Sunda clouded leopard

Sunda clouded leopard
Temporal range: Early Pleistocene to recent
A Bornean clouded leopard, lower Kinabatangan River, eastern Sabah, Malaysia
Scientific classification
Species: N. diardi
Binomial name
Neofelis diardi
(G. Cuvier, 1823)
(Cuvier, 1923) Wilting, Christiansen, Kitchener, Kemp, Ambu and Fickel, 2007
Range of Sunda clouded leopard

Felis diardii

The Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi), also known as the Sundaland clouded leopard, is a medium-sized wild cat native to Borneo and Sumatra. In 2006, it was classified as a separate species, distinct from Neofelis nebulosa in mainland Southeast Asia.[2][3]

Since 2015, the Sunda clouded leopard is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. The total effective population size is estimated at fewer than 10,000 individuals, with a decreasing population trend.[1]


The Sunda clouded leopard's coat is marked with irregularly-shaped, dark-edged ovals which are said to be shaped like clouds, hence its common name. It has a stocky build, and weighs around 12 to 26 kg (26 to 57 lb). The canine teeth are 2 inches (5.1 cm) long, which, in proportion to the skull length, are longer than those of any other living cat. Its tail can grow to be as long as its body, aiding balance. It is the largest cat in Borneo.

Its hyoid bone is ossified, making it possible to purr. Its pupils contract into vertical slits.[4]

Distribution and habitat

The Sunda clouded leopard is restricted to the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. In Borneo, it occurs in lowland rainforest, and at lower density in logged forest. Records in Borneo are below 1,500 m (4,900 ft). In Sumatra, it appears to be more abundant in hilly, montane areas. It is unknown if there are still Sunda clouded leopards on the small Batu Islands close to Sumatra.[1]

Between March and August 2005, tracks of clouded leopards were recorded during field research in the Tabin Wildlife Reserve in Sabah. The population size in the 56 km2 (22 sq mi) research area was estimated to be five individuals, based on a capture-recapture analysis of four confirmed animals differentiated by their tracks. The density was estimated at eight to 17 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi). The population in Sabah is roughly estimated at 1,500–3,200 individuals, with only 275–585 of them living in totally protected reserves that are large enough to hold a long-term viable population of more than 50 individuals.[5] The first documentary video of a Sundaland clouded leopard was taken in June 2009 by a group of wildlife biologists in Sabah.[6]

In Sumatra, it was recorded in Kerinci Seblat, Gunung Leuser and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Parks.[7][8][9] It occurs most probably in much lower densities than on Borneo. One explanation for this lower density of about 1.29 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) might be that on Sumatra it is sympatric with the tiger, whereas on Borneoit is the largest carnivore.[10]

Clouded leopard fossils were excavated on Java, where it perhaps became extinct in the Holocene.[11]

Ecology and behaviour

The habits of the Sunda clouded leopard are largely unknown because of the animal's secretive nature. It is assumed that it is generally solitary. It hunts mainly on the ground and uses its climbing skills to hide from dangers.

Evolutionary and taxonomic history

The species was named Felis diardi in honor of the French naturalist and explorer Pierre-Médard Diard by Georges Cuvier in 1823, based on a drawing and skin allegedly from Java.[12] In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Sunda clouded leopard was regarded as a subspecies of the clouded leopard, namely Neofelis nebulosa diardi. The genetic analysis of hair samples of Neofelis nebulosa and Neofelis diardi implies that they diverged 1.4 million years ago, after having used a now submerged land bridge to reach Borneo and Sumatra from mainland Asia.[2]

Results of a morphometric analysis of the pelages of fifty-seven clouded leopards sampled throughout the genus' wide geographical range indicated that there are two distinct morphological groups, differing primarily in the size of their cloud markings.[3] DNA samples from the Bornean and mainland Asia populations were used in molecular genetic analyses, revealing differences in mtDNA, nuclear DNA sequences, microsatellite and cytogenetic variation. Thirty-six fixed mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide differences, and 20 microsatellite loci with nonoverlapping allele-size ranges distinguished the populations — a degree of differentiation equivalent to, or greater than, comparable measures among the Panthera species — and strongly support a species-level distinction between Neofelis nebulosa and Neofelis diardi.[2][3]

In December 2006, the genus Neofelis was reclassified into two distinct species:[2][3]

