South African municipal elections, 2011

Municipal elections were held in South Africa on 18 May 2011,[1] electing new councils for all municipalities in the country. Municipal elections are held every five years,[2] and the previous municipal elections were held in 2006. The first municipal elections following the reorganisation of municipalities took place in December 2000.

Half of the seats (rounded up for odd numbers) in each municipality are elected on the first past the post system in single member wards. The other half of the seats are allocated to restore proportionality as follows:

The total number of seats are allocated using the largest remainder method by using a modified Hare quota. Proportional seats are allocated based on the difference. Overhang seats are theoretically possible. These do not affect the quota but will reduce the number of remainder seats if any. Independent candidates are allowed for in the ward seats, and the proportionality calculations effectively ignore votes for these candidates and are adjusted for seats allocated to them.[3]

Background

The ruling party of South Africa, the African National Congress (ANC), has been facing a growing opposition from the Democratic Alliance (DA). The DA holds control of the Western Cape area, with Cape Town the major city of the province. The DA had made it known that there was a possibility of victory in the Northern Cape province.[4]

The ANC faced tough challenges from the opposition parties over issues of service delivery, corruption, healthcare reform, poverty and unemployment rates.

The Congress of the People (COPE) (a breakaway party formed from within the ANC) and the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) were determined to prove that they could increase their control in areas as well. Various other parties were expected to contest the elections as well; however, based on previous elections and expected changes since then, they are expected to hold a minority power relative to the ANC, DA, Cope and IFP parties respectively.

The election was generally peaceful, with the exception of an attack on an IFP councilor that resulted in his death.[5]

Cities

Former DA leader Helen Zille attempted to improve her party's success at multi-party governance in Cape Town and also bring the ANC's support under 50% in other major cities. Initial reports suggested that Port Elizabeth was the most vulnerable for the ANC, with Pretoria, Johannesburg, Ekurhuleni and almost all municipalities in the Northern Cape facing stiff challenges from the DA and COPE.

Port Elizabeth lies in a unique region roughly at the border between the Black and Coloured (i.e. mixed raced) population groups. It was predicted that there would be a strong effort from minorities in the city to try to gain control of the council. Although the Nelson Mandela Bay municipality is over 60% black, the DA hoped that by using COPE and the United Democratic Movement, the vote for the ANC could have possibly been lowered under 50% (i.e. minority power) enabling the DA to form a coalition with smaller parties and assume governance of the area. The Nelson Mandela Bay municipality was heavily contested in the elections with the ANC managing to secure 63 seats to the DA's 48 seats. Zille attributed the failure of the DA to win the metro to the decline of COPE, claiming that the latter's retention of votes could have unseated the ANC allowing a coalition government in the metro.[6]

Election campaign poster for the Democratic Alliance

Election boycott

The Poor People's Alliance called for a boycott of the election under the slogan No Land! No House! No Vote!.[7]

There were vote boycott campaigns by a number of civil society organisations including Soundz of the South, the Mandela Park Backyarders, the Mitchell's Plain Backyarders Association and various communities such as Blikkiesdorp in Western Cape, Morutsi in Limpopo, King William's Town and Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape, Cato Ridge in KwaZulu-Natal, Ermelo in Mpumalanga and elsewhere around the country.[8]

There was also significant abstention by ANC members and supporters who felt the selection of ANC candidates was biased but refused to vote for any other party.[9]

Election results

The statistics in this section are all sourced from the Independent Electoral Commission's official website unless specified otherwise.

The voter turnout for this election was predicted to be higher than the previous election in 2006. 23.65 million people were registered to vote (with more than five million people eligible to vote not being registered),[10] while the actual turnout of voters was 13.66 million people representing a 57.64% turnout, making it the highest voter turnout ever since the first municipal election in 2000.[11] The percentage of spoilt votes was 1.89%.

