Synchronized skating

Synchronized skating is a sport where 820 skaters (depending on the level) skate together as one team. The team moves as a flowing unit at high speed while completing difficult footwork.[1] Synchronized skating grew rapidly in the late 20th and early 21st centuries and today there are approximately 600 synchronized skating teams in the United States.

The sport was originally called precision skating in North America, because of the emphasis on maintaining precise formations and timing of the group


Like any other discipline of figure skating, there are many different levels at which synchronized skaters can compete. These levels include: synchro skills (1, 2 or 3), preliminary, pre-juvenile, open-juvenile, juvenile, intermediate, novice, junior, senior, open collegiate, collegiate, open adult, open masters, masters and adult. Synchronized skating uses the same judging system as singles, pairs and ice dancing. The discipline is primarily judged on skating skills, transitions, performance, composition, interpretation and difficulty of elements. What makes the sport so unique is the incredible teamwork, speed, and intricate formations.[2]

Each level performs a free-skate program that requires elements such as circles, lines, blocks, wheels, intersections, moves in isolation, and, at high levels, lifts. Teams are required to perform step sequences, ranging in difficulty with each level. In the Junior and Senior divisions, teams are required to perform a free-skate, also known as long program, as well as a short program. Generally, the short program is more technical in nature, where the free skating program is longer and provides an opportunity to showcase expression, emotion and interpretation.[1]

The different levels are permitted to compete at different competitions. Synchro Skills levels can compete at any U.S. Figure Skating synchronized skating non-qualifying competition or a Learn to Skate USA competition. Preliminary, pre-juvenile, open-juvenile, open-collegiate and open-adult can compete at the same competitions as well the Eastern, Midwestern or Pacific Coast Synchronized Skating Sectional Championships. Teams at the juvenile, intermediate, novice, junior, senior, collegiate, adult or masters are permitted to compete at all competitions listed above. However, at their respective sectional championship a placement in the top four earns them a spot at the U.S. Synchronized Skating Championships. Junior level teams compete in a world qualifying competition where the top two teams attend the Junior World Synchronized Skating Championships. At the senior level teams compete at nationals for a spot at the World Synchronized Skating Championships, the top two teams attend.[1]

As stated above, a synchronized routine may consist of straight line sequences, wheels, blocks, circle step sequences, or also moves in isolation. Moves in isolation are when one or more skaters separates from the rest of the group and performs freestyle type moves. For example, three skaters may separate and go into sit spins, while the rest of the team is in a circle formation. The three skaters will then join the group again and carry on with the routine. Novice, Junior, and Senior programs also include moves in the fields where the whole team does moves such as bellman spirals, 170 spirals, unsupported spirals, spread eagles or bauers connected.

Required elements:[3]

  • No Hold Element: The no hold element has the same qualities as a regular block. The only difference is that the skaters are not connected in a no hold block. The goal of this maneuver is to stay in perfect alignment while doing the footwork. The neater the block and the harder the footwork, the more points a team can receive.
  • Pairs Element: This is a free skating move where one skater holds on to another. Different types of pairs element include spins, lifts, and pivots such as death spirals. Again, this element is really not a necessity for team skating, but it is seen at the Junior and Senior level. A pairs element can be used to boost skating skills and transition scores.
  • Wheel: For a wheel every skater must rotate around a common center point. There are many different formations that teams can form including a two to five spoke or a parallel wheel. Each spoke (line) of the wheel should be straight and the skaters should be leaning into the center of the wheel. The difficulty of the wheel can be increased by adding footwork, changing the rotational direction of the wheel, configuration of the wheel, or traveling. Traveling is difficult because a lot of the time teams will get called for "assisting the travel" which occurs when a team member (usually towards the center) is doing footwork that is not around the center point that is being traveled, but rather they cut through it on a straight path and stop the flow of rotation in an effort to gain more distance up the ice. More often than not, assisting the travel can be spotted because a) a team member will look out of place (technically they are) and b) the wheel will whip or be very jerky in movement.
  • Block: This is an element where the skaters are lined up in at least three parallel lines. Five lines is the maximum a block can have. The block should travel over the entire ice surface. The lines should be straight and evenly spaced. To increase the difficulty of the block teams can add step sequences, pivot the block, or change the configuration.
  • Circle: There are many different ways to complete this element. Teams can have one circle, multiple circles, a circle within a circle, interlocked circles, or disconnected circle. The circle should be evenly spaced between the skaters and should form a round shape. To increase the difficulty of a circle a team can include step sequences, traveling, and changes of rotational direction. Assisting of travel can also be present in a circle, and is usually noted by a skater trying to cut through the rotation of the circle on a straight path; this will be noticeable with the same jerky/whipping motion of the circle.
  • Intersection: An intersection, also known as a pass through, is when the skaters skate towards each other in lines and intersect. The intersection can be two lines, such as an angled intersection, but can have three or four lines, such as a triangle or box. At the point of intersection skaters could do turns or free skating movements to increase the difficulty. The entry to the intersection can be made more difficult by intersecting from an angle or from a whip.
  • Line: There are many different types of lines. Lines can be two parallel lines, one straight line, or a diagonal line. To increase the difficulty the team may pivot the line, change configuration, or incorporate retrogression into the line.
  • Movement in Isolation: In this element some of the skaters are isolated from the rest of the team while performing free skating elements such as spins, spirals, lifts, vaults, or jumps. The free skating elements must be performed by a minimum of three skaters and a maximum of less than half of the team.
  • Moves in the Field: This element is a sequence of movements that must include free skating moves such as spirals, spread eagles, Ina Bauers, and other flowing moves with strong edges, connected with linking steps. It must include at least three different free skating moves.


