Taishanese people

Taishanese people
Hoi San Ngin
Total population
c. 8–9 million
Regions with significant populations
China (Guangdong, Macau, Hong Kong) North America (Canada, United States)
Taishanese and Cantonese (parent tongues), Mandarin
Predominantly Chinese folk religions (including Taoism, Confucianism, ancestral worship and others) and Mahayana Buddhism. Minority: Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Cantonese people, Other Han Chinese

Sze Yap Cantonese (Chinese: ; Sze Yap: Hlei Yip Gong Ong Ngin; Cantonese: Sei Yap Gwong Dong Yan; Mandarin: Sìyì guǎngdōng rén) are a Han Chinese group coming from a region in Guangdong Province in China called Sze Yap (), which consisted of the four county-level cities of Taishan, Kaiping, Xinhui, and Enping. Now Heshan has been added to this historic region, and the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen administers all five of these county-level cities, which is sometimes informally called Ng Yap. Their ancestors are said to have arrived from what is today central China about less than a thousand years ago and migrated into Guangdong around the Tang Dynasty rule period, and thus Taishanese as a dialect of Yue Chinese has linguistically preserved many characteristics of Middle Chinese.

Although Taishanese is considered to be one of the Cantonese groups of the Yue Chinese family, it has also retained an identity that distinguishes themselves from other Cantonese groups. Among the Han Chinese, Taishanese are a source for most of the famous international Chinese celebrities and have produced the largest numbers of Chinese actors and singers than any city/region in mainland China. Among Asian Americans, Taishanese are influential in politics and were the first Americans of Asian descent to be elected as Governors, Mayors, and U.S congressmen. The first international actress and actor of Asian descent, America's first ace in World War II also have Taishanese ancestry. Taishanese laundrymen and shopkeepers were also a primary source of funding that helped launch Dr. Sun Yat-Sen's('Father of modern China') revolutionary activities while he was in exhile and raising money from overseas countrymen. [1]

Despite their small population size, Taishanese people have produced a number of famous academics and historical figures. Sze yup or Jiangmen is considered the home of Chinese Academician town: The total of academicians is 31 people, a city with over 20 is considered extremely rare in China.[2]

Language and Identity

Taishanese is a language of Yue Chinese that is treated separately from Standard Cantonese, since Cantonese speakers often find Taishanese difficult to understand and usually with an average intelligibility of only 30%, however this is also true for other Yue Chinese variants such as the Goulou dialects.[3][4] Like other varieties of Chinese dialects, Taishanese is known only by Taishanese and by other Chinese people as Toisan Cantonese. Unlike most varieties of Chinese, Cantonese has de facto official status in Hong Kong and Macau, and has an independent tradition of the written vernacular.

Aside from Standard Mandarin, Standard Cantonese has achieved worldwide fame and is internationally well known due to popular Cantonese-language action movies from Hong Kong, also because Cantonese is the lingua franca for business, communication, education, government and media in Hong Kong, this leads to even more exposure of Cantonese throughout the world. Taishanese, who make up one-third of the population of Hong Kong, may identify themselves with Cantonese instead of Taishanese. Since Hong Kong culture is heavily Cantonese-influenced and is a Cantonese-speaking society, Taishanese and other Han Chinese who are Hong Kong born and raised, assimilate into the Cantonese identity of Hong Kong.

Everything in Hong Kong, from pop music, films, media, education, television series, cuisine, opera and communication is in Cantonese, and because both, Hong Kong and Macau, have high autonomy, different laws and government systems from China, this yet again strengthens autonomous identity, especially that of Hong Kongers. Cantonese is seen by all Hong Kong people as a cultural marker and identity that distinguishes themselves from the mainland. Many Hong Kong activists are of Taishanese ancestry such as the late Szeto Wah who was a politician of the pan-democracy camp and sang democratic Cantonese songs with other activists to promote democracy in China.


