Somalis in Sweden

Somalis in Sweden
Total population
63,853[1]
Regions with significant populations
Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö
Languages
Somali · Swedish
Religion
Islam

Somalis in Sweden are citizens and residents of Sweden who are of Somali ancestry. They emigrated after the civil war in Somalia, with most arriving after the year 2006.[2][3] Somalis have the greatest cultural distance to Swedes.[4]

In a 2007 report on Somalis in Gothenburg the following findings were made: half of Somali women do not live with the father of her children, only 3 out of 10 young Somalis have passing grades in primary education (Swedish: Grundskola), 1 out of 5 Somali men aged 18-23 have been suspected of a violent crime and about half the Somalis had no income from work in 2005.[5] Also in the 12-17 age group, violent crime was common.[5] On average, each suspect was suspected of about 10 cases of robbery or assault.[5] Local police stated that unlike other criminals where the violence levels escalate along with the career in crime, Somalis use knife violence already as youngsters.[5]

In 2012 SVT reported that four out of five somali immigrants in Sweden are unemployed, while 70% only have primary education of some form.[6]

In a 2013 SVT interview at a summit of the African Union, Fowsiyo Yuusuf Aadan, the then minister of foreign affairs of Somalia encouraged Somalis to return to their home country to invest in businesses work as the situation had improved.[7]

Demographics

According to Statistics Sweden, Somalis arrived in Sweden primarily due to civil conflict in their country of origin. In 1990, there were just under 1,000 Somalia-born asylum seekers residing in Sweden. This number rose to around 2,000 Somalia-born asylum immigrants by 1994, but decreased sharply to close to zero individuals in 2000. As the conflict in Somalia intensified at the turn of the millennium, the number of Somalia-born asylum seekers residing in Sweden increased to a high of just over 5,000 in 2010. That same year, the Swedish government introduced stricter identification document requirements for relatives of earlier migrants, which made it less likely for Somalia-born individuals and other immigrants to obtain a residence permit in Sweden. Consequently, the number of Somalia-born asylum immigrants residing in Sweden markedly decreased to a little over 1,000 people in 2014.[8] In 2016, there were 132 registered emigrations from Sweden to Somalia.[9]

According to Statistics Sweden, as of 2016, there are a total 63,853 Somalia-born immigrants living in Sweden.[1] Of those, 41,335 are citizens of Somalia (20,554 men, 20,781 women).[10] Most of the residents are young, primarily belonging to the 15-24 years (8,679 men, 7,728 women), 25-34 years (7,043 men, 7,958 women), and 5-14 years (5,882 men, 5,629 women) age groups.[1] Around 3,000 Somalis inhabit Borlänge.[11] 2,878 Somalia-born individuals also live in Rinkeby-Kista.[12]In 2005, the majority of Somali inhabitants in Gothenburg were concentrated to the Biskopsgården and Bergsjön/Angered area.[13]

In 2013, a Somalia national bandy team was also formed in Borlänge, which participated in the 2014 Bandy World Championship. It is part of the Federation of International Bandy.[11]

Education

In 2010, the governmental Regeringskansliet Statsrådsberedningen bureau estimated that 44% of Somalis in Sweden aged 16-64 were low-educated (Förgymnasial), 22% had attained secondary education level (Gymnasial[14]), 9% had attained a post-secondary education level of less than 3 years (Eftergymnasial[14]), and 25% had attained an unknown education level (Okänd[14]).

