Subject–object–verb

In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order. If English were SOV, "Sam oranges ate" would be an ordinary sentence, as opposed to the actual Standard English "Sam ate oranges".

The term is often loosely used for ergative languages like Adyghe and Basque that really have agents instead of subjects.

Incidence

Word
order
English
equivalent
Proportion
of languages
Example
languages
SOV"She him loves."45% 45
 
Proto-Indo-European, Sanskrit, Hindi, Ancient Greek, Latin, Japanese, Korean
SVO"She loves him."42% 42
 
Cantonese, English, French, Hausa, Italian, Malay, Mandarin, Russian, Spanish
VSO"Loves she him."9% 9
 
Biblical Hebrew, Arabic, Irish, Filipino, Tuareg-Berber, Welsh
VOS"Loves him she."3% 3
 
Malagasy, Baure, Proto-Austronesian
OVS"Him loves she."1% 1
 
Apalaí, Hixkaryana
OSV"Him she loves."0% Warao
S-V1-O-V2"She can him love." German, Afrikaans
Frequency distribution of word order in languages surveyed by Russell S. Tomlin in 1980s[1][2]
()

Among natural languages with a word order preference, SOV is the most common type (followed by subject–verb–object; the two types account for more than 75% of natural languages with a preferred order).[3]

Languages that have SOV structure include Ainu, Akkadian, Amharic, Armenian, Assamese, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Basque, Bengali, Burmese, Burushaski, Cherokee, Dakota, Dogon languages, Elamite, Ancient Greek, Gujarati, Hajong, Hindi, Hittite, Hopi, Ijoid languages, Itelmen, Japanese, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Korean, Kurdish, Classical Latin, Lakota, Manchu, Mande languages, Marathi, Mongolian, Navajo, Nepali, Newari, Nivkh, Nobiin, Pāli, Pashto, Persian, Punjabi, Quechua, Senufo languages, Seri, Sicilian, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Sunuwar and most other Indo-Iranian languages, Somali and virtually all other Cushitic languages, Sumerian, Tibetan and nearly all other Tibeto-Burman languages, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and all other Dravidian languages, Tigrinya, Turkic languages, Turkish, Urdu, almost all Uto-Aztecan languages, Uzbek, Yukaghir, and virtually all Caucasian languages.

Standard Mandarin is SVO, but for simple sentences with a clear context, word order is flexible enough to allow for SOV or OSV. German and Dutch are considered SVO in conventional typology and SOV in generative grammar. For example, in German, a basic sentence such as "Ich sage etwas über Karl" ("I say something about Karl") is in SVO word order. When a noun clause marker like "dass" or "wer" (in English, "that" or "who" respectively) is used, the verb appears at the end of the sentence for the word order SOV. A possible example in SOV word order would be "Ich sage, dass Karl einen Gürtel gekauft hat." (A literal English translation would be "I say that Karl a belt bought has.") This is V2 word order.

A rare example of SOV word order in English is "I (subject) thee (object) wed (verb)" in the wedding vow "With this ring, I thee wed."[4]

Properties

SOV languages have a strong tendency to use postpositions rather than prepositions, to place auxiliary verbs after the action verb, to place genitive noun phrases before the possessed noun, to place a name before a title or honorific ("James Uncle" and "Johnson Doctor" rather than "Uncle James" and "Doctor Johnson") and to have subordinators appear at the end of subordinate clauses. They have a weaker but significant tendency to place demonstrative adjectives before the nouns they modify. Relative clauses preceding the nouns to which they refer usually signals SOV word order, but the reverse does not hold: SOV languages feature prenominal and postnominal relative clauses roughly equally. SOV languages also seem to exhibit a tendency towards using a time–manner–place ordering of adpositional phrases.

