.[5]

The least developed country in Europe, Albania was subjected to Italian economic and political influence throughout the 1930s. On 25 March 1939, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini gave Albanian King Zog I an ultimatum demanding the acceptance of an Italian military protectorate over Albania.[8] When Zog refused to accept, the Italians invaded on 7 April 1939, and deposed him. Afterwards, they re-established the Albanian state as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy,[9] then installed a quisling regime headed by the biggest landowner in the country, Shefqet Vërlaci. An Albanian "national assembly" was established, which quickly voted for the full economic and political union of Albania with the Kingdom of Italy, led by Italian King Victor Emmanuel III.[10] Under the direction of viceroy general Francesco Jacomoni, the Italian administration implemented laws that prohibited Jewish immigration to Albania and mandated the deportation of all foreign Jews in the country.[11]

Within a month of the Italian occupation, the Albanian Fascist Party (Albanian: Partia Fashiste e Shqipërisë, or PFSh) was formed.[12] It enacted laws that prevented Jews from joining it and excluded them from professions such as education.[13] Composed of ethnic Albanians and Italians residing in Albania,[14] the party existed as a branch of the Italian Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) and its members were required to swear an oath of loyalty to Mussolini.[12] All Albanians serving the Italian occupiers were required to join, and it became the only legal political party in the country.[10]

As the war progressed, Italy transformed the Albanian Kingdom into Greater Albania, a protectorate of Italy that included most of Kosovo and a portion of western Macedonia which was detached from Yugoslavia after the Axis powers invaded in 1941.[2] Kosovo Albanians enthusiastically welcomed the Italian occupation. Although officially under Italian rule, the Albanians in Kosovo controlled the region and were encouraged to open Albanian schools, which had been prohibited under Yugoslav rule.[15] They were also given Albanian citizenship by Italian authorities and allowed to fly the Albanian flag.[16] Nevertheless, the Italians kept hundreds of thousands of troops in Albania and surrounding areas. Yugoslav sources indicated that there were approximately 20,000 Italian soldiers and 5,000 Italian police and frontier guards in Kosovo, and 12,000 soldiers and 5,000 police and border guards in the Albanian-annexed portion of Macedonia.[17] At the same time, Italian military authorities warned that at least ten hostages would be shot for every Italian soldier killed or wounded in these regions.[18]

The Holocaust

1939–1943

After the invasion of Yugoslavia, the Jewish community in Albania grew as Jews from Macedonia and northern Serbia, as well as Jewish refugees from Germany, Austria and Poland, came to Italian-controlled, Albanian-annexed Kosovo and settled in the towns of Pristina, Prizren and Uroševac.[2] As many as 1,000 refugees arrived, attributed by German sources to a Jewish organization which was responsible for smuggling Jews into the country. The refugees did not experience persecution to the level that Jews were experiencing in German-controlled territories, because the Italians considered them to be of economic importance and "representative of Italian interests abroad".[19] The Italians did arrest approximately 150 Jewish refugees and transferred them to the town of Berat, in Albania, where they were given a chance to work to earn money.[2] Also arrested were 192 Jews from the Italian-annexed Bay of Kotor who were transferred to Nazi concentration camps in Albania on 27 or 28 July 1941, before being transferred to camps located within Italy.[20] As many as 2,000 Jews sought refuge in Albania during the war.[21][22] The number of Jews who successfully used Albania for transit is hard to estimate because of the clandestine nature of the rescue networks, but estimates range between 600 and 3000.[23]

The local population of Albania was very protective of the Jewish refugees. Many were transported to Albanian ports on the Adriatic from where they could travel to Italy. Other Jews hid in remote mountain villages, while some joined resistance movements across the country.[24] The Albanian treatment of Jews was in accordance with traditional Albanian customs of hospitality and besa ("word of honour").[22] Hundreds of Jews received false documents from the Albanian authorities and were smuggled to Albania to safety. On other occasions, Jews were transferred to Albania under the false pretext that they had typhus and needed hospital treatment.[25]

Under the direction of viceroy general Francesco Jacomoni, the Italian administration implemented laws that prohibited Jewish immigration to Albania and mandated the deportation of all foreign Jews in the country.[11] However these laws were implemented in a half-hearted manner, as evidenced by the fact that not a single Jew was deported under them, and while leaving the country became more difficult, immigration of foreign Jews into Albania continued apace. When Jews were found crossing the border, except for a few occasions where they were reportedly robbed and killed[24], they were released by Albanian authorities to find shelter among Albanian families.[26] During the Ialian period, Albania experienced three distinct influxes of Jews, occurring in September 1941, April 1942 and July 1942, the latter two both arriving mainly from Kosovo.[27]