The ANC won just under 62% of the vote and the DA won just under 24% of the vote.[12] There was a decline in ANC support and an increase in support for the DA as the ANC lost voters in every province with the exception of Kwa-ZuluNatal where it captured votes from former IFP voters.[13]

Party Ward PR Ward + PR DC
Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes %
African National Congress8,143,39761.0%8,405,42962.9%16,548,826 62.0% 5,455,41169.4%
Democratic Alliance3,177,88323.8%3,216,00624.1%6,393,886 23.9% 1,202,56215.3%
Inkatha Freedom Party478,4003.6%475,6213.6%954,021 3.6% 406,3195.2%
National Freedom Party326,5652.4%318,3522.4%644,917 2.4% 247,3403.1%
Congress of the People274,0742.1%296,6242.2%570,698 2.1% 236,3963.0%
United Democratic Movement83,7280.6%84,6230.6%168,351 0.6% 67,4870.9%
African Christian Democratic Party86,8650.7%78,7370.6%165,602 0.6% 43,9480.6%
Freedom Front Plus66,5880.5%53,9310.4%120,519 0.5% 32,6400.4%
Pan Africanist Congress63,9760.5%54,8460.4%118,822 0.4% 28,9180.4%
Minority Front60,1530.5%53,0420.4%113,195 0.4% 9580.0%
African People's Convention38,1590.3%54,3320.4%92,491 0.3% 22,6500.3%
United Christian Democratic Party25,0310.2%25,9710.2%51,002 0.2% 4660.0%
Azanian People's Organisation24,3310.2%26,3000.2%50,631 0.2% 19,2020.2%
108 other parties202,5951.5%213,6971.6%416,292 1.6% 93,5121.2%
Independent302,2422.3%N/A302,242 1.1% N/A
Total 13,353,987 13,357,511 26,711,498 7,857,809
Spoilt votes235,014235,345470,359196,248

Note: "Ward" column indicates votes cast for individual ward councillors. "PR" column indicates proportional representation votes cast for parties in the election of local and metropolitan municipal councils. "DC" column indicate proportional representation votes cast for parties for the directly elected components of district councils. All voters cast Ward and PR ballots, but those resident in the metropolitan municipalities (approximately 40% of the population) do not cast DC ballots.

Eastern Cape

In the Eastern Cape, the ANC captured a majority in all but one municipality; the lone exception, Baviaans,was won by the DA with four seats to the ANC's three. The Nelson Mandela Bay Metro was closely contested however, with the ANC dropping 15% of the vote, but retaining a narrow majority.

MunicipalityANCCOPEDAUDMOthersTotal
Buffalo City7132105100
Nelson Mandela Bay6364812120
Camdeboo8060014
Blue Crane Route7040011
Ikwezi502007
Makana20160128
Ndlambe13060120
Sundays River Valley12030116
Baviaans304007
Kouga150140029
Kou-Kamma6050011
Mbhashe41917361
Mnquma47724262
Great Kei11020013
Amahlathi33320240
Ngqushwa24010025
Nkonkobe35220241
Nxuba502018
Inxuba Yethemba12060018
Tsolwana7110110
Inkwanca511007
Lukhanji45251154
Intsika Yethu37202142
Emalahleni30111134
Engcobo35003240
Sakhisizwe14110117
Elundini28022234
Senqu32021237
Maletswai9021012
Gariep7030010
Ngquza Hill55411162
Port St Johns32121339
Nyandeni53224061
Mhlontlo48103052
King Sabata Dalindyebo462218270
Matatiele39231752
Umzimvubu46122354
Mbizana54211361
Ntabankulu31211136
Total10845616955511415

Free State

The ANC won a majority in every municipality in the Free State, including the newly upgraded Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality, in which it won 65 of the 97 available seats, against the DA's 26.

MunicipalityANCCOPEDAOthersTotal
Mangaung65326397
Letsemeng812011
Kopanong1013115
Mohokare902011
Naledi61108
Masilonyana1612120
Tokologo51118
Tswelopele1212015
Matjhabeng52316172
Nala1823124
Setsoto2626135
Dihlabeng3018140
Nketoana1402218
Maluti-a-Phofung52141269
Phumelela1203015
Mantsopa1313017
Moqhaka34311250
Ngwathe2819139
Metsimaholo26015142
Mafube1223017
Total4482512228623

Gauteng

The ANC won a majority in all but one of the municipalities in Gauteng, the lone exception being Midvaal, which was won by the DA. The following table shows the number of seats won by the various parties in the metropolitan and local municipalities in the province.