Molecular, craniomandibular and dental analysis indicates distinction of the Sunda clouded leopard in two subspecies with separate evolutionary histories:[13]

Both populations are estimated to have diverged from each other during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. The split of Neofelis diardi subspecies corresponds roughly with the catastrophic super-eruption of the Toba Volcano in Sumatra 69,000–77,000 years ago. A probable scenario is that Sunda clouded leopards from Borneo recolonized Sumatra during periods of low sea levels in the Pleistocene, and were later separated from their source population by rising sea levels.[13]


Sunda clouded leopards being strongly arboreal are forest-dependent, and are increasingly threatened by habitat destruction following deforestation in Indonesia as well as in Malaysia.[1] Since the early 1970s, much of the forest cover has been cleared in southern Sumatra, in particular lowland tropical evergreen forest. Fragmentation of forest stands and agricultural encroachments have rendered wildlife particularly vulnerable to human pressure.[14] Borneo has one of the world's highest deforestation rates. While in the mid-1980s forests still covered nearly three quarters of the island, by 2005 only 52% of Borneo was still forested. Both forests and land make way for human settlement. Illegal trade in wildlife is a widely spread practice.[15]

The population status of Sunda clouded leopards in Sumatra and Borneo has been estimated to decrease due to forest loss, forest conversion, illegal logging, encroachment, and possibly hunting. In Borneo, forest fires pose an additional threat, particularly in Kaltim and in the Sebangau National Park.[16]

There have been reports of poaching of Sunda clouded leopards in Brunei's Belait District where locals are selling their pelts at a lucrative price.[17]


Neofelis diardi is listed on CITES Appendix I, and is fully protected in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei. Sunda clouded leopards occur in most protected areas along the Sumatran mountain spine, and in most protected areas on Borneo.[1]

Since November 2006, the Bornean Wild Cat and Clouded Leopard Project based in the Danum Valley Conservation Area and the Tabin Wildlife Reserve aims to study the behaviour and ecology of the five species of Bornean wild cat — bay cat, flat-headed cat, marbled cat, leopard cat, and Sunda clouded leopard — and their prey, with a focus on the clouded leopard; investigate the effects of habitat alteration; increase awareness of the Bornean wild cats and their conservation needs, using the clouded leopard as a flagship species; and investigate threats to the Bornean wild cats from hunting and trade in Sabah.[18]

The Sundaland clouded leopard is one of the focal cats of the project Conservation of Carnivores in Sabah based in northeastern Borneo since July 2008. The project team evaluates the consequences of different forms of forest exploitation for the abundance and density of felids in three commercially used forest reserves. They intend to assess the conservation needs of these felids and develop species specific conservation action plans together with other researchers and all local stakeholders.[19]


The scientific name of the genus Neofelis is a composite of the Greek word νεο- meaning "new", and the Latin word feles meaning "cat", so it literally means "new cat."[20][21]

Local names

The Indonesian name for the clouded leopard rimau-dahan means "tree tiger" or "branch tiger".[22]

