Summa contra Gentiles
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The Summa contra Gentiles (also known as Liber de veritate catholicae fidei contra errores infidelium, "Book on the truth of the Catholic faith against the errors of the unbelievers") is one of the best-known books by St Thomas Aquinas, written during c. 1259–1265.
It was probably written to aid missionaries in explaining the Christian religion to and defending it against dissenting points of doctrine in Islam and Judaism. To this end, Aquinas may rely on a substantial body of shared doctrine, especially tenets of monotheism, in the case of Judaism the shared acceptance of the Old Testament as scripture and in the case of Islam the (at the time) shared tradition of Aristotelian philosophy. Whereas the Summa Theologiæ was written to explain the Christian faith to theology students, the Summa contra Gentiles is more apologetic in tone, as it was written to explain and defend the Christian doctrine against unbelievers, with arguments adapted to fit the intended circumstances of its use, each article refuting a certain heretical belief or proposition. Instead of a mere elucidation of the length and breadth of Christian doctrine, Aquinas explains specific core articles of Christian belief.
Date and composition
The work was written over a period of several years, between 1259 and 1265.
In the spring of 1256 Thomas was appointed regent master in theology at Paris and one of his first works upon assuming this office was Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et religionem, defending the mendicant orders, which had come under attack by William of Saint-Amour. During his tenure from 1256 to 1259, Thomas wrote numerous works, and he was working on Summa contra Gentiles by the time he left Paris. From Aquinas' autograph, Torrell (1996) identified the first 53 chapters of Book I as having been written in Paris based on studies of the parchment and the ink used.
According to a tradition that can be traced to shortly after Thomas' death, the Summa contra Gentiles was written in response to a request, made in 1259, for a book that would help the Dominican missionaries in Spain to convert the Muslims and Jews there. The request was made by Raymond of Peñafort, a Dominican friar and advisor to James I of Aragon. Raymond had been active in the Christian defense against the Moors (Muslims) and Jews in the kingdom of Aragon since the 1240s. To this end, Raymond instituted the teaching of Arabic and Hebrew in several houses of the friars, and he also founded priories in Murcia (then still under Muslim rule) and in Tunis. Additionally he went to help establish the Church in the recently conquered island of Mallorca. Raymond's request to Thomas was transmitted by fellow Dominican Ramón Martí, one of eight friars appointed to make a study of oriental languages with the purpose of carrying on a mission to Jews and Moors. The historicity of this account has been questioned in modern scholarship. Arguments adduced include the lack of an explicit dedication to Raymond, the evidence that substantial portions of book 1 were complete by mid-1259 (suggesting that Thomas started work on the book as early as 1257), and the suggestion that the work makes no effort to address tenets of Islam specifically.
Later in 1259, Thomas left Paris and returned to Naples, where he was appointed as general preacher by the provincial chapter of 29 September 1260. In September 1261 he was called to Orvieto as conventual lector responsible for the pastoral formation of the friars unable to attend a studium generale. It was in Orvieto that Thomas completed Summa contra Gentiles, which was followed by the Catena aurea, and minor works produced for Pope Urban IV such as the liturgy for the newly created feast of Corpus Christi and the Contra errores graecorum.
The Summa contra Gentiles consists of four books. The structure of Thomas' work is designed to proceed from general philosophical arguments for monotheism, to which Muslims and Jews are likely to consent even within their own respective religious traditions, before progressing to the discussion of specifically Christian doctrine.
Books I–III cover truths that naturally are accessible to the human intellect while book IV covers revealed truths for which natural reason is inadequate.
The conventional title is taken from chapter I.2, where Thomas states his intention as the work's author: "I have set myself the task of making known, as far as my limited powers will allow, the truth that the Catholic faith professes, and of setting aside the errors that are opposed to it. To use the words of Hilary: 'I am aware that I owe this to God as the chief duty of my life, that my every word and sense may speak of Him' [De Trinitate I, 37]."
The first book begins with general questions of truth and natural reason, and from chapter 10 investigates the concept of monotheistic God, chapters 10 to 13 concerned with the existence of God, followed by a detailed investigation of God's properties (chapters 14 to 102).
The second book is dedicated to the Creation (viz. the physical universe, everything which exists).