Municipality ANC COPE DA IFP VF+ Others Total
Ekurhuleni (East Rand) 125 2 62 2 1 10 202
City of Johannesburg 153 3 90 4 1 9 260
City of Tshwane (Pretoria) 118 2 82 0 4 4 210
Emfuleni 64 1 21 0 1 2 89
Midvaal 11 0 15 0 1 0 27
Lesedi 19 0 6 0 1 0 26
Mogale City (Krugersdorp) 41 1 23 1 1 1 68
Randfontein 27 1 16 0 0 0 44
Westonaria 23 1 4 1 0 2 31
Merafong City 41 1 11 1 0 2 56
Total 622 11 330 9 10 30 1013

KwaZulu-Natal

In the following table, green rows indicate municipalities won by the ANC, red rows indicate those won by the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), yellow rows indicate those won by the National Freedom Party (NFP), and grey rows indicate those with no majority party.

MunicipalityANCDAIFPNFPOthersTotalCoalitions
eThekwini1264391017205
Vulamehlo12025020
Umdoni12411119
Umzumbe26128138
uMuziwabantu12124019
Ezingoleni8012011
Hibiscus Coast411132158
uMshwathi19232026
uMngeni14900023
Mpofana511007
Impendle601007
Msunduzi491544173
Mkhambathini9131014
Richmond11100214
Emnambithi/Ladysmith34486153
Indaka6086020ANC-NFP
Umtshezi8153017ANC-NFP
Okhahlamba13186028ANC-NFP
Imbabazane12157025ANC-NFP
Endumeni6321012ANC-NFP
Nquthu141145034ANC-NFP
Msinga120214037
Umvoti10192022ANC-NFP
Newcastle335125661
eMadlangeni412108ANC-NFP
Dannhauser11163122ANC-NFP
eDumbe4128015
uPhongolo11178027ANC-NFP
Abaqulusi173167144ANC-NFP
Nongoma601719042NFP-ANC
Ulundi602813047
uMhlabuyalingana22084034
Jozini200164040ANC-NFP
The Big Five False Bay303107ANC-NFP
Hlabisa4084016ANC-NFP
Mtubatuba160157038ANC-NFP
Mbonambi170103030
uMhlathuze366106260
Ntambanana7063016ANC-NFP
uMlalazi241189052ANC-NFP
Mthonjaneni5051011ANC-NFP
Nkandla110133027ANC-NFP
Mandeni23146034
KwaDukuza37842253
Ndwedwe25155137
Maphumulo12082022
Ingwe16132022
Kwa Sani520007
Greater Kokstad12300116
Ubuhlebezwe18123024
Umzimkhulu36012140
Total906137341210391633

Limpopo

The ANC's complete dominance of Limpopo remained unchallenged as other parties achieved only small minorities.

MunicipalityANCCOPEDAOthersTotal
Greater Giyani5002860
Greater Letaba5141157
Greater Tzaneen5925268
Ba-Phalaborwa2924136
Maruleng1922427
Musina910212
Mutale2311126
Thulamela7023580
Makhado6435375
Blouberg3712141
Aganang3221237
Molemole2411127
Polokwane6139376
Lepelle-Nkumpi4742457
Thabazimbi1605223
Lephalale201324
Mookgophong612110
Modimolle1304118
Bela-Bela1204117
Mogalakwena5325363
Ephraim Mogale2312632
Elias Motsoaledi41141460
Makhuduthamaga5231561
Fetakgomo2121125
Greater Tubatse5033662
Total8824272781074

Mpumalanga

The ANC's control of this province was not significantly challenged with the DA only gaining some support in the more urbanised municipalities.

MunicipalityANCCOPEDAOthersTotal
Albert Luthuli4413149
Msukaligwa3115138
Mkhondo2806438
Pixley ka Seme1603221
Lekwa2306130
Dipaleseng702312
Govan Mbeki45116163
Delmas1303117
Emalahleni49018168
Steve Tshwete39117158
Emakhazeni1104015
Thembisile Hani5104964
Dr JS Moroka5214562
Thaba Chweu2006127
Mbombela66010278
Umjindi1503018
Nkomazi6004165
Bushbuckridge55331374
Total625811747797

North West

The North West remains firmly under ANC control with the DA getting some support in the larger towns.