The Open Society Foundation (OSF) project At Home in Europe counted the fraction of low-educated and "unknown education" at 60-70%. The OSF also found that the education level of Somalis made it difficult to understand Swedish society and expressions used in the Swedish language.[15]

Over the 2006-2010 period, Somali immigrants to Canada and the United States had comparatively greater levels of upper secondary and post-secondary education, whereas Somalis in Sweden had a greater unknown education level (25%).[16]

According to Statistics Sweden, in 2008-2009, there were 769 pre-school pupils and 7,369 compulsory school pupils who had Somali as their mother tongue.[17] As of 2012-2013, there are 1,011 pre-school pupils and 10,164 compulsory school pupils who have Somali as their mother tongue.[18]

In 2010, there were 4,269 students with Somali as their mother tongue who participated in the state-run Swedish for Immigrants adult language program. Of these pupils, 2,747 had 0-6 years of education in their home country (Antal utbildningsår i hemlandet), 797 had 7-9 years of education in their home country, and 725 had 10 years education or more in their home country.[19] As of 2012, 10,525 pupils with Somali as their mother tongue and 10,355 Somalia-born students were enrolled in the language program.[20]

In 2013, according to Statistics Sweden, many immigrants from Somalia had short education. Of the ten most common countries of origin among persons aged 25-64 who had immigrated to Sweden during the 21st century, 57% of individuals from Somalia were low-educated, the largest share among the ten groups.[21]

Employment

In 2005 in Gothenburg, 45% of adult Somalis had zero income from employment, compared to 27% of all born abroad and 10% those born in Sweden. 7 of 10 Somalis had an income less than 5000 SEK per month (1 euro ~ 10 SEK).[22]

The education level was in 2010 found to be closely correlated with the employment rate since Somalia-born individuals aged 16-64 with a primary and lower secondary education level had an employment rate of around 15%, individuals with an upper secondary education level had an employment rate of roughly 42%, individuals with a post-secondary education level of less than 3 years had an employment rate of about 41%, and individuals with an unknown education level had an employment rate of approximately 3%.[23]

According to a 2011 report by the Herbert Felix Institutet, Somalis tend to reside in Sweden during the non-occupational parts of their lives, when they are in childcare, of school age or in university, or when they are of retirement age and elderly. They instead more commonly spend their occupational years in the United Kingdom and other Anglophone countries, where Somali entrepreneurship is more robust, interconnected and better established.[24]

A 2012 Malmö University report based on Statistics Sweden labor force data indicates that Somalia-born immigrants aged 16-24 had an employment rate of around 7% for males and 6% for females in 1998, which increased to about 13% for males and 16% for females in 2003. Somalia-born immigrants aged 25-54 had an employment rate of approximately 16% for males and 10% for females in 1998, which also rose to roughly 35% for males and 24% for females in 2003. As of 2008, Somalia-born immigrants aged 16-24 have an estimated employment rate of 16% for males and 12% for females, and Somalia-born immigrants aged 25-54 have an estimated employment rate of 35% for males and 25% for females. Additionally, Somalia-born immigrants aged 16-24 had an unemployment rate of around 19% for males and 11% for females in 1998, which decreased to about 14% for males and 7% for females in 2003. Somalia-born immigrants aged 25-54 had an unemployment rate of approximately 43% for males and 20% for females in 1998, which dropped to roughly 24% for males and 13% for females in 2003. As of 2008, Somalia-born immigrants aged 16-24 have an estimated unemployment rate of 15% for males and 10% for females, and Somalia-born immigrants aged 25-54 have an estimated unemployment rate of 28% for males and 21% for females.[25] According to the researchers, the unemployment rates were higher than expected because the Labour Force Surveys on which these figures were based counted individuals that were enrolled in schooling as unemployed.[26]

Employment [%][2] Self-employment [%][2]
Total Somalis Gap Total Somalis Gap
Sweden 2010 (aged 16–64) 73 21 52 4.9 0.5 4.4
USA 2010 (aged 16–64) 67 54 13 4.3 5.1 -0.8
Canada 2006 (aged 15–65) 73 46 27 9.2 5.3 3.9