In 1956,[4] the first synchronized skating team was formed by Dr. Richard Porter, who became known as the 'father of synchronized skating'. The 'Hockettes' skated out of Ann Arbor, Michigan and entertained spectators during intermissions of the University of Michigan Wolverines hockey team. In the early days, precision skating (as it was then called) resembled a drill team routine, or a precision dance company such as The Rockettes.

During the 1970s, the interest for this new sport spawned tremendous growth and development. As each season passed, more and more teams were developing more creative and innovative routines incorporating stronger basic skating skills, new maneuvers and more sophisticated transitions with greater speed, style and agility. Due to the enormous interest in the sport in North America, the first official international competition was held between Canadian and American teams in Michigan in March 1976. With the internationalization of the sport, it has evolved rapidly, with increasing emphasis on speed and skating skills, and "highlight" elements such as jumps, spirals, spins, and lifts that originally were not permitted in competition.



There are international synchronized skating competitions at the Senior, Junior, and Novice levels (with Senior being the most elite). The International Skating Union held the first official World Synchronized Skating Championships (WSSC) in 2000 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. The top junior teams from around the world competed from 2001 to 2012 at the ISU Junior World Challenge Cup (JWCC), held in a different location every year. The JWCC were accompanied in 2013 by the ISU World Junior Synchronized Skating Championships, to be held biannually in odd-numbered years with the JWCC in even-numbered years.[5] Other long-running, major international events attracting elite teams at different levels include the French Cup, Spring Cup, Neuchâtel Trophy, Cup of Berlin, Zagreb Snowflakes Trophy and Prague Cup.

ISU World Synchronized Skating Championships

The ISU World Synchronized Skating Championships (WSSC) are the world championships for synchronized skating. Held since 2000, the WSSC is an annual event organized by the International Skating Union and attracts the most elite teams from around the world to compete. The top positions have been dominated by Finland with three different World Champions (Marigold IceUnity, Rockettes and Team Unique) and 19 medals and Sweden with the team (Team Surprise) with most World titles and medals for a single team. Other major countries include Canada with two gold, four silvers and five bronzes (for NEXXICE, Les Suprêmes and the now-discontinued Black Ice), as well as the United States with one silver and four bronzes (for Miami University and Haydenettes, respectively).