MunicipalityANCCOPEDAOthersTotal
Moretele4613555
Madibeng54114372
Rustenburg55115576
Kgetlengrivier90312
Moses Kotane4943662
Ratlou2221328
Tswaing2207130
Mafikeng4437862
Ditsobotla3217242
Ramotshere Moiloa2922639
Naledi1215018
Mamusa1212015
Greater Taung4323351
Lekwa-Teemane1013014
Kagisano-Molopo2412330
Ventersdorp1002012
Tlokwe30119252
Matlosana51116270
Maquassi Hills1713021
Total5712411749761

Northern Cape

The ANC's control in this province was challenged only in the thinly populated Afrikaans speaking Karoo areas adjoining the DA dominated Western Cape. The more densely populated and Tswana dominated northern districts remain firmly in the hands of the ANC.

MunicipalityANCCOPEDAOthersTotalCoalitions
Richtersveld50308
Nama Khoi836017DA-COPE
Kamiesberg41207
Hantam41409DA-COPE
Karoo Hoogland32207COPE-DA
Khâi-Ma42107
Ubuntu41308ANC[14]
Umsobomvu721010
Emthanjeni715114ANC-IND
Kareeberg41207
Renosterberg42107
Thembelihle52108
Siyathemba42107
Siyancuma722011
Mier41207
Kai !Garib1034017
[Hais Local Municipality|//Khara Hais]1647027
!Kheis42107
Tsantsabane612211
Kgatelopele51208
Sol Plaatje40516162
Dikgatlong1012013
Magareng61209
Phokwane1313118
Joe Morolong2331229
Ga-Segonyana2013125
Gamagara613010
Total23347828370

Western Cape

The Western Cape swung heavily to the DA, which won outright the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality, as well as 11 of the 24 local municipalities in the province. In a further four local municipalities the DA was the largest party but did not hold a majority of seats. The ANC won outright only the Beaufort West Local Municipality, and was the largest party in the Cederberg Local Municipality but did not hold a majority there. Five local municipalities were evenly split between the ANC and the DA, with other parties holding the balance of power. In the Kannaland Local Municipality, the Independent Civic Organisation of South Africa won a plurality of three seats while the ANC and the DA won two each; a similar situation obtained in the Prince Albert Local Municipality, where the Karoo Gemeenskaps Party won three seats and the ANC and the DA two each.

In the following table, blue rows indicate municipalities won by the DA, green rows indicate those won by the ANC, and grey rows indicate those with no majority party.

MunicipalityANCCOPEDAOthersTotal
City of Cape Town73313510221
Matzikama607215
Cederberg514111
Bergrivier517013
Saldanha Bay8115125
Swartland6115123
Witzenberg8110423
Drakenstein19235561
Stellenbosch11125643
Breede Valley14122441
Langeberg7111423
Theewaterskloof9113225
Overstrand9015125
Cape Agulhas40419
Swellendam40419
Kannaland20237
Hessequa617115
Mossel Bay10016127
George19125449
Oudtshoorn11111225
Knysna7110119
Bitou616013
Laingsburg31307
Prince Albert20237
Beaufort West705113
Total2612040958748

References

  1. "Local Elections on 18 May". BuaNews. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
  2. Section 159 in Chapter 7 Archived 5 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. of the Constitution of South Africa. A municipal council's term expires after 5 years, but the council continue with its functions until the election of a new council, which must be held within 90 days of the expiry of the council's term.
  3. Schedule 1 to the Local Government: Municipal Structures Act, No. 117 of 1998, as amended.
  4. http://fromtheold.com/south-african-municipal-election-2011
  5. IFP councillor dies after alleged assault
  6. "ANC wins Nelson Mandela Bay". Times Live. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  7. W Cape voters ‘not predictable’, Quinton Mtyala and Babalo Ndenze, The Cape Argus, 18 May 2011
  8. (These citations relate to various boycott campaigns in different localities.)
  9. We won’t vote for ‘a stranger’, Vuvu Vena, Dispatch, 19 May 2011
  10. Devil in the Data: South Africa's Rich Overrepresented in the Vote, by Ebrahim-Khalil Hassen, SACSIS, 3 June 2011
  11. "Voter turnout highest ever - IEC". 21 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  12. Zuma is the loser, despite ANC poll win, Business Day, 23 May 2011
  13. ‘The swing’s the thing’ that shows the political trend, Alistair Sparks, Business Day, 25 May 2011
  14. http://www.news24.com/Archives/City-Press/Ancestors-shine-on-ANCs-coin-toss-20150430

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