The governmental Regeringskansliet Statsrådsberedningen bureau in 2012 compared the labor market situation of Somali immigrants in Sweden with other Somali immigrants in Canada and the United States, which identified that Somali workers in North America, although also faced with challenges, generally fared better than their counterparts in Sweden.[27] According to the bureau, since 2000, the employment rate among Somalia-born individuals in Sweden had varied between 20% to 30%. The Somali-owned businesses in North America were also estimated to be 10 times more prevalent than those in Sweden.[28][2]

According to the Regeringskansliet Statsrådsberedningen, these discrepancies in the employment and self-employment rates were due to a number of factors, including a greater proportion of low-educated Somalis in Sweden at compared to those in North America (~70% of Somalis in Sweden were low-educated); a shorter time spent in Sweden compared to North America (around 60% of Somalis residing in Sweden arrived after 2006); easier start-up potential in North America for Somalis who are conversant with the English language; greater trust in, facility with, and incentives to establishing businesses in the free market-based system of North America than in the government-centered public system of Sweden; an entrenched unemployment crisis in Sweden during the late 20th century; and easier access to simple jobs for new arrivals in the North American labor market than in the Swedish labor market due to lower minimum wages and less employment protection.[2]

Sweden labor market

(Somalis aged 15-64, in percentages)

2014[9][29]
Employment 33
Employment Population Ratio 22
Unemployment 25

According to Statistics Sweden, as of 2014, Somalia-born immigrants aged 25-64 in Sweden have an employment rate of approximately 33%. The share of employment among these foreign-born individuals varies according to education level, with employment rates of around 23% (32% males, 16% females) among Somalia-born individuals who have attained a primary and lower secondary education level (16,010 individuals), 51% (51% males, 50% females) among those who have attained an upper secondary education level (8,115 individuals), 51% (51% males, 49% females) among those who have attained a post-secondary education level of less than 3 years (1,937 individuals), and 61% (60% males, 63% females) among those who have attained a post-secondary education level of more than 3 years (1,517 individuals).[9]

As of 2014, according to the Institute of Labor Economics, Somalia-born residents in Sweden have an employment population ratio of about 22%. They also have an unemployment rate of approximately 25%.[29]

Community organisations

Somalis residing in Sweden have established various organisations to serve their community. Except for the multi-clan Somalilandföreningen, the Somali community associations are generally based on clan affiliation, although a few individuals from different clans can also be found in the Somaliska kulturföreningen and other larger organisations.[30]

In 2015-16, Somaliska riksförbundet i Sverige (SRFS) community organisation was granted funding from the governmental Swedish Inheritance Fund for the Navigator project, which, through seminars and workshops, aims to counteract extremism and prevent religiously-inspired violence and potential terrorist recruitment.[31][32] As of 2016, there are around 100 Somali community organizations in Sweden according to the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.[33] Several of them receive state funding from the Swedish Agency for Youth and Civil Society, including the Somaliska riksförbundet i Sverige, Somaliland riksförbund i Sverige, Riksföreningen för khaatumo state of Somalia, Somaliska ungdomsföreningen i Sverige, Barahley somaliska förening, Somali Dialogue Center and Somalilands förening.[34]

According to the Herbert Felix Institutet, as of 2011, the three principal active Somali community organisations based in the Scania region are the Somalilandföreningen and the Hiddo Iyo Dhaqan in Malmö, as well as the Somaliska kulturföreningen in Kristianstad. The Somalilandföreningen has around 500 members primarily hailing from the Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia, the Hiddo Iyo Dhaqan has a few hundred members mainly from southern Somalia, and the Somaliska kulturföreningen has about 100 members. Many other smaller associations have been established in the region, but these do not operate regularly and are essentially single person organisations ("one man show").[30]