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze Source
2019 Helsinki, Finland
2018 Stockholm, Sweden Marigold IceUnity Team Surprise Team Paradise
2017 Colorado Springs, USA Team Paradise Marigold IceUnity NEXXICE
2016 Budapest, Hungary Team Paradise Rockettes Haydenettes [6]
2015 Hamilton, Ontario, Canada NEXXICE Marigold IceUnity Team Paradise [7]
2014 Courmayeur, Italy Marigold IceUnity NEXXICE Rockettes [8]
2013 Boston, United States Team Unique NEXXICE Haydenettes [9]
2012 Gothenburg, Sweden Team Surprise NEXXICE Haydenettes [10]
2011 Helsinki, Finland Rockettes Marigold IceUnity Haydenettes [11]
2010 Colorado Springs, United States Rockettes Marigold IceUnity Haydenettes [12]
2009 Zagreb, Croatia NEXXICE Team Unique Team Surprise [13]
2008 Budapest, Hungary Rockettes Team Surprise NEXXICE [14]
2007 London, Canada Team Surprise Miami University NEXXICE [15]
2006 Prague, Czech Republic Marigold IceUnity Team Surprise Rockettes [16]
2005 Gothenburg, Sweden Team Surprise Rockettes Marigold IceUnity [17]
2004 Zagreb, Croatia Marigold IceUnity Team Surprise Rockettes [18]
2003 Ottawa, Canada Team Surprise Marigold IceUnity Les Suprêmes
2002 Rouen, France Marigold IceUnity Team Surprise black ice
2001 Helsinki, Finland Team Surprise Rockettes black ice [19]
2000 Minneapolis, United States Team Surprise black ice Marigold IceUnity [20]

ISU World Junior Synchronized Skating Championships

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze Source
2018 Zagreb, Croatia Team Junost Team Skyliners Team Crystal Ice [21]
2017 Mississauga, Canada Team Junost Team Fintastic Musketeers [22]
2015 Zagreb, Croatia Musketeers Team Fintastic Les Suprêmes [23]
2013 Helsinki, Finland Musketeers Team Fintastic Spartak-Junost [24]

ISU Junior World Challenge Cup

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze Source(s)
2016 Zagreb, Croatia Les Suprêmes Team Fintastic Team Junost [25]
2014 Neuchâtel, Switzerland Team Fintastic Les Suprêmes Musketeers [26]
2012 Gothenburg, Sweden Team Fintastic Musketeers Les Suprêmes [27]
2011 Neuchâtel, Switzerland Team Fintastic Musketeers Team Braemar [28]
2010 Gothenburg, Sweden Team Fintastic NEXXICE Musketeers [28][29]
2009 Neuchâtel, Switzerland Team Fintastic NEXXICE Musketeers [28]
2008 Rouen, France Team Fintastic Gold Ice Musketeers [28]
2007 Nottingham, Great Britain Team Fintastic Les Suprêmes Chicago Jazz [30]
2006 Helsinki, Finland Musketeers Team Fintastic Chicago Jazz [28]
2005 Neuchâtel, Switzerland Musketeers Team Mystique Gold Ice [28]
2004 Milan, Italy Musketeers Team Mystique Gold Ice [28]
2003 Kungsbacka, Sweden Musketeers Burlington Ice Image Les Suprêmes [28]
2002 Zagreb, Croatia Ice Image Spartak-Leader Musketeers [28]
2001 Neuchâtel, Switzerland Team Fintastic Les Suprêmes Superettes [28]


The Finnish member of ISU, the Finnish Figure Skating Association, holds the Finnish Synchronized Skating Championships at the novice, junior and senior levels. Also, it holds two Finnish Championships Qualifiers before the nationals. Since the late 1990s, the senior-level battle for the qualifier wins and Finnish Championshipand the ensuing ISU World Synchronized Skating Championships (WSSC) entrieshas mainly been fought between three teams from Helsinki, Marigold IceUnity, Rockettes and Team Unique, while a fourth and sometimes a fifth senior team has competed along in the intervening years.

Finnish Senior Championships medalists

Year Location Gold Silver Bronze Source
2014 Helsinki Marigold IceUnity Rockettes Team Unique [31]
2013 Turku Team Unique Marigold IceUnity Rockettes [32]
2012 Espoo Rockettes Marigold IceUnity Team Unique [33]
2011 Espoo Rockettes Marigold IceUnity Team Unique [34]
2010 Espoo Rockettes Marigold IceUnity Team Unique [35]
2009 Helsinki Marigold IceUnity Team Unique Rockettes [36]
2008 Helsinki Rockettes Marigold IceUnity Team Unique [37]
2007 Helsinki Marigold IceUnity Team Unique Rockettes [38]
2006 Helsinki Marigold IceUnity Rockettes Team Unique [39]