Kaiping Diaolou and Villages
UNESCO World Heritage site
Ruishi Diaolou 瑞石樓 in Jinjiangli village
Location Kaiping, Guangdong, China
  1. Yinglong Lou (at Sanmenli Village)
  2. Zili Village and the Fang Clan Watch Tower
  3. Majianlong Village Cluster
  4. Jingjiangli Village
Criteria Cultural: (ii), (iii), (iv)
Reference 1112
Inscription 2007 (31st Session)
Area 372 ha (920 acres)
Buffer zone 2,738 ha (6,770 acres)
Coordinates 22°17′8″N 112°33′57″E / 22.28556°N 112.56583°E / 22.28556; 112.56583Coordinates: 22°17′8″N 112°33′57″E / 22.28556°N 112.56583°E / 22.28556; 112.56583
Location of Taishanese people in Guangdong
Taishanese people (China)

Culturally, Taishanese people are very similar to Cantonese. Today, many Sze Yap people have become successful in many areas such as the entertainment industry, business and politics. Hong Kongers of Sze Yap ancestry include: Andy Lau, Beyond (band), Danny Chan, Kenny Kwan, Joey Yung, Ronnie Chan, John Tsang, Andrew Li and many others. The Father of Hong Kong Cinema, Lai Man-Wai also has ancestry from the Sze Yap region of province. As a result, Sze Yap people have dominated in the entertainment industry and play most major roles in the music and movie sectors. In many films, Taishanese can be heard, especially in many of Karl Maka's films such as Merry Christmas and Aces Go Places.

It is said that over 100 famous people come from the Sze Yap region of Guangdong province, making the region famous for producing more stars than any other city/region in mainland China. As a result, the local government in Jiangmen which administers the Sze Yap or Ng Yap cities of Taishan, Kaiping, Enping, Xinhui, and Heshan, decided to build a Stars Park called Jiangmen star park (江门星光园).[5]

Taishan county is famous for being the Birthplace of China's volleyball, that was brought to Taishan by Overseas Chinese, and the city won many provincial and national championships. Taishanese are well known for their love for Volleyball and being China's champions.[6] Premier Zhou En-Lai once stated, "Taishan is Half of the Country's (China) System."


In 2007, UNESCO named the Kaiping Diaolou and Villages (开平碉楼与村落) in China as a World Heritage Site. UNESCO wrote, "...the Diaolou ... display a complex and flamboyant fusion of Eastern and Western structural and decorative forms. They reflect the significant role of émigré Kaiping people in the development of several countries in South Asia, Australasia, and North America, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the close links between overseas Kaiping and their ancestral homes. The property inscribed here consists of four groups of Diaolou, totaling some 1,800 tower houses in their village settings." Today, approximately 1,833 diaolou remain standing in Kaiping, and approximately 500 in Taishan. Although the diaolou served mainly as protection against forays by bandits, a few of them also served as living quarters. Kaiping has traditionally been a region of major emigration abroad, and a melting pot of ideas and trends brought back from Overseas Chinese. As a result, many diaolou incorporate architectural features from China and from the West. Tong Laus which are mixed used buildings where the ground floor is reserved for commercial use and the top floors for residential are also prominent in the region, as are traditional Lingnan architecture aesthetics which are commonly found throughout Guangdong province.

Economy and Business

Besides dominating the entertainment industry, they are quite dominant and influential in Hong Kong's Business Industry, founding such companies as the Bank of East Asia (東亞銀行), Lee Kum Kee (李錦記), Hang Lung Properties, Maxim's Catering (美心), Li & Fung (利豐), Beijing Air Catering Ltd, Hysan Development Company Limited (希慎興業) and many others. Lui Che-woo once the second richest man in Asia.

Famous overseas Taishanese businessmen includes Loke Yew, the richest man of Malaysia in his time and who made significant impact in the growth of Kuala Lumpur, and was one of founder fathers of Victoria institution. Jack Yan who founded his company Lucire, is a magazine publisher in New Zealand and he also owns a software firm that created over 100 typeface designs himself for the firm, and inspired other local typeface designers such as Kris Sowersby to pursue careers in that industry. Norman Kwong who is the lieutenant governor of Alberta, is also president and manager of Calgary Stampeders a Canadian football league.