The fourth book is dedicated to discussing points of Christian doctrine which separate Nicaean Christianity from the other monotheistic religions, i.e. the doctrines of the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Sacraments and the Resurrection.
Editions and translations
Giuseppe Ciante (d. 1670), a leading Hebrew expert of his day and professor of theology and philosophy at the College of Saint Thomas in Rome was appointed in 1640 by Pope Urban VIII to the mission of preaching to the Jews of Rome (Predicatore degli Ebrei) in order to promote their conversion." In the mid-1650s Ciantes wrote a "monumental bilingual edition of the first three Parts of Thomas Aquinas’ Summa contra Gentiles, which includes the original Latin text and a Hebrew translation prepared by Ciantes, assisted by Jewish converts, the Summa divi Thomae Aquinatis ordinis praedicatorum Contra Gentiles quam Hebraicè eloquitur…. Until the present this remains the only significant translation of a major Latin scholastic work in modern Hebrew."
The first modern edition of the work is the one by Ucceli (1878) re-published in 1918 as part of the Editio Leonina. Appendices to the first three books, based on the authograph, were edited as vols. 13 (1918, 3–61) and 14 (1926, 3–49) of the Leonine edition. The Leonine text was re-edited, with corrections, by P. Marc, C. Pera and P. Carmello and published with Marietti, Torino-Rome, in 1961.
- Summa contra Gentiles is the most commonly used title, found in some of the earliest manuscripts. The title is sometimes given in the variant Summa contra Gentes. The longer title is also given as Tractatus de fide catholica, contra Gentiles [or: contra errores infidelium] ("Tractate on the universal (catholic) faith, against the pagans (or, against the errors of the unbelievers)", shortened to De fide catholica (a shorthand title shared with other works). See: Brian Davies, Eleonore Stump, The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas (2012), p. 533.
- Gilson, Etienne (1994). The Christian Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. p. 502. ISBN 978-0-268-00801-7.
- Aquinas, Thomas; Richard J. Regan; Brian Davies (2003). On Evil. Oxford University Press US. p. 5. ISBN 0-19-509183-3.
- Davies, Aquinas: An Introduction, p. 4.
- Torrell, Jean-Pierre (1996). St. Thomas Aquinas: The Person and His Work, vol. 1. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press. p. 407502. ISBN 978-0-268-00801-7.
- John Y.B. Hood, Aquinas and the Jews (1995), p. 37.
- Anthony Bonner, Doctor illuminatus, Princeton University Press (1993), p. 78
- Brian Davies, Thomas Aquinas's Summa Contra Gentiles: A Guide and Commentary, Oxford University Press, (2016), 8&nsah;10.
- "Aquinas only mentions Islam nine times in the entire work, and only a brief paragraph (1.6) says anything remotely substantive about the religion." T. E. Burman in: Nicholas of Cusa and Islam: Polemic and Dialogue in the Late Middle Ages Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions (Ian Christopher Levy, Rita George-Tvrtković, Donald Duclow eds.), BRILL (2014), p. xv.
- Healy, Theologian, p. 4.
- trans. Pegis (1955)
- Galletti in Vat. Lat. 7900 f. 106; Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, Vol 4, 233, https://www.scribd.com/doc/63478112/Hierarchia-Catholica-Medii-Aevi-V4 Accessed 21 February 2013
- "Kabbalah and Conversion: Caramuel and Ciantes on Kabbalah as a Means for the Conversion of the Jews", by Yossef Schwartz, in Un’altra modernità. Juan Caramuel Lobkowitz (1606–1682): enciclopedia e probabilismo, eds. Daniele Sabaino and Paolo C. Pissavino (Pisa: Edizioni EPS 2012): 175–187, 176–7, https://www.academia.edu/2353870/Kabbalah_and_Conversion_Caramuel_and_Ciantes_on_Kabbalah_as_a_Means_for_the_Conversion_of_the_Jews Accessed 16 March 2012. See Summa divi Thomae Aquinatis ordinis praedicatorum Contra Gentiles quam Hebraicè eloquitur Iosephus Ciantes Romanus Episcopus Marsicensis ex eodem Ordine assumptus, ex typographia Iacobi Phaei Andreae filii, Romae 1657.