Finnish qualifications for the ISU WSSC

Throughout the years, the Finnish senior teams qualifying for the World Championships have been selected based on their performance at the two qualifiers and the national championships. In the season 201213, the teams were selected as follows: the Finnish Champion qualified automatically as Team Finland 1 for the WSSC. Team Finland 2 at the WSSC was the team which earned the least points from the first qualifier, the second qualifier and the Finnish Championships. The points equaled the sum of the positions at the three competitions with growing coefficients: the coefficient was 0,3 for the first competition result, 0,5 for the second and 1 for the last.[40]

United States

In the United States, there are several other recognized age and skill levels. Sanctioned by the USFSA, the divisions include Beginner, Pre-Juvenile, Preliminary, Open Juvenile, Open Collegiate, and Open Adult (the non-qualifying divisions/ the divisions that do not go to Nationals) and Juvenile, Intermediate, Novice, Junior, Senior, Collegiate, Adult, and Masters (qualifying levels).

ISI (Ice Skating Institute) is another governing body which focuses on a more recreational form of competition and does not have the same divisions as those of the USFSA. Teams can compete in the Tot, Jr. Youth, Youth, Sr. Youth, Teen, Collegiate, Adult, or Master age groups, in any of five categories: Formation, Advanced Formation, Skating, Open Skating, and Dance.[41]

While most skaters participating in synchronized skating are female, the rules allow mixed-gender teams.

US Figure Skating Senior Championship

The Senior team level consists of 16 skaters. Skaters must be at least 15 years old and have passed the Novice Moves in the Field test.

2018 Portland, Oregon
2017 Rockford, Illinois Haydenettes 208.83 Crystallettes 189.50 Skyliners 172.96 Miami University 172.84 [42]
2016 Kalamazoo, Michigan Haydenettes 202.26 Miami University 183.86 Skyliners 169.47 Crystallettes 166.96
2015Providence, Rhode IslandHaydenettes210.55Miami University194.70Skyliners178.99Crystallettes173.78
2014Colorado Springs, ColoradoHaydenettes205.02Crystallettes179.77Starlights154.90Miami University149.64
2013Plymouth, MichiganHaydenettes206.33Miami University191.28Crystallettes176.96Skyliners151.56[43]
2012Worcester, MassachusettsHaydenettes202.92Crystallettes185.54Miami University182.64ICE'Kateers145.15[44]
2011Ontario, CaliforniaHaydenettes217.41Miami University195.50Crystallettes179.85California Gold[45]
2010Minneapolis, MinnesotaHaydenettes231.14Crystallettes210.35Miami University202.68Starlights167.80[46]
2009Portland, MaineMiami University204.72Haydenettes203.97Crystallettes184.10California Gold[47]
2008Providence, Rhode IslandHaydenettes213.37Miami University201.26Crystallettes184.10California Gold[4]
2007Colorado Springs, ColoradoHaydenettes201.04Miami University199.56Crystallettes159.65California Gold158.06[48]
2006Grand Rapids, MichiganMiami University179.72Haydenettes161.28Crystallettes155.12Team Elan126.96[49]
2005Lowell, MassachusettsHaydenettes*Miami University*Crystallettes*Team Elan*[50]
2004San Diego, CaliforniaHaydenettes*Crystallettes*Team Elan*Miami University*[51]
2003Huntsville, AlabamaHaydenettes*Miami University*Team Elan*Crystallettes*[52]
2002Lake Placid, New YorkHaydenettes*Miami University*Crystallettes*[4]
2001Colorado Springs, ColoradoHaydenettes*Miami University*Crystallettes*[4]
2000Plymouth, MichiganHaydenettes*Team Elan*Miami University*[4]
1999Tampa, FloridaMiami University*Haydenettes*Starlets[4]
1998San Diego, CaliforniaHaydenettesMiami UniversityTeam Elan*[4]
1997Syracuse, New YorkHaydenettes*Team Elan*Miami University*[4]
1996Chicago, IllinoisHaydenettes*Miami University*Team Elan*[4]
1995San Diego, CaliforniaTeam Elan*Haydenettes*Miami University*[4]
1994Providence, Rhode IslandHaydenettes*Team Elan*Miami University*[4]
1993Detroit, MichiganHaydenettes*Team Elan*Crystallettes*[4]
1992Portland, MaineHaydenettes*Team Elan*Goldenettes*[4]
1991Anchorage, AlaskaHaydenettes*Goldenettes*Fraserettes*[4]
1990Houston, TexasGoldenettes*Haydenettes*Fraserettes*[4]
1989Providence, Rhode IslandHaydenettes*Goldenettes*Detroit Capets*[4]
1988Reno, NevadaHaydenettes*Fraserettes*Detroit Capets*[4]
1987Tulsa, OklahomaFraserettes*Haydenettes*Figurettes*[4]
1986Boston, MassachusettsHot Fudge Sundaes*Haydenettes*Detroit Capets*[4]
1985Lakewood, OhioFraserettes*Ice Crystallettes*Minneapplettes*[4]
1984Bowling Green, OhioFraserettes*Ice Crystallettes*[53]*[4]