Sze Yup or Jiangmen is considered the home of Chinese Academician town: The total of academicians is 31 people, a town with over 20 is considered extremely rare in China.[2]

Wu Lien-teh - First Han Chinese and Malaysian Chinese to be nominated for a Nobel prize in physiology or Medicine, Chu Ching-wu - Selected as the Best Researcher in the U.S. by U.S. News & World Report in 1990., GUO Jing-Kun - pioneer and one of academic leaders in the field of Materials Research Nancy Ip - member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the World Academy of Sciences., Vivian Wing-Wah Yam - she was a 2011 L'Oréal-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science laureate "for her work on light-emitting materials and innovative ways of capturing solar energy. Huan Yong - China's modern plant taxonomy founder, Chen Haozhu - Career in medicine for many years, has won the national, military science and technology progress award more than 20 other awards Albert Chan (professor) - a Hong Kong professor of chemistry and traditional Chinese medicine. Huang Cuifen one of the founders, successive Chinese Academy of Military Medical Institute of Basic Medical researcher Liang Sili - Chinese Engineer. Chief Designer of inertial guidance platforms for Chinese ballistic missiles. Chen Guoda - Expertise in Mechanical Engineering Huang Benli - Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen University, Professor, Huang has won many awards: 2 2nd-class Major Science and Technology Achievements Awards of Chinese Academy of Science Zhangyou Qi - Computational mechanics, civil engineering experts Xue Shepu - Researcher in cell proliferation and differentiation Huan Yong - Is one of the founders of modern science of plant classification. His lifelong hard work, rigorous scholarship on China Plant Science has made outstanding contributions. Li Chunxuan - Aerospace aircraft design, high-speed collision mechanics specialist. Chen Hao Zhu - Medical experts in cardiovascular disease. member of China Engineering Academy. Mr Wong - Chinese Academy of Engineering academician, general surgery specialist. TANG Zhao - Former director of the International Union Against Cancer Cai Ruixian - Received the Chinese Academy of Science and Technology Progress Award, Chinese Academy of Natural Science Award I Guocong - Former China Engineering Thermophysics director, China Power Engineering Society executive director; China Energy Research Association executive director. Kuang Yu Ping- 1989 was awarded the First Prize in Physics Wu Xun, 2003 was elected to the Academy of Mathematics and Physics Academy of Sciences. Henry NC Wong - University of London, and then to Harvard University postdoctoral research. Albert Chan - An organic chemist, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Huang Cuifen - University of London, and then to Harvard University postdoctoral research. Li Shaozhen - improve cataract surgery quality in the introduction of technology and innovation Huangyao Xiang - Zhongshan University Department of Physics. Chen Yong-Su - Research on a new target of cancer chemotherapy drugs and biochemical modulation Maisong Wei - 1965-1969 any Associate Professor University of Western Ontario in Canada. Ye Danian - 1991 was elected to the Chinese Academy of Sciences Division of Earth Sciences and in 2001 as Peking University professor of Earth and Space Sciences. Feng Peide - well-known experts in the field of aviation.


Because the history of going abroad is long, and there are many people sojourning widely in various districts, Taishan is called the "No.1 Homeland of Overseas Chinese".[7] The Taishanese diaspora is distributed in 91 countries and regions of the five continents including US, Canada, Hong Kong, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Malaysia, and Singapore.

Taishanese have had a large influence in the course of Asian-American history, as they were the first Asian Americans to be elected as Governors, Mayors, and U.S congressmen in the continental United States. The first international celebrity of Asian descent, and America's first ace in World War II. They also represented the largest Asian community in America and made a significant contribution in building the First Transcontinental Railroad of United States. The Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) is the former name of the railroad network built between California and Utah that formed part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America. About 12,000 such emigrant workers were employed as laborers by the Central Pacific Railroad representing 90 percent of the entire work force.[8] J. O. Wilder, a Central Pacific-Southern Pacific employee, commented that “The Chinese were as steady, hard-working a set of men as could be found. With the exception of a few whites at the west end of Tunnel No. 6, the laboring force was entirely composed of Chinamen with white foremen. A single Irish foreman with a gang of 30 to 40 Chinese men generally constituted the force at work at each end of a tunnel; of these, 12 to 15 worked on the heading, and the rest on the bottom removing material. When a gang was small or the men needed elsewhere, the bottoms were worked with fewer men or stopped so as to keep the headings going.”[8] The laborers usually worked three shifts of 8 hours each per day, while the foremen worked in two shifts of 12 hours each, managing the laborers.[9]

The Sun Ning Railway (aka Sunning Railway and Xinning Railway ) 新寧鐵路 (pinyin: Xinning Tielu) was a standard gauge railway in the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province founded in 1906 by a man of Taishanese origin Chin Gee Hee 陳宜禧 (pinyin: Chen Yixi) and Yu Shek 余灼 (pinyin: Yu Zhuo). It was South China's second railway[10][11][12] and one of only three railways in pre-1949 China built solely with private Chinese capital.[13][14]