According to the Herbert Felix Institutet, a number of European Union-funded projects have been launched around Scania in conjunction with the Somali community organisations. Among these endeavours are the Somalier startar företag, which helps Somali entrepreneurs establish companies; Integration på arbetsmarknaden för somalier FIAS, which assists in labor market integration in the Eskilstuna municipality; Integration genom arbete, which facilitates labor market integration in and near the Åstorp Municipality; Partnerskap Skåne, which is centered on developmental work; Samhälls-och hälsokommunikatör, which provides customized and interactive cultural information; Integration i förening, which assists newcomers by connecting them with and offering information on the local business community; Ökad inkludering genom språk, which in conjunction with industry leaders helps with language acquisition through vocational education; Bazar, Integration och Arbetsmarknad, Malmö Stad, which explores the possibilities and obstacles for establishing an entrepreneurial bazaar in the Malmö, Gothenburg, Västerås, Södertälje and Eskilstuna municipalities; and Uppstart Malmö, which liaises job-creating entrepreneurs with experienced investors in Malmö and provides interest-free loans and free financial guidance.[35]

Notable people

See also

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Foreign-born persons by country of birth, age, sex and year". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Carlson, Magnusson & Rönnqvist (2012). Somalier på arbetsmarknaden - har Sverige något att lära? : underlagsrapport 2 till Framtidskommissionen. Stockholm: Regeringskansliet - Fritzes. pp. 13–16. ISBN 978-91-38-23810-3. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  3. Johnsdotter, Sara (October 2010). Somaliska föreningar som överbryggare (PDF). Hälsa och samhälle, Malmö University. p. 5. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  4. Mångfaldsbarometern 2014 (PDF). Gävle University College. 2014. p. 57.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "28/10 -07: Göteborgs somalier - ett folk i kris". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  6. Nyheter, SVT. "Bara var femte somalier har jobb i Sverige". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-09-14.
  7. Nyheter, SVT. "Somalier i Sverige uppmanas återvända". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-12-26. Vid Afrikanska Unionens möte säger Somalias utrikesminister Fowsiyo Yuusuf Aadan till SVT:s utsända att somalier som bor i Sverige nu bör ta chansen att återvända till sitt gamla hemland. Nu går även ett av Afrikas mest plågade länder mot en ljusning. Läget har stabiliserats i Somalia. Terrornätverket al-Shabaab har jagats bort från huvudstaden Mogadishu. Landet har fått både en regering och ett parlament. Återuppbyggnaden har startat även om säkerhetssituationen inte är helt under kontroll. Men det nyväckta hoppet gör att allt färre somalier flyr sitt hemland. Det märks redan på svenska ambassaden här i Etiopiens huvudstad Addis Abeba.
  8. "Sveriges framtida befolkning 2015–2060 - The future population of Sweden 2015–2060" (PDF). Statistics Sweden. pp. 98, 99, 102, 104. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  9. 1 2 3 "Immigrations and emigrations by country of emi-/immigration, observations and year". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  10. "Foreign citizens by country of citizenship, sex and year". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  11. 1 2 "Swede to coach first Somalia bandy team". Radio Sweden. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  12. "Welcome to Rinkeby-kista" (PDF). City District Council. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  13. "28/10 -07: Göteborgs somalier - ett folk i kris". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  14. 1 2 3 "Statistisk årsbok 2014" (PDF). Statistics Sweden. pp. 448–449. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  15. Somalier i Malmö - At Home in Europe Project (PDF). Open Society Foundations. 2014. p. 2.