USFSA Collegiate Championship

The Collegiate team level consists of teams with 12-20 skaters who must be enrolled in a college or degree program as full-time students. Skaters must also have passed the Juvenile Moves in the Field test. It is a Varsity Sport at colleges such as Miami University and Adrian College. Many more have developed club-level collegiate teams without varsity status such as the team at The University of Delaware and the University of Michigan. The Miami University Synchronized Skating Team has been a trailblazer in collegiate synchronized skating, fielding the first completely funded varsity synchronized skating program in the United States, as well as working towards gaining "Synchro" NCAA status in the United States.

2016 Kalamazoo, Michigan Miami University 90.12 Univ of Michigan 86.28 Metroettes 82.15
2015Providence, RIMiami University94.12Univ of Michigan85.69Metroettes84.25
2014Colorado Springs, COMiami University96.80Team Excel78.77Michigan State78.60
2013Plymouth, MIMiami University92.26Univ of Delaware84.11Univ of Michigan77.98[43]
2012Worcester, MAMiami University87.80Univ of Delaware84.29Univ of Michigan80.83
2011Ontario, CAMiami University96.16Michigan State85.17Univ of Michigan83.96
2010Minneapolis, MNMiami University107.60Univ of Michigan98.46Univ of Delaware94.97
2009Portland, MEMiami University100.63Univ of Illinois86.79Michigan State85.79
2008Providence, RIMiami University107.46Univ of Delaware97.77Michigan State87.11
2007Colorado Springs, COMiami University102.61Michigan State92.17Univ of Delaware88.74
2006Grand Rapids, MIMiami UniversityWestern MichiganUniv of Delaware
2005Lowell, MAMiami UniversityWestern MichiganMichigan State
2004San Diego, CAWestern MichiganMiami UniversityUniv of Delaware
2003Huntsville, ALMiami UniversityWestern MichiganUniv of Michigan
2002Lake Placid, NYMiami UniversityMichigan StateWestern Michigan
2001Colorado Springs, COMiami UniversityWestern MichiganMichigan State
2000Plymouth, MIMiami UniversityUniv of DelawareUniv of Michigan
1999Tampa, FLUniv of MichiganMiami UniversityUniv of Delaware
1998San Diego, CAMiami UniversityMichigan StateBowling Green
1997Syracuse, NYMiami UniversityBowling GreenWestern Michigan

Present day

Although not currently an Olympic sport, it has already been reviewed for Olympic eligibility. Fans and participants of this fast-growing discipline have begun to strive for recognition by the rest of the skating and athletic world. In 2007 synchronized skating took one step closer to Olympic contention when it was selected to be part of the Universiade or World University Games as a demonstration sport. Countries from around the world competed in Turin, Italy with Sweden, Finland, and Russia coming out on top.

There are many speculations as to why synchronized skating may never become an olympic sport. These include:

  • Cost and logistics at the Games. Teams of twenty skaters require more money spent on accommodations.
  • Mixed gender sport. There are no requirements or regulations surrounding the gender of skaters on a team.
  • Not easy to televise. The sport does not convey the same power or speed when it is viewed through the TV.
  • Lack of interested audience. The sport is relatively low profile in many parts of the world, and may not draw a significant audience.
  • Scandal of judged sport. Figure skating already comes under criticism for judging scandals.
  • Lack of diversity among contending countries. The sport is dominated by five main countries (Russia, Finland, Sweden, USA, and Canada).
  • Lack of countries with teams. At the senior level, there are approximately twenty countries who have teams.