List of Notable people from China and Hong Kong

List of Notable people from China and other countries in U.S, Canada, New Zealand, Australia etc


  • Alan Chin - San Francisco Bay Area contemporary artist
  • Tyrus Wong - painter, muralist, ceramicist, lithographer, designer and kite maker
  • James Hong - former president of the Association of Asian/Pacific American Artists (AAPAA)


  • Brandon Soo Hoo, Chinese American actor
  • Kevin Han Yee, Chinese American actor
  • Hayden Szeto, A Chinese Canadian actor
  • Jason Yee, Actor, director, Won numerous martial arts championships and became the first American to medal at the First World San-Shou Free-Fighting Championship.


  • Kwong Sue Duk- A merchant in Australia, respected and influential amongst the Chinese and European communities
  • Wong Ah Fook A builder of many famous Johor heritage buildings
  • Chin Gee Hee - A labor contractor, and railway entrepreneur who contributed railway workers for American railway project.
  • Jack Yan - He founded Lucire a fashion magazine publisher in New Zealand.
  • James Tak Wu - founder of Hong Kong's famous Maxim's Catering Limited, which is Hong Kong's largest food & beverage corporation and restaurant chain. His ancestral town is Sijiu (四九)
  • Loke Wan Tho founder of Cathay Organisation in Singapore and Malaysia
  • David Li The Honourable Sir David Kwok Po Li is the current Chairman and Chief Executive of the Bank of East Asia, and a former member of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong and the Executive Council of Hong Kong.
  • Thomas Tam a Hong Kong-born Canadian businessman
  • Annie Wu Suk-ching - founder of Beijing Air Catering Ltd and member of the Standing Committee of the National Committee of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. She is the daughter of James Tak Wu.
  • Qiu Liben selected by the netizens in China as one of the Top 100 Public Intellectuals in 2006 and 2008.
  • Lui Che Woo -* once the second richest man in Asia, is a billionaire businessman who developed multi-national conglomerate involving properties, entertainment & leisure, construction materials and hotels with over 200 subsidiaries and more than 20,000 employees in Hong Kong, Mainland China, Macau, North America and Southeast Asia. In May 2011, Galaxy Entertainment Group Limited has opened $2 billion Galaxy casino and hotel in Macau with 2,200 rooms, 50 restaurants, 450 gambling tables, an artificial beach and a wave pool.
  • Yip Hon - A Macau tyconn with estimated wealth of 100 million
  • Yip Sang - was a prominent Canadian businessman, whose business and family flourished during the period when Chinese Canadians faced discrimination and restrictions.
  • Sir Lee Quo-wei - was a prominent Hong Kong businessman who served as the director of Hang Seng Bank and Chinese University of Hong Kong. He was awarded a Grand Bauhinia Medal in 1997.


  • Norman Kwong - Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta & professional football player, president & manager of the Calgary Stampeders. He was one of very few of his contemporaries to be voted one of the Canadian Football League's Top 50 players of the sport's modern era by Canadian sports network TSN.
  • Wan Chi-keung was a known as "Asia's top striker". Wan was a key player for the Hong Kong national football team in the 1970s and 1980s. Played for South China and Japan club seiko. After retired, he became an actor.
  • Yi Jianlian is a 7 ft tall Chinese basketball player; he played for NBA, Milwaukee Bucks, New Jersey Nets, and Washington Wizards.
  • Tam Kong-pak- who represented the Republic of China national team during the 1936 summer olympics.
  • He Jianbin His mother Guohua Ying was backstroke national record holder, also represent China in the Los Angeles Olympic Games. He is a Chinese swimmer. At the 2012 Summer Olympics he finished 21st overall
  • Yu Zhuocheng Yu won a silver medal in the 3 metre springboard diving at the 1996 Summer Olympic Games
  • Guan Weizhen She is the only woman to have won three consecutive women's doubles titles at the BWF World Championships. She also won a silver medal in 1996 olympics Barcelona. She's also part of the team that won Uber Cup (women's international) teams that won world championships at this biennial event.
  • Rong Zhi Xing was Nicknamed: "Asian Pele","New Chinese Football King".
  • Chen Xiaomin Chinese retired weightlifter, in 2000 Sydney Olympics on the women's 63 kg weightlifting gold medal, also a world and Asian champion
  • Richard Tom was a Chinese American weightlifter and Olympic medalist. He earned silver medal at the 1947 World Championships and bronze medal at the 1948 Summer Olympics in London
  • Kim Ng executive in Major League Baseball. She is currently the Senior Vice-President for Baseball Operations with Major League Baseball.
  • Tan Sixin She is a gymnastic youth champion, east Asian champion and national champion. She was also a bronze medal world champion