In linguistic typology one can usefully distinguish two types of SOV languages in terms of their type of marking:

  1. dependent-marking has case markers to distinguish the subject and the object, which allows it to use the variant OSV word order without ambiguity. This type usually places adjectives and numerals before the nouns they modify and is exclusively suffixing without prefixes. SOV languages of this first type include Japanese and Tamil.
  2. head-marking distinguishes subject and object by affixes on the verb rather than markers on the nouns. It also differs from the dependent-marking SOV language in using prefixes as well as suffixes, usually for tense and possession. Because adjectives in this type are much more verb-like than in dependent-marking SOV languages, they usually follow the nouns. In most SOV languages with a significant level of head-marking or verb-like adjectives, numerals and related quantifiers (like "all", "every") also follow the nouns they modify. Languages of this type include Navajo and Seri.

In practice, of course, the distinction between these two types is far from sharp. Many SOV languages are substantially double-marking and tend to exhibit properties intermediate between the two idealised types above.

Many languages that have shifted to SVO-word order from the original SOV retain (at least to an extent) the properties, for example the Finnish language (high usage of postpositions etc.)

Examples

Albanian

Sentence Agimi librin e mori.
Words Agimilibrine mori
Gloss Agimithe booktook
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation Agimi took the book. (It was Agimi who took the book)

Azerbaijani

Sentence Ümid ağac əkəcək.
Words Ümidağacəkəcək
Gloss Umidtreewill plant
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation Umid will plant a tree.

Armenian

Sentence Իմ անունը Շուշանիկ է։
Words ԻմանունըՇուշանիկէ
Romanization ImanunȳŠušanikē
Gloss MynameShushanikis
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation My name is Shushanik.

Basque

Basque in short sentences, usually, subject or agent–object–verb; in long sentences, usually, subject or agent-verb-objects):

Sentence Enekok sagarra ekarri du.
Words Enekoksagarraekarridu
Gloss Eneko (+ERGative)the applebrought (to bring)AUX has
Parts Agent Object Verb
Translation Eneko has brought the apple
Sentence Eneritzek eskatu du inork irakurri nahi ez zuen liburua
Words Eneritzekeskatudu+ + +
Gloss Eneritz (+ERGative)asked forAUX has+ + +
Parts Agent Verb Objects
Translation Eneritz requested the book nobody wanted to read

Bengali

Sentence আমি ভাত খাই
Words আমি ভাত খাই
IPA ami
ami
bʰat
bhat
kʰai
khai
Gloss I (subj)rice(obj)eat(pres)
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I eat rice.

Burmese

Burmese is an analytic language.

Sentence ငါက စက္ကူဘူးကို ဖွင့်တယ်။
Words ငါကစက္ကူဘူးကိုဖွင့်တယ်
IPA ŋà
nga
ɡa̰
ga.
seʔkù bú
se'ku bu:
ɡò
gou
pʰwìɴ
hpwin.

de
Gloss I (subj)box(obj)open(pres)
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I open the box.

Chinese

Generally, Chinese varieties all feature SVO word order. However, especially in Standard Mandarin, SOV is tolerated as well. There is even a special structure to form an SOV sentence.

Note that SOV is generally used to emphasize the object, such as in this case, where the apple is a very specific apple.

SOV structure is also widely used in railway contact in order to clarify the objective of the order.[5]

Sentence 我把苹果吃了.
Words 苹果吃了.
Transliteration píngguǒchīle
Gloss Isign for moving object before the verbappleate
Parts Subject Sign Object Verb
Translation I ate the apple. (The apple we were talking about earlier)
Sentence 电力客车直100次上海站停车.
Words 电力客车直100次上海站停车.
Transliteration Diànlì kèchē zhí yībǎi cìShànghǎi zhàntíngchē
Gloss Electrified passenger train No. Z100Shanghai StationStop
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation Electrified passenger train No. Z100: stop at Shanghai Station

Furthermore, in Standard Mandarin, SOV is used in the passive voice, where the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence, and the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence.