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Hearn, A.; Ross, J.; Brodie, J.; Cheyne, S.; Haidir, I.A.; Loken, B.; Mathai, J.; Wilting, A.; McCarthy, J. (2016). "Neofelis diardi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T136603A50664601.en
  2. 1 2 3 4 Buckley-Beason, V.A.; Johnson, W.E.; Nash, W.G.; Stanyon, R.; Menninger, J.C.; Driscoll, C.A.; Howard, J.; Bush, M.; Page, J.E.; Roelke, M.E.; Stone, G.; Martelli, P.; Wen, C.; Ling, L.; Duraisingam, R.K.; Lam, V.P.; O'Brien, S.J. (2006). "Molecular Evidence for Species-Level Distinctions in Clouded Leopards". Current Biology. 16 (23): 2371–2376. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.08.066. PMID 17141620.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Kitchener, A. C.; Beaumont, M. A.; Richardson, D. (2006). "Geographical Variation in the Clouded Leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Reveals Two Species". Current Biology. 16 (23): 2377–2383. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.10.066. PMID 17141621.
  4. Guggisberg, C.A.W. (1975). "Clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa (Griffiths, 1821)". Wild cats of the World. New York: Taplinger Publishing. pp. 125–130. ISBN 0-8008-8324-1.
  5. Wilting, A.; Fischer, F.; Abu Bakar, S. & Linsenmair, K. E. (2006). "Clouded leopards, the secretive top-carnivore of South-East Asian rainforests: their distribution, status and conservation needs in Sabah, Malaysia". BMC Ecology. 6: 16. doi:10.1186/1472-6785-6-16. PMC 1654139. PMID 17092347.
  6. Mohamed, A. and Wilting, A. (2009). Sundaland clouded leopard Neofelis diardi. Filmed at Deramakot Forest Reserve, Sabah, Malaysia. Conservation of Carnivores in Sabah
  7. Holden J. (2001). "Small cats in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia: evidence collected through photo-trapping". Cat News (35): 11–14.
  8. Pusparini, W., Wibisono, H.T., Reddy, G.V. , Tarmizi, Bharata, P. (2014). "Small and medium sized cats in Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia". Cat News (Special issue 8): 4–9.
  9. McCarthy, J.L., Wibisono, H.T., McCarthy, K.P., Fuller, T.K. and Andayani, N. (2015). "Assessing the distribution and habitat use of four felid species in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia". Global Ecology and Conservation 3: 210−221. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2014.11.009.
  10. Hutujulu, B., Sunarto, Klenzendorf, S., Supriatna, J., Budiman, A. and Yahya, A. (2007). "Study on the ecological characteristics of clouded leopard in Riau, Sumatra". In J. Hughes and M. Mercer. Felid Biology and Conservation: Programme and Abstracts. An International Conference, 17–20 September 2007, Oxford. Oxford: Oxford University, Wildlife Conservation Research Unit.
  11. Meijaard, E. (2004). "Biogeographic history of the Javan leopard Panthera pardus based on a craniometric analysis". Journal of Mammalogy. 85: 302–310.
  12. Cuvier, G. (1823). Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles; ou, l'on retablit les caracteres de plusiers animaux dont les revolutions du globe ont detruit les especes. Les Ruminans et les Carnassiers Fossiles, Volume IV. Paris: G. Dufour & E. d'Ocagne
  13. 1 2 Wilting A.; Christiansen P.; Kitchener A. C.; Kemp Y. J. M.; Ambu L.; Fickel, J. (2010). "Geographical variation in and evolutionary history of the Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) with the description of a new subspecies from Borneo" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 58 (2): 317–328. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.11.007. PMID 21074625.
  14. Gaveaua, D. L. A.; Wandonoc, H.; Setiabudid, F. (2007). "Three decades of deforestation in southwest Sumatra: Have protected areas halted forest loss and logging, and promoted re-growth?" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 134 (4): 495–504. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.08.035.
  15. Rautner, M.; Hardiono, M.; Alfred, R. J. (2005), Borneo: treasure island at risk. Status of Forest, Wildlife, and related Threats on the Island of Borneo (PDF), WWF Germany
  16. Povey, K.; Sunarto, H. J.G.; Priatna, D.; Ngoprasert, D.; Reed, D.; Wilting, A.; Lynam, A.; Haidai, I.; Long, B.; Johnson, A.; Cheyne, S.; Breitenmoser, C.; Holzer, K.; Byers, O. CBSG., eds. (2009), Clouded Leopard and Small Felid Conservation Summit Final Report (PDF), IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group: Apple Valley, MN.
  17. Shahminan, F., Begawan, B. S. (2010). Poaching threatens clouded leopards The Brunei Times, 19 December 2010.
  18. Hearn, A.; Ross, J. (2006). "Bornean Wild Cat and Clouded Leopard Project" (PDF). Cat Project of the Month – November 2006. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group.
  19. Wilting, A.; Mohamed, A. (2009). "Consequences of different forest management strategies for felids in Sabah, Malaysia" (PDF). Cat Project of the Month – May 2009. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group.
  20. Perseus Digital Library. Greek Dictionary νεο Headword Search Result
  21. Perseus Digital Library. Latin Dictionary feles Headword Search Result
  22. Horsfield, T. (1825). "Description of the Rimau-Dahan of the inhabitants of Sumatra, a new species of Felis, discovered in the forests of Bencoolen, by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, late Lieutenant-Governor of Fort Marlborough". Zoological Journal of London 1: 542–554.

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