  • Wu Lien-teh - First Han Chinese and Malaysian Chinese to be nominated for a Nobel prize in physiology or Medicine
  • Chu Ching-wu - Selected as the Best Researcher in the U.S. by U.S. News & World Report in 1990.
  • Li Enliang - Chinese civil engineer and educator.
  • Chin Siu Dek- (aka Jimmy H. Woo) - martial artist of Sanba and a Grandmaster of Kung Fu San Soo.
  • William Poy Lee - San Francisco author who wrote The Eighth Promise. book won the 2007 PEN Oakland/Josephine Miles Literary Award for outstanding and original contribution to multicultural literature.
  • Ken Hom - Chinese American chef, author and British television-show presenter. In 2009 he was awarded by Queen Elizabeth II with an honorary OBE for ‘services to culinary arts’.
  • Betty Kwan Chinn- won the 2008 Minerva Award.U.S. President Barack Obama awarded her and 12 others the Presidential Citizens Medal on August 4, 2010 at the White House[2]
  • Wing-tsit Chan - was one of the world's leading scholars of Chinese philosophy and religion, active in the United States. Chan was the author of A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy, one of the most influential sources in the field of Asian studies, and of hundreds of books and articles in both English and Chinese on Chinese philosophy and religion. He was a leading translator of Chinese philosophical texts into English in the 20th century
  • Maxine Hong Kingston - Chinese American author known for writing The Woman Warrior and other books in the genre of Chinese American literature. Her parents were from Xinhui, Guangdong.
  • Liu Junxian - Mathematician, director of China Mathematical Society.

Historical figures

  • Liang Qichao - scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist and was called Mind of Modern China
  • Kang Youwei - prominent politician and Leader Gongche Shangshu movement who influenced Guangxu Emperor and Chinese politicians
  • Tang Shaoyi - first prime minister of the Republic of China
  • Wu Tingfang - first ethnic Chinese barrister, diplomat and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Loke Yew the richest man of Malaysia in his time and made significant impact in the growth of Kuala Lumpur, and was one of founder fathers of Victoria institution.
  • Anna May Wong - the first Asian and Chinese American to become international movie star.
  • Chen Yunchang - a very famous Shanghainese actress. She starred some popular movies including Mulan Joins the Army. She is the 3rd "Chinese Film Queen"; while the 1st is Hu Die who is also of Sze Yap origin.
  • Gary Locke - the first person of Chinese American/Asian descent to become a governor within the continental United States. He was also the first known person of Chinese heritage to served as the Commerce Secretary of the US.
  • James Wong Howe - master cinematographer of Hollywood.
  • Arthur Chin – America's first ace in World War II.
  • Raymond Kwok Chow (a.k.a. Shrimp Boy) -- San Francisco Chinatown mobster, Dragon Head of the San Francisco Chapter Chinese Freemasons
  • Judy Chu She is the first Chinese American woman ever elected to the U.S. Congress. Chu was reelected in the 2010 United States midterm elections, defeating Republican challenger Edward "Ed" Schmerling.
  • Michael Woo He served as the first Asian American on the Los Angeles City Council from 1985 to 1993. Woo chaired the Citywide Planning commission, until 1993 when he became the first Asian American to run for the mayor of a major city.
  • Szeto Wah- He is the first Chinese and first person from Asia to have received an Homo Homini Award. He is regarded be one of the most influential Hong Kong politician of pan-democracy movement and is respected by many pro-democracy citizens from China and Hong Kong.
  • Alexander Yee - calculated World Record digits of Pi.
  • Chen Baisha- One of China most famous Confucian scholars, poets, and calligraphers, during the Ming Dynasty
  • Chan Heung- Is one of the martial arts legend of China and founder of the Choy Li Fut that became one of China's most popular fighting system.
  • Jeong Yim- He is Chan Heung best student, and is recognized as an important contributor to the expansion of Choy Li Fut. His life is filled with heroism, myths, stories, and legends, and was a significant influential character in the novels of anti-Qing organizations.
  • Kwan Tak-hing - Is In total he made over 130 films. No-one else in cinema history has portrayed the same person as many times he did.
  • Chin Siu Dek (Jimmy H. Woo) - the man responsible for bringing Kung Fu San Soo