Sentence 苹果被我吃了.
Words 苹果了.
Transliteration Píngguǒbèichīle
Gloss Applesign for passive voiceIeatparticle for completed action
Parts Subject Sign Object Verb Particle
Translation The apple is eaten by me. (The apple we were talking about earlier)

Dutch

Dutch is SOV combined with V2 word order. The non-finite verb (infinitive or participle) remains in final position, but the finite (i.e. inflected) verb is moved to the second position. Simple verbs look like SVO, non-finite verbs (participles, infinitives) and compound verbs follow this pattern:

Sentence Ik wil je helpen.
Parts Ikwiljehelpen
Gloss Iwantyouto help
Parts subjectfin.verbobjectnonfin.verb
Translation I want to help you.

Pure SOV order is found in subordinate clauses:

Sentence Ik zei dat ik je wil helpen.
Parts Ikzeidatikjewilhelpen
Gloss IsaidthatIyouwantto help
Parts subjectfin.verbsubord. conj.subjectobjectfin.verbnonfin.verb
Translation I said that I want to help you.

French

The French language usually uses a subject–verb–object structure but places proclitics before the verb when using most pronouns, which is sometimes mistaken for SOV word order.

Sentence Nous les avons.
Parts Nousles-avons.
Gloss Wethem/those-have
Parts Subject Object-Verb
Translation We have those/them

Georgian

The Georgian language isn't extremely rigid with regards to word order, but is typically either SOV or SVO.

Sentence მე ქართველი ვარ.
Transliteration me kartveli var
Parts მექართველივარ.
Gloss IGeorgian[I] am
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I am (a) Georgian.

German

German is SOV combined with V2 word order. The non-finite verb (infinitive or participle) remains in final position, but the finite (i.e. inflected) verb is moved to the second position. Simple verbs look like SVO, compound verbs follow this pattern:

Sentence Er hat einen Apfel gegessen.
Words Erhateinen Apfelgegessen.
Gloss Hehasan appleeaten.
Parts SubjectAuxiliaryObjectVerb
Translation He has eaten an apple.

The word order changes also depending on whether the phrase is a main clause or a dependent clause. In dependent clauses, the word order is always entirely SOV (cf. also Inversion):

Subordinate Clause Weil Horst einen Apfel gegessen hat.
Words WeilHorsteinen Apfelgegessenhat.
Gloss BecauseHorstan appleeatenhas.
Parts ConjunctionSubjectObjectVerbAuxiliary
Translation Because Horst has eaten an apple.

Greek (Classical)

Sentence ὁ ἀνὴρ τòν παĩδα φιλεῖ.
Words ὁ ανήρ (ho anḗr)τòν παĩδα (tòn paîda)φιλεῖ (phileî).
Gloss The manthe childloves.
Parts SubjectObjectVerb
Translation The man loves the child.

Hajong

Sentence Moi hugre'mre' khasei.
Words Moihugre'mre'khasei.
Gloss Iguava(accusative)eat(past tense, indicative)
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I ate the guava.

're is a particle that indicates the accusative case and 'sei' indicates past tense declarative. Here, 'e is pronounced as the 'i' in 'girl' and 'ei' is pronounced as the 'ay' in 'say'.

Hindi

Sentence मैं सेब खाता हूं
Words मैं सेब खाता हूं
Romanization main seb khaataa hun
Gloss I an apple eat (pcp. pres. act. m.) am
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I eat an apple.

Hungarian

Hungarian word order is free, although the meaning slightly changes. Almost all permutations of the following sample are valid, but with stress on different parts of the meaning.

Sentence Pista kenyeret szeletel.
Words Pistakenyeretszeletel
Gloss Pistabreadslices
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation  Pista slices bread.

Italian

The Italian language usually uses a subject–verb–object structure, but when an enclitic pronoun is used, this comes before the verb and the auxiliary.

Sentence Io la sto mangiando
Parts Iolastomangiando
Gloss Iitameating
Parts SubjectObjectAuxiliaryVerb
Translation I am eating it

Japanese

Sentence 開けます。
Words 開けます。
Romanization watashigahako(w)oakemasu.
Gloss I(sub)box(obj)open(polite)
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I (am the one who) open(s) the box.

The markers が (ga) and を ((w)o) are, respectively, subject and object markers for the words that precede them. Technically, the sentence could be translated a number of ways ("I open a box", "It is I who open the boxes", etc.), but this does not affect the SOV analysis.