In January 1942, the Germans estimated at the Wannsee Conference that Albania was inhabited by 200 Jews.[28] That same month, Jews were interned by the Italians at a camp in Pristina.[29] Though they feared they would be handed over to the Germans, the Italian commander of the camp promised them that this would never happen. On 14 March 1942, the Italians blockaded the camp and arrested the Jews that had been detained there.[24] Fifty-one were handed over to the Germans.[25] They were subsequently transported to the Sajmište concentration camp, near Belgrade, and killed.[24] Others, together with Serbs, were taken to the camp in Berat, where they were detained until Italy's capitulation.[29] It is estimated that as many as 500 Jews were interned in the camps in Berat, Krujë and Kavajë during the Italian occupation.[30]

1943–45

When Italy surrendered to the Allies in September 1943, all concentration camps in Albania were dissolved.[24] Shortly after, the Germans invaded and occupied Albania, and most Italian soldiers in the country surrendered to the Germans.[31] German forces then began to target for extermination all Jews living in Albania and the Albanian-dominated regions of occupied Yugoslavia.[32] The Jewish community in western Macedonia, which had remained untouched under Italian occupation, was targeted and several groups of Jews were dispatched to extermination camps. Their property and belongings were later taken by many organizations, institutions and private individuals.[33]

The Germans arranged for Albania's administration to be reorganized shortly after occupying the country. On 15 September, the Albanian National Committee was established under German sponsorship. It governed until a Regency Council was established and recognized by Germany as the official government of the country on 3 November 1943. Xhafer Deva, a Kosovo Albanian ally of the Germans in the region, was then appointed the Minister of Interior of Albania.[17] Deva later founded the Nazi-aligned Second League of Prizren in Kosovo, which declared holy war against Slavs, Gypsies and Jews and sought to create an ethnically cleansed Greater Albania.[13] Beginning in September 1943, Jews in Albania, foreseeing the arrival of German troops, dispersed from cities into the countryside where they were concealed by rural Albanians under the customary hospitality laws; some Jews feigned conversion to either Christianity or Islam while still maintaining a Jewish identity.[34] With a new administration in place in 1843, the Germans demanded that Albanian authorities provide them with lists of Jews to be deported.[35] The local authorities did not comply and even provided Jewish families with forged documents.[21]

In the spring of 1944, the Nazi occupiers again asked for a list of Jews; upon hearing the grave situation, two of the local Jewish leaders sought the council of Mehdi Frasheri, a government official, for help; Frasheri referred them to Xhafer Deva, who apparently on the one hand had a "good reputation for protecting Jews" yet on the other "had become known for the terror he exercised across the streets of Tirana along with his hordes".[36][37] Xhafer Deva, then the interior minister of the Albanian quisling government, reportedly told two Jewish delegates that he had the list, and agreed that he would protest the matter with the Germans[36]. He refused to hand the list over to the Germans and rejected their requests to gather Jews in one place, purportedly because of the Albanian besa custom of hospitality.[38][36] To the Germans, Deva argued that he would not hand over the list as he would not accept "interference in Albanian affairs".[39] Deva informed the leaders of the Jewish community that he had successfully refused the German request afterward.[39] In June 1944, the German government asked for the list of Jews again, and the Albanian collaborationist government refused yet again.[39]

The situation in Albanian-dominated Kosovo was quite different.[40] There, Deva began recruiting Kosovo Albanians to join the Waffen-SS.[41] The 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian) was formed on 1 May 1944.[42] The division was better known for abuses against ethnic Serbs than for participating in combat operations on behalf of the German war effort.[43] On 14 May,[30] members of the division raided Jewish homes in Pristina, arrested 281 native and foreign Jews, then handed them over to the Germans.[44][45][40] On 23 June, 249 of these were taken to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where many were killed.[46]

