Tenuis alveolar click
|(Tenuis) alveolar click|
|Unicode (hex)||U+01C3 U+0297|
|Unicode character name for ǃ is LATIN LETTER RETROFLEX CLICK|
source · help
The voiceless or more precisely tenuis (post)alveolar click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ǃ⟩. The Doke/Beach convention, adopted for a time by the IPA and still preferred by some linguists, is ⟨ʗ⟩.
Features of the tenuis (post)alveolar click:
- The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the "click" sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.
- Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Its phonation is voiceless, unaspirated, and unglottalized, which means it is produced without vibration or constriction of the vocal cords, and any following vowel starts without significant delay.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
|Hadza||laqo||[laǃo] = [laʗo]||'to trip'|
|Khoekhoe||ǃgabe||[ǃȁwé] = [ʗȁwé]||'to speak a Khoisan language'|
|Sesotho||ho qoqa||[hʊǃɔǃɑ] = [hʊʗɔʗɑ]||'to chat'|
|Xhosa||iqanda||[iǃanda] = [iʗanda]||'egg'|
|Zulu||iqaqa||[íːǃaːǃá] = [íːʗaːʗá]||'polecat'|
- Kirshembaum assigns ⟨c!⟩ indifferently to both alveolar and palatal clicks.