Japanese has some flexibility in word order, so an OSV is also possible. (開けます。)

Kannada

Sentence ನಾನು ಮನೆ ಕಟ್ಟಿದೆನು .
Words ನಾನುಮನೆಕಟ್ಟಿದೆನು
Transliteration NaanumanekaTTidenu
Gloss Ithe homebuilt
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I built the home.

Kashmiri

Like German and Dutch the Indo-Aryan language Kashmiri is SOV combined with V2 word order. The non-finite verb (infinitive or participle) remains in final position, but the finite (i.e. inflected) part of the verb appears in second position. Simple verbs look like SVO, whereas auxiliated verbs are discontinuous and adhere to this pattern:

Sentence کور چہے ثونٹہ کہیوان
Transcription kuurchhitsũũţhkhyevaan
Gloss girlisappleseating
Parts SubjectAuxiliaryObjectVerb
Translation The girl is eating apples.

Since Kashmiri is a V2 language if the word tsũũţh 'apple' comes first then the subject kuur 'girl' must follow the auxiliary chhi 'is': tsũũţh chhi kuur khyevaan [Lit. "Apples is girl eating."]

The word order changes also depending on whether the phrase is in a main clause or in certain kinds of dependent clause. For instance, in relative clauses, the word order is SOVAux:

Main clause + Subordinate Clause میے ان سوہ کور یوس ثونٹہ کہیوان چہے
Transcription =>myeenyswa kuur=>ywastsũũţhkhyevaanchhi
Gloss =>Ibroughtthat girl=>whoappleseatingis
Parts Main clause =>SubjectVerbObjectRelative clause =>SubjectObjectVerbAuxiliary
Translation I brought the girl who is eating apples.

Kazakh

Sentence Дастан кітап оқыды.
Words Дастанкітапоқыды
Transliteration Dastankitapoqıdı
Gloss Dastana bookread
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation Dastan read a book.

Like in Japanese, OSV is possible too. (Кітапті Дастан оқыды.)

Korean

Sentence 상자다.
箱子다.
Words 상자
箱子
여(ㄹ)-ㄴ다.
Romanization naegasangjareulyeo(l)-nda.
Gloss I(nominative)box(accusative)open(present tense, indicative)
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I open the box.

'가 (ga)/이 (i)' is a particle that indicates the nominative case. '를 (reul)/을 (eul)' is a particle that indicates the accusative case. '-ㄴ다 (nda)' indicates present tense declarative. The consonant 'ㄹ (l)' in the verb stem (열-) is dropped before the suffix.

※ Here, '나 (na, I (pronoun))' is changed to '내 (nae)' before '가 (ga)'.

Kyrgyz

Sentence Биз алма жедик
Words Бизалмажедик
Transliteration Bizalmajedik
Gloss Wean appleate
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation We ate an apple

Latin

Classical Latin was an inflected language and had a very flexible word order and sentence structure, but the most usual word order in formal prose was SOV.

Sentence Servus puellam amat
Words Servuspuellamamat
Gloss Slave (nom)girl (acc)loves
Parts SubjectObjectVerb
Translation The slave loves the girl.

Again, there are multiple valid translations (such as "a slave") that do not affect the overall analysis.

Malayalam

Sentence ഞാൻ പുസ്തകത്തെ എടുത്തു.
Words ഞാൻ പുസ്തകം എടുത്തു
Transliteration ñān pustakam̥ (-e) (accusative)* eṭuttu
Gloss I (the) book took
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I took the book.
  • Pustakam̥ + -e = pustakatte (പുസ്തകത്തെ)

Manchu

Sentence ᠪᡳ ᠪᡠᡩᠠ ᠪᡝ ᠵᡝᠮᠪᡳ
Words ᠪᡳ ᠪᡠᡩᠠ ᠪᡝ ᠵᡝᠮᠪᡳ
Transliteration bi buda be jembi
Gloss I meal (accusative) eat
Parts Subject Object Grammatical marker Verb
Translation I eat a meal.