Kosovo Albanians, due to their historical experiences with Serbs and the Ottoman Empire, they tended to be more unfriendly towards local non-Albanians. Many enthusiastically supported the Germans as a result.[24] Claims have been made that Kosovo Albanians protected Jews after German forces took over territories that Italian authorities had controlled during the war, but the protection that Jews received in Kosovo in the early years of the war was due more to the Italian authorities than to the local Albanian population.[24] About 210 Jews from Kosovo perished during the war.[47] This represents a fatality rate of about forty percent.[25] An official Yugoslav state report published in 1964 recorded 74 Jewish wartime fatalities in the region.[48] Approximately 600 Jews were killed in Albania, Kosovo and other Albanian-controlled territories during the war.[35][49] At least 177 were killed at Bergen-Belsen.[50] A somewhat greater number, as well as several hundred refugees, hid and survived with the assistance of the local Albanian population.[51] Albania saved virtually all of its native Jews and Jewish refugees from other countries. Albania is together with Denmark and Bulgaria the only European countries where the majority of Jews were saved.[52]

Aftermath

From October to November 1944, the Yugoslav Partisans, supported by both the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, and assisted by the forces of the Bulgarian Fatherland Front and two brigades of Albanian partisans, retook the region of Kosovo as the Germans withdrew.[53] The area was reincorporated into the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.[13] With no chance of victory, the withdrawing Germans helped Albanian collaborators escape the country as the communists drew closer. Many failed to escape and were executed by the communists upon capture.[54] On 28 November 1944, the communist forces of Enver Hoxha emerged victorious in Albania.[55] Hoxha subsequently implemented a totalitarian Stalinist government which banned all religions in the country.[56]

It is estimated that there were 1,800 Jews in Albania at the end of the Second World War,[45] eleven times the number of Jews that were living in the country in 1939.[40] The Jewish community in Kosovo never fully recovered from the war.[57] Few Jews remained in Kosovo and many emigrated to Israel during the communist period.[13] Similarly, most Jews in Albania decided to emigrate following the communist takeover.[58]

Legacy

As of 2011, 69 Albanians have been recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations for their role in helping Jews in Albania survive the Holocaust.[59] Michael Berenbaum, director of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, has declared that "Albania was the only country in Europe in which the Jewish population at the end of the war was larger than it was before the war".[60] The only public space in Albania dedicated to the Holocaust is a small display at the National Historical Museum in Tirana. Consisting of photographs, texts, maps, and wartime documents, it was opened on 29 November 2004.[61] In 2013, Kosovo erected a plaque to commemorate the Holocaust and the loss of the Jewish population in Kosovo.[62] During the Yugoslav Wars, Israel airlifted a group of Kosovar Albanians to safety and housed them in kibbutzim on Holocaust Remembrance Day; the descendant of a family that had sheltered Jews during the Holocaust stayed with the family they had sheltered.[63][64][65]