  16. Carlson, Magnusson & Rönnqvist (2012). Somalier på arbetsmarknaden - har Sverige något att lära? : underlagsrapport 2 till Framtidskommissionen. Stockholm: Regeringskansliet - Fritzes. p. 42. ISBN 978-91-38-23810-3. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  17. "Statistisk årsbok för Sverige - Statistical Yearbook of Sweden 2010" (PDF). Statistics Sweden. pp. 505, 510. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  18. "Statistisk årsbok för Sverige - Statistical Yearbook of Sweden 2014" (PDF). Statistics Sweden. pp. 452, 455. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  19. centralbyrån, SCB - Statistiska (2010). Statistical Yearbook of Sweden 2010 (PDF). [S.l.]: Statistiska Centralbyran. p. 198. ISBN 9789161814961. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  20. "Utbildning och forskning - Statistisk årsbok 2014" (PDF). Statistics Sweden. p. 456. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  21. "Hög utbildning bland 2000-talets invandrare". Statistiska Centralbyrån (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-11-07. Många invandrare från Somalia och Thailand har kort utbildning[...] Utbildningsnivå 2013 för utrikes födda från de tio vanligaste födelseländerna. Personer i åldern 25–64 år som invandrat under 2000-talet[...] De personer som invandrat från Somalia och Thailand under 2000-talet har i stor utsträckning en förgymnasial utbildning som högsta utbildning, 57 respektive 46 procent.
  22. "28/10 -07: Göteborgs somalier - ett folk i kris". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  23. Carlson, Magnusson & Rönnqvist (2012). Somalier på arbetsmarknaden - har Sverige något att lära? : underlagsrapport 2 till Framtidskommissionen. Stockholm: Regeringskansliet - Fritzes. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-91-38-23810-3. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  24. Sandberg, P (2011). "Somaliskt informations- och kunskapscenter i Skåne" (PDF). Herbert Felix Institutet. pp. 6–7. Den somaliska diasporan i flera anglosaxiska länder är känd för sitt entreprenörskap, sina internationella nätverk världen över, tillit inom gruppen vid affärsuppgörelser där kontrakt sker endast muntligt, en stor flyttbenägenhet världen över samt stort risktagande vid företagande. I stort sett samtliga som intervjuades kände mer samhörighet med Sverige än Storbritannien och många längtade tillbaka. Men samtidigt såg de sig oerhört begränsade i Sverige. Vi noterade att många bor i Sverige den tid då de inte är yrkesverksamma, d.v.s. då de befinner sig i barnomsorgen, grundskolan, gymnasieskolan, universitetet eller då de är äldre för pension och sjukvård. Den yrkesverksamma delen av sitt liv är de istället bosatta i Storbritannien. Intervjumaterialet kommer att sammanställas och presenteras i Almedalen 4 juli.
  25. Pieter Bevelander and Inge Dahlstedt. "Sweden's Population Groups Originating from Developing Countries: Change and Integration" (PDF). Malmö University. pp. 51–61. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  26. Pieter Bevelander and Inge Dahlstedt. "Sweden's Population Groups Originating from Developing Countries: Change and Integration" (PDF). Malmö University. p. 58. Retrieved 28 October 2017. we use register data to calculate our indicators. For the indicator unemployment this means that an individual can only be in one state, e.g. employed, enrolled in education (see Chapter 4), unemployed or inactive. Regularly published unemployment figures are based on Labour Force Surveys in which the informant can be both enrolled in education and unemployed, and due to this have higher unemployment rates.
  27. Carlson, Magnusson & Rönnqvist (2012). Somalier på arbetsmarknaden - har Sverige något att lära? : underlagsrapport 2 till Framtidskommissionen. Stockholm: Regeringskansliet - Fritzes. p. 13. ISBN 978-91-38-23810-3. Retrieved 9 November 2017. Denna rapport har utarbetats på uppdrag av regeringens framtidskommission och haft att besvara fem frågor: Hur är arbetsmarknadssituationen för somalier i Sverige? Varför går det så dåligt för dem här? Varför går det bättre för dem i ett urval av jämförbara länder som Storbritannien, Kanada och USA? Går det att dra några slutsatser för framtiden av detta och kan andra invandrargrupper möta samma problem i Sverige? Vilka policyrekommendationer bör följa av detta?