Marathi

Sentence तो बियाणे पेरतो.
Words तोबियाणेपेरतो
Transliteration biyāṇēpēratō
Gloss heseedssows
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation He sows seeds.

Mongolian

Sentence Би ном уншив.
Words Биномуншив
Transliteration Binomunshiv
Gloss Ia bookread
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I read a book.

Ossetian

Sentence Алан чиныг кæсы.
Words Аланчиныгкæсы
Transliteration Alančinygkæsy
Gloss Alanbookreads
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation Alan reads a book.

Pashto

Sentence .زه کار کوم
Words زهکارکوم
Gloss زه (Subject Pronoun)کار (Noun)کوم (verb)
Transliteration kaarkawum
Parts SubjectObjectVerb
Translation I do the work.

Persian

Sentence .من سیب می‌خورم
Words منسیبمی‌خورم
Gloss Iappleeat (first person present tense)
Transliteration manseebmikhoram
Parts SubjectObjectVerb
Translation I am eating an apple.

Portuguese

Portuguese is an SVO language, but it has some SOV constructs.

In case of proclisis:

Todos aqui te amam. Literally: Everybody here loves you.

Aquilo me entristeceu. Literally: It saddened me.

When using a temporal adverb, optionally with the negative:

Nós já [não] os temos. Literally: We already [not] them have. Meaning: (Positive) We already have them. (Negative) We do not have them anymore.

Nós ainda [não] os temos. Literally: We still [not] them have. Meaning: (Positive) We still have them. (Negative) We have do not them yet..

When answering the phone: Sim, sou eu. Literally: Yes, am I. Meaning: Yes, it's I

SVO form: Sou eu mesmo/mesma, literally "It's me [indeed]".

There is an infix construction for the future and conditional tenses:

Eu fá-lo-ei amanhã. Literally: I do-it-will tomorrow. Meaning: I will do it tomorrow.

SVO form: Eu hei-de fazê-lo amanhã or eu farei o mesmo amanhã

On composed sentences, it is also allowed the SOV order for the last part in some situations like:

Ela não os comeu, mas comi-os eu. Literally: She did not eat them, but ate them I. Meaning: She did not eat them, but I did.

SVO form: Ela não comeu os mesmos, mas eu comi [a eles].

Punjabi

Sentence ਮੈਨੂੰ ਇੱਕ ਸੇਬ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ।
Words ਮੈਨੂੰ ਇੱਕ ਸੇਬ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ
Romanization mainu ikk seb chaahida hai
Gloss I(dative) an apple want
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I want an apple.

Russian

Russian is an inflected language and very flexible in word order; it allows all possible word combinations. However, it is generally considered a SVO language.

Sentence Она его любит
Words Онаеголюбит
Transliteration anáyevólyúbit
Gloss she (nom)him (acc)loves
Parts SubjectObjectVerb
Translation She loves him

for example: Она любит его, любит его oна, любит oна его, and virtually all re-orderings of Russian sentence order are correct although this is often used in different situations to emphasize particular constituents of a sentence. Who loves him? 'she' is the one who loves him (emphatic meaning). In this way any part of the sentence can be emphasized without changing basic meaning (a convenience created by Russian's noun case system)

Somali

Somali generally uses the subject–object–verb structure when speaking formally.

Sentence Aniga baa albaabka furay
Words Aniga baa albaab(ka) furay
Gloss I Focus (the) door opened
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I opened the door

Spanish

The Spanish language usually uses a subject–verb–object structure, but when an enclitic pronoun is used, this comes before the verb and the auxiliary. Sometimes, in dual-verb constructions involving the infinitive and the gerund, the enclitic pronoun can be put before both verbs, or attached to the end of the second verb.

Sentence Yo lo como
Parts Yolocomo
Gloss Iiteat
Parts SubjectObjectVerb
Translation I eat it

Talysh

Sentence Merd kitob handedə.
Words Merdkitobhandedə
Gloss Manbookreading
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation The man is reading a book.