  • Fernando Chui The Chief executive of Macau
  • Fernando Cheung - a HK politician the vice-chairman of the Labour Party, was also a physician and head of an Asian rights organization in San Francisco.
  • Wu Chaoshu - became Foreign Affairs Minister and served as Minister to the United States from 1928 to 1931,
  • Wen Tsung-yao - Deputy president of Tibet, and a Politician and diplomat of Qing.
  • Mei Quong Tart - A prominent businessman, activist and philanthropist who had a significant impact against anti-Chinese sentiment in Australia
  • John Tsang - Financial Secretary of Hong Kong.
  • Evan Low - the youngest Asian American mayor in the United States.
  • Leland Yee - California State Senator. In 2004 Yee became the first Asian American to be appointed Speaker pro Tempore.
  • Margaret Chin - New York City-based American politician. A Democrat, she was elected to the New York City Council (First elected to this position) on November 3, 2009, to represent District 1 in Lower Manhattan.
  • Bill Lann Lee - United States Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights, Clinton Administration.
  • Chaovarat Chanweerakul - Acting prime minister of Thailand
  • Julius Chan - former Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea of An Nan Jiang Chao village in Doushan.
  • Hiram Fong (a.k.a. Hiram Kwong) (1906–2004) - former US Senator from Hawaii.
  • Matt Fong (a.k.a. Matt Kwong) (1953–2011) - former Treasurer of the State of California.
  • Wong Kim Ark - defendant in United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898).
  • Fernando Cheung a HK politician the vice-chairman of the Labour Party, was also a physician and head of an Asian rights organization in San Francisco.
  • Patrick Yu - Hong Kong lawyer and Crown Counsel, and founder of its first law school.
  • Inky Mark - is a Canadian politician and a former member of the Canadian House of Commons and is also a member of the Conservative Party of Canada.
  • Yu Hung-Chun - Political figure who served as premier of the Republic of China on Taiwan between 1954 and 1958.
  • Wu Shih-wen - was the Minister of National Defense of the Republic of China in 2000-2002.
  • Art Lee - Lee was elected to the Canadian House of Commons as a candidate of the Liberal Party of Canada to represent the electoral district of Vancouver East. From 1984 to 1987, he served as the leader of the British Columbia Liberal Party.
  • Liang Xiang - first governor of Hainan and a representative in the fifth, sixth, and seventh National People's Congresses.
  • Delbert E. Wong - was the first Chinese American judge in the continental United States.
  • Adrienne Clarkson - Born to a Taishanese father and Hakka mother, she is the Honourable as a former Governor General of Canada,


  1. Kantowicz, Edward R. (2 June 1999). "The Rage of Nations". Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing via Google Books.
  2. 1 2 "Google Translate". translate.google.co.uk.
  3. Cantonese speakers have been shown to understand only about 30% of what they hear in Taishanese (Szeto 2000)
  4. (Ma & Cartier 2003)
  5. ""江门星光园" nddaily". Archived from the original on 2012-07-12.
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-10. Retrieved 2008-05-15.
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-07. Retrieved 2011-12-07.
  8. 1 2 Kraus, "Chinese Laborers and the Construction of the Central Pacific," p. 49.
  9. John R. Gillis, "TUNNELS OF THE PACIFIC RAILROAD." Van Nostrand's Eclectic Engineering Magazine, January 5, 1870, p. 418-423,
  10. The of Xinning Railway Archived 2004-12-10 at the Wayback Machine., Bureau of Archives of City.
  11. Scigliano 2007.
  12. Another transliteration of 余灼 (pinyin: Yu Zhuo) is Yu Chuek (Editors' note, p. 125, Chin Gee Hee, "Letter Asking for Support to Build the Sunning Railroad" (1911), p. 125–128 in Judy Yung, Gordon H. Chang, and Him Mark Lai (compilers and editors), Chinese American Voices, University of California Press (2006). ISBN 0-520-24310-2.)
  13. Don T. Nakanishi and Tina Yamano Nishida, The Asian American Educational Experience: A Source Book for Teachers and Students, Routledge (1995). ISBN 0-415-90872-8. p. 55.
  14. Jue (1983) for the ideographs and spellings.
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