  28. Carlson, Magnusson & Rönnqvist (2012). Somalier på arbetsmarknaden - har Sverige något att lära? : underlagsrapport 2 till Framtidskommissionen. Stockholm: Regeringskansliet - Fritzes. p. 14. ISBN 978-91-38-23810-3. Retrieved 9 November 2017. Av kapitel 2 framgår att andelen sysselsatta med födelseland Somalia sedan sekelskiftet 2000 pendlat mellan 20 och 30 procent[...] Deras företagande är omkring tio gånger kraftigare där än här.
  29. 1 2 "Mapping Diasporas in the European Union and the United States - Comparative analysis and recommendations for engagement" (PDF). Institute of Labor Economics. Retrieved 20 October 2017. - cf. Appendix 4: Diaspora characteristics - labour force indicators by sending countries
  30. 1 2 Sandberg, P (2011). "Somaliskt informations- och kunskapscenter i Skåne" (PDF). Herbert Felix Institutet. p. 7. Sammanhållningen i den somaliska diasporan i Skåne är inte oproblematisk. Ett stort antal somaliska föreningar har startats runtom i regionen som kallas för "enmansshows" av de flesta somalier jag träffat.[...] Alla somaliska föreningar utom Somalilandföreningen i Malmö är baserade på klantillhörighet (även om det finns ett fåtal personer från andra klaner i de större föreningarna som t.ex. Somaliska kulturföreningen i Kristianstad). Det blir minst sagt en spretig och rörig bild över vilka personer ska anses vara företrädare för somalierna. Det som tidigare påvisats under förberedelsearbetet är att somalier är en oerhört heterogen grupp där klantillhörighet och släktskapsband dominerar. Kartläggningen har visat att endast tre föreningar har en reguljär verksamhet som kan anses av större vikt och som kan ha en betydelse för det framtida somaliska informations- och kunskapscentrat. Somalilandföreningen, Malmö: Fungerar redan idag som en klanöverskridande organisation, dock med koncentration av personer från Somaliland i nordvästra Somalia. Somalilandföreningen med ca 500 medlemmar har en omfattande verksamhet i dagsläget. Hiddo Iyo Dhaqan, Malmö: Har en hel del främst ungdomsverksamhet och består i dagsläget av ett par hundra personer. De flesta härstammar från södra Somalia. Somaliska kulturföreningen, Kristianstad: Har ca 100 medlemmar enligt egna uppgifter och begränsad aktivitet. I dagsläget pågår interna konflikter i föreningen vilket paralyserat dess handlingskraft.
  31. "Ekonomiskt stöd & slutrapporter - 2015". www.bra.se (in Swedish). 2015. Retrieved 2017-11-11. Somaliska Riksförbundet i Sverige (SRFS) har beviljats finansiering från Allmänna Arvsfonden (AA) för projektet Navigator. Projektet syftar till att förebygga religiöst inspirerad våldsbejakande extremism samt sprida kunskap för att avvärja eventuell rekrytering till terrorverksamheter. Dessutom vill SRFS bryta den tystnadskultur som finns runt problemet genom att anordna seminarier för ungdomar och föräldrar, besöka skolor och samarbeta med andra somaliska föreningar. Beslutet avser en utvärdering av hur väl de uppsatta målen har nåtts och hur effektivt aktiviteterna har genomförts. I utvärderingen ingår också en granskning av om rutiner och genomförande fungerar bra eller behöver förändras för att uppnå de uppsatta målen.
  32. "Navigator - fredsbejakande unga vuxna somalier | Arvsfonden". www.arvsfonden.se (in Swedish). 20 August 2016. Retrieved 2017-11-11. Projektets syfte är att förebygga våldsbejakande extremism och extremismmiljöer.
  33. "Sida lanserar svensk-somaliskt företagarprogram". www.sida.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-11-10. I Sverige finns ett hundratal civilsamhällesorganisationer med somalisk anknytning.
  34. "Vi har fått bidrag - Organisationsbidrag, Projektbidrag, EU-bidrag | MUCF". www.mucf.se (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 2017-11-10.
  35. Sandberg, P (2011). "Somaliskt informations- och kunskapscenter i Skåne" (PDF). Herbert Felix Institutet. pp. 5–6.
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