Tamil

Sentence நான் தான் பெட்டியை திறப்பேன்.
Words நான்தான்பெட்டியைதிறப்பேன்。
Romanization Nāntānpeṭṭiyaitiṟappēn.
Gloss I(nominative)box(accusative)open(indicative verb)
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I (am the one who) open(s) the box.

The தான் (tān) and யை (yai) are, respectively, nominative and accusative markers for the subject and object that respectively precede them. The தான் (tān) is optional in the Tamil language. The sentence may literally be translated as 'I [who am] the box [which] open shall.'

The sentence may also be translated, although less frequently, as பெட்டியை நான் தான் திறப்பேன் (Peṭṭiyai nāṉ tāṉ tiṟappēn), or simply, பெட்டியை திறப்பேன் (Peṭṭiyai tiṟappēn) as Tamil is a null-subject language because the indicative verb at the end of the word indicates the 1st person subject. This follows the object-subject-verb (OSV) pattern.

Telugu

Sentence నేను పార్టీకి వెళ్తున్నాను.
Words నేనుపార్టీకివెళ్తున్నాను.
Transliteration Nēnupārtīkiveḷtunnānu.
Gloss Ito partyam going.
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I am going to the party.

Tigrinya

The Tigrinya language usually uses a subject–verb–object structure.

Sentence ዳኒኤል ኩዑሶ ቀሊዑ
Words ዳኒኤልኩዑሶቀሊዑ
Gloss Danielballkicked
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation Daniel kicked the ball.

Turkish

Sentence Yusuf elmayı yedi.
Words Yusufelmayıyedi
Gloss Josephthe appleate
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation Joseph ate the apple.

Like all other Turkic languages, Turkish has flexibility in word order, so any order is possible. For example, in addition to the SOV order above, this sentence could also be constructed as OSV (Elmayı Yusuf yedi.), OVS (Elmayı yedi Yusuf.), VSO (Yedi Yusuf elmayı.), VOS (Yedi elmayı Yusuf.), or SVO (Yusuf yedi elmayı.), but these other orders carry a connotation of emphasis of importance on either the subject, object, or the verb. The SOV order is the "default" one that does not connote particular emphasis on any part of the sentence.

Udmurt

Sentence мoн книгa лыӟӥcькo.
Words мoнкнигaлыӟӥcькo.
Romanization monknigalyjis'ko
Gloss Ia bookto read
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I am reading a book.

Urdu

Sentence .میں نے اسے دیکھا
Words میں نے اسے دیکھا
Romanization main ne use dekha
Gloss I(ergative) him/her saw
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I saw him/her.

Uzbek

Sentence Anvar Xivaga ketdi.
Words AnvarXivagaketdi.
Gloss Anvar (nom)to Khiva (dat)went
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation Anvar went to Khiva.

The marker "ga" is a dative case marker for the object that precedes it. Due to flexibility in word order in Uzbek, it is possible to transform the sentence into OSV as well ("Xivaga Anvar ketdi" / "It was Anvar who went to Khiva").

Yi

Sentence ꉢꌧꅪꋠ.
Words ꌧꅪꋠ .
Romaniz. ngasyp-hnizze.
Gloss I(an) apple(to) eat.
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation I eat an apple.

Zarma

Sentence Hama na mo ŋwa .
Words Hamanamoŋwa
Gloss Hama(completed aspect)riceeat
Parts Subject Grammatical marker Object Verb
Translation Hama ate rice.

See also

References

  1. Meyer, Charles F. (2010). Introducing English Linguistics International (Student ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. Tomlin, Russell S. (1986). Basic Word Order: Functional Principles. London: Croom Helm. p. 22. ISBN 9780709924999. OCLC 13423631.
  3. Crystal, David (1997). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55967-7.
  4. Andreas Fischer, "'With this ring I thee wed': The verbs to wed and to marry in the history of English". Language History and Linguistic Modelling: A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday. Ed. Raymond Hickey and Stanislaw Puppel. Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 101 (Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1997), pp.467-81
  5. 车机联控语言——铁路行车领域“共同语言”的研究 (Thesis) (in Chinese).
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