Why Not Synchro 2018 is an ongoing campaign which became popular over social media through the hashtag #whynotsynchro and #whynotsynchro2018 on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. This was popularized at the Mozart Cup, held in Austria in January 2014. During the medal ceremonies, teams gathered on the ice and created the shape of the olympic rings. This image was then shared widely over social media as skaters petitioned to get awareness about the sport. A petition to the International Olympic committee on calling for 15,000 signatures and asking the IOC to make "Synchronized Figure Skating: Make it an Olympic Event." The petition states "The time has come to add this incredible event to the pinnacle of the sport of figure skating."

News coverage

Synchronized skating has been covered by Skating magazine since the sport's inception. International and national level competitions are covered by local newspapers highlighting local athletes and teams. Television coverage is taken by major news channels and is usually broadcast after the competition date.


The competitive levels of synchronized skating, like those in other disciplines of figure skating, are now judged using the ISU Judging System that was introduced in 2004. Each element is assigned a difficulty level by the technical panel made-up of a technical specialist, assistant technical specialist and a technical controller. Each level of difficulty for a particular element corresponds to a pre-determined base value. The base value is the amount of points that are awarded for an executed element before the grade of execution or any deductions are applied. The base value for every element can be found on the ISU website under ISU Communication 1532, Appendix D. Judges assign a grade of execution from -3 to +3 to each of the elements. Each grade of execution, or GOE, corresponds to a point value. For each element, the highest and lowest GOE values are dropped and the rest are averaged then added to the base value. The sum of all the scores of the elements comprises the Technical Elements score.

A series of five categories comprises the Program Components score. The Program Component score includes the following categories: skating skills, transitions, performance/execution, choreography, and interpretation. These components are evaluated for the entirety of the program. Each judge gives a mark for each component. The mark given ranges between 0.0 and 10.00 and can vary in 0.25 increments. Then a trimmed mean is calculated by dropping the highest and lowest score. The remaining scores are then averaged. The panel’s points for each program component are multiplied by the factors: .8 for the short program, 1.6 for the junior, senior and collegiate free skate and 1.0 for intermediate, novice and adult. The factored results are rounded to two decimal places and added. The sum is the Program Components Score.

The Technical Elements and Program Components scores are then added to form the total segment score. The team with the highest total segment wins the competition. For junior and senior teams that have two programs, the scores of both programs are added together. The team with the highest combined score is the winner. In the event of a tie, the team with the highest free program score wins the competition.

In the United States, the introductory levels of Preliminary, Pre-Juvenile, Open Juvenile, Open Junior, Open Collegiate, and Open Adult are still judged under the 6.0 judging system. These levels can compete at the regional level but cannot qualify for the national championships.

In Canada, all levels are judged with the ISU judging system.

Highest scores at ISU competitions

Short program

Rank Team Score Event Source
1 Team Surprise 87.84 2004 Neuchâtel Trophy [54]
2 Rockettes 83.46 2010 Cup of Berlin [55]
3 Team Unique 82.36 2009 Worlds [56]
4 NEXXICE 80.12 2009 Worlds [56]
5 Marigold IceUnity 78.68 2009 Worlds [56]

Free skating

Rank Team Score Event Source
1 Team Surprise 159.60 2004 Neuchâtel Trophy [57]
2 Marigold IceUnity 147.31 2014 Worlds [58]
3 NEXXICE 146.03 2014 Worlds [58]
4 Paradise 145.84 2014 Zagreb Snowflakes Trophy [59]
5 Rockettes 145.68 2014 Worlds [58]

Combined total

Rank Team Score Event Source
1 Team Surprise 247.44 2004 Neuchâtel Trophy [60]
2 Rockettes 223.90 2010 Worlds [61]
3 NEXXICE 223.58 2009 Worlds [62]
4 Marigold IceUnity 223.45 2014 Worlds [63]
5 Paradise 220.54 2014 Zagreb Snowflakes Trophy [64]


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