- Pietro Antonia Ucelli (ed.), S. Thomae Aquinatis ... Summae de veritate catholicae fidei contra gentiles quae supersunt ex codice autographo ... cetera vero ex probatissimis codd. et editionibus, Roma 1878. Summa contra gentiles (Sancti Thomae Aquinatis doctoris Angelici Opera omnia, iussu edita Leonis XIII. P. M. 13), Roma 1918, 3–602; (P. M. 14), Roma 1926, 3–475; (P. M. 15), Roma 1930, 3–299.
- The Summa Contra Gentiles, literally translated by the English DOminican Fathers from the latest Leonine Edition Archived 2011-08-22 at the Wayback Machine. Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd. (1924). Summa contra Gentiles, five volumes, New York: Hanover House, (1955-57; reprint U. of Notre Dame Press, 1975): Book One, God, trans. Anton C. Pegis; Book Two, Creation, trans. James Anderson; Book Three, Providence, (Part 1 and Part 2) trans. Vernon Bourke; Book Four, Salvation, trans.Charles J. O'Neil.
- Hans Nachod, Paul Stern, Thomas von Aquin, Die Summe wider die Heiden in vier Büchern, Leipzig 1935–1937. Karl Albert, Thomas von Aquin, Summa contra gentiles 1.–4. Buch. Lateinisch und deutsch, Darmstadt 2001.
- Laureano Robles Carcedo, Adolfo Robles Sierra, Santo Tomas de Aquino, Suma contra los gentiles 1–2 (Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos. Sección 6: Filosofia 94 und 102), Madrid 1967–1968
- René-Antoine Gauthier, Thomas de Aquino, Summa contra gentiles. Saint Thomas d’Aquin, Somme contre les gentils (Philosopie européenne), Paris 1993. Réginald Bernier, Thomas d’Aquin, Somme contre les gentils, Latout-Maubourg 1993. Vincent Aubin, Cyrille Michon, Denis Moreau, Thomas d’Aquin, Somme contre les gentils 1–4 (GF Flammarion 1045–1048), Paris 1999.
- Matthew Kostelecky: Thomas Aquinas’s Summa contra Gentiles: A Mirror of Human Nature. Leuven: Peeters, 2013. ISBN 978-90-429-2747-6
- John Tolan: "Thomas Aquinas: Summa contra gentiles", in D. Thomas et al., eds., Bibliographical History of Christian-Muslim Relations, vol. 4, Leiden: Brill, 2009–12.
- R. Schönberger: Thomas von Aquins “Summa contra Gentiles”. Darmstadt, 2001.
- C. Chang, Engaging Unbelief: A Captivating Strategy from Augustine & Aquinas. Downers Grove, IL, 2000.
- H. Hoping: Weisheit als Wissen des Ursprungs: Philosophie und Theologie in der "Summa contra gentiles" des Thomas von Aquin. Freiburg, 1997.
- R. R. Burns: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in the Crusader Kingdom of Valencia. Cambridge, 1984.
- J. Waltz: "Muhammad and the Muslims in St. Thomas Aquinas." Muslim World 66 (1976): 81–95.
- T. Murphy: “The date and purpose of the contra Gentiles.” Heythrop Journal 10 (1969), 405–15.
- Jean-Pierre Torrell, OP: St. Thomas Aquinas: The Person and His Work: vol. 1. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1996.
- J.-M. Casciaro: El diálogo teológico de Santo Tomás con musulmanes y judíos. Madrid, 1969.
- A. Huerga: “Hipótesis sobre la génesis de la Summa contra gentiles y del Pugio fidei.” Angelicum 51 (1947), 533–57.
- M. Asín y Palacios: “El averroísmo teológico de Santo Tomás de Aquino.” Homenaje á d. Francisco Codera en su jubilación del profesorado, estudios de erudición oriental. Zaragoza, 1904, pp. 271–331.
- L. Getino: La Summa contra gentiles y el Pugio fidei. Vergara, 1905.
|Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Text of the Marietti edition (1961), e-text by Roberto Busa and Enrique Alarcón (corpusthomisticum.org).
- Synoptic text (Latin and English), from the Hanover House edition (1955-57), updated by Joseph Kenny (dhspriory.org)
- Manuscript - Vat.lat.9850 (vatlib.it)
- The 1657 edition with the Hebrew translation by Ciantes (Google Books)