Notes

  1. Jewish Virtual Library. "Albania". Virtual Jewish History Tour: Albania. Jewish Virtual Library. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
  2. 1 2 3 4 Mojzes 2011, p. 93.
  3. Mojzes 2011, pp. 93–94.
  4. Duijzings, Ger. "Religion and the Politics of 'Albanianism'". In Schwandler-Stevens and Jurgen, Albanian Identities: Myth and History. Pages 61-62. Page 62: "nationalist rhetoric declared it [religion/millet] to be unimportant (and that religious fanaticism to be alien to the Albanian soul)", page 61:"From the beginning, national ideologists propagated a kind of 'civil religion' of Albanianism, which was epitomized in Pashko Vasa's famous and influential nationalist poem O moj Shqipni
  5. 1 2 3 4 Fischer, Bernd (2007). ["The Jews of Albania during the Zogist period and the Second World War"]. In J. Pettifer and M. Nazarko (eds), Strengthening Religious Tolerance for a Secure Civil Society in Albania and the Southern Balkans, IOS Press 2007. Pages 95-101. Pages 95-97.
  6. 1 2 David Green (April 2 2013). "This Day in Jewish History 1937: Jewish Albanians Gain a Foothold". Haaretz. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. Elsie 2010, p. 218.
  8. Bideleux & Jeffries 2007, pp. 30–31.
  9. Fischer 1999, pp. 21–57.
  10. 1 2 Bideleux & Jeffries 2007, p. 31.
  11. 1 2 Perez 2013, p. 26.
  12. 1 2 Lemkin 2008, p. 102.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Frank 2010, p. 97.
  14. Fischer 1999, pp. 45–46.
  15. Judah 2002, pp. 27–28.
  16. Ramet 2006, p. 141.
  17. 1 2 Tomasevich 2001, p. 152.
  18. Rodogno 2006, p. 345.
  19. Rodogno 2006, p. 387.
  20. Tomasevich 2001, p. 597.
  21. 1 2 Deutsche Welle & 27 December 2012.
  22. 1 2 Voice of America & 7 December 2010.
  23. Fischer, Bernd (2007). [The Jews of Albania During the Zogist Period and the Second World War]. In Pettifer and Nazarko, Strengthening Religious Tolerance for a Secure Civil Society in Albania and the Southern Balkans, IOS Press 2007. Page 97
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mojzes 2011, p. 94.
  25. 1 2 3 Elsie 2010, pp. 144–145.
  26. Fischer, Bernd (2007). ["The Jews of Albania during the Zogist period and the Second World War"]. In J. Pettifer and M. Nazarko (eds), Strengthening Religious Tolerance for a Secure Civil Society in Albania and the Southern Balkans, IOS Press 2007. Pages 95-101. Page 98: "In July 1940 the Italian Viceroy General Francesco Jacomoni in Albania ordered that 'all Jews of foreign citizenship... must be returned to their countries of origin as soon as possible." But these new restrictions seem to have been administered in a rather half-hearted manner since not a single Jew was apparently expelled. While emigration became more difficult, immigration into Albania continued apace. Albanian frontier authorities caught dozens of Jews coming... using false documents. With few exceptions, they were released to find shelter among Albanian families"
  27. Fischer, Bernd. "The Jews of Albania During the Zogist Period and the Second World War. Page 98
  28. Arad, Gutman & Margaliot 1999, p. 254.
  29. 1 2 Israeli 2013, p. 38.
  30. 1 2 Perez 2013, p. 27.
  31. Vickers 1999, p. 152.
  32. Mojzes 2009, p. 94.
  33. Laqueur & Baumel 2001, p. 712.
  34. Monika Stafa (June 2017). "Attitude of Collaborative Governments in Defense of the Jews during the War". Anglisticum Journal. 6 (6): 38.
  35. 1 2 Green & 2 April 2013.
  36. 1 2 3 Monika Stafa (June 2017). "Attitude of Collaborative Governments in Defense of the Jews during the War". Anglisticum Journal. 6 (6): 39.
  37. Aleksandar Gaon (2005). "We Survived... Yugoslav Jews on the Holocaust". The Jewish Historical Museum. Page 278.
  38. Joseph Berger (November 18 2013). "Casting Light on Little-Known Story of Albania Rescuing Jews From Nazis". New York Times. Rafael Jakoel and his brother-in-law went to Tirana to meet the interior minister, Xhafer Deva, of what seemingly was a fascist government collaborating with the Nazis. The minister even showed them a list of Jews whom the Germans had asked for. Nevertheless besa was so forceful that he did not turn over the list, Ms. Jakoel said. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  39. 1 2 3 Monika Stafa (June 2017). "Attitude of Collaborative Governments in Defense of the Jews during the War". Anglisticum Journal. 6 (6): 40.
  40. 1 2 3 Elsie 2010, p. 219.
  41. Fischer 1999, p. 215.
  42. Nafziger 1992, p. 21.
  43. Mojzes 2011, pp. 94–95.
  44. Judah 2002, p. 29.
  45. 1 2 Fischer 1999, p. 187.
  46. Perez 2013, pp. 27–28.
  47. Cohen 1996, p. 83.
  48. Frank 2010, pp. 97–98.
  49. Bartrop 2017, p. 16.
  50. Perez 2013, p. 28.
  51. Laqueur & Baumel 2001, p. 1.
  52. https://mobile.nytimes.com/2013/11/19/world/europe/casting-light-on-little-known-story-of-albania-rescuing-jews-from-nazis.html
  53. Tomasevich 2001, p. 156.
  54. Fischer 1999, p. 237.
  55. Elsie 2010, p. 194.
  56. Plaut 1996, p. 180.
  57. Frank 2010, pp. 99.
  58. Ehrlich 2009, p. 945.
  59. Green 2 April 2013.
  60. Stephen Schwartz (2005). Sarajevo Rose: A Balkan Jewish Notebook. Saqi. p. 231.
  61. Perez 2013, pp. 40–41.
  62. Edona Peci (24 May 2013). "Kosovo Erects Plaque to Holocaust Victims". Balkan Insight.
  63. Rebecca Trounson (13 April 1999). "Israelis Welcome Refugee Group as They Remember Holocaust". Los Angeles Times.
  64. "An Indebted Israel Shelters a Kosovo Family". New York Times. 2 May 1999.
  65. "Kosovo refugees grateful for haven in Israeli kibbutz". J Weekly. 23 April 1999.

References

Books

Journals

Websites

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.