Sjenica

Sjenica
Сјеница
Town and municipality
From top: Uvac Special Nature Reserve, Sjenica Mosque at night

Coat of arms

Location of the municipality of Sjenica within Serbia
Coordinates: 43°16′N 20°00′E / 43.267°N 20.000°E / 43.267; 20.000Coordinates: 43°16′N 20°00′E / 43.267°N 20.000°E / 43.267; 20.000
Country  Serbia
Region Šumadija and Western Serbia
District Zlatibor
First mentioned 1253
Settlements 101
Government
  Mayor Hazbo Mujović (SDA)
Area[1]
Area rank 11th in Serbia
  Town 25.76 km2 (9.95 sq mi)
  Municipality 1,059 km2 (409 sq mi)
Elevation 1,026 m (3,366 ft)
Population (2011 census)[2]
  Rank 65th in Serbia
  Town 14,060
  Town density 550/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
  Municipality 26,392
  Municipality density 25/km2 (65/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 36310
Area code +381(0)20
Car plates SJ
Website www.sjenica.rs

Sjenica (Serbian Cyrillic: Сјеница; pronounced [sjɛ̌nitsa]), is a town and municipality located in the Zlatibor District of southwestern Serbia. The population of the town, according to 2011 census, is 14,060 inhabitants, while the municipality has 26,392.

Sjenica is situated in the Pešter plateau, and is surrounded by the mountains of Jadovnik, Ozren, Giljeva and Javor.

History

It is an old town, first mentioned in 1253 AD as a place where many merchants rested and paid taxes while on their way to Dubrovnik. Voivode Stefan Vasoje, the son of King Stefan Konstantin (r. 1321-1322), received Sjenica as an appanage by Emperor Stefan Dušan (r. 1331–1355). During the reign of the Ottoman Empire, Sjenica was used as a fortified site. On a nearby hill the Ottomans built a fortress, which was later demolished. Next to the fortress was a merchants' quarter and few wooden residential homes. In the 19th century, Sjenica was considered a high priority because of its political, military and strategic significance, thus many military campaigns were led during the First Serbian Uprising. Soon after, a new turmoil came to the region with a resistance movement against Sultan Mahmud II's reforms. During the Ottoman-Albanian hostilities of 1901 the town was partly burnt by Albanian bands.[3] In the 1908-12 Ottoman parliament, the elected representative of Sjenica was Hasan Muhidin Bey (Hasan Muhedini), a local prominent Albanian.[4]

In 1917 when the area was under Austrian control a conference was held, in which the representatives drafted and signed a resolution for the union of the area with Bosnia or the establishment of an autonomous region.[5]

From 1929 to 1941, Sjenica was part of the Zeta Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

During World War II the SS Polizei-Selbstschutz-Regiment Sandschak under Karl von Krempler was stationed here consisted of local Muslim population, during a period when many Serbs lost their lives. In 1943 Sjenica was the battleground of intense fighting between Partisans and the German army.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194831,980    
195336,033+2.42%
196136,950+0.31%
197136,622−0.09%
198135,570−0.29%
199133,681−0.54%
200227,970−1.67%
201126,392−0.64%
Source: [6]

According to the last official census of 2011, the Municipality of Sjenica has a population of 26,392 inhabitants. The population density on the territory of the municipality is 24.9 inhabitants per square kilometer.

Ethnic groups

In 1991, the population of the municipality of Sjenica was 76.1% Muslims by nationality, 22.6% Serbs and Montenegrins, and 1.3% others. In the 1991 census, most of those who declared themselves as Muslims by nationality, some declared themselves as Bosniaks in the next census of 2002, while others still declared themselves as a Muslims by nationality.

Most of the population in Sjenica are Bosniaks or Muslims by the ethnicity (78.55%), followed by Serbs (19.95%) and Romani (0.35%). Ethnic composition of the municipality (2011 census):[7]

Ethnic group Population
Bosniaks19,498
Serbs5,264
Muslims1,234
Romani93
Albanians29
Montenegrins15
Gorani12
Yugoslavs10
Others237
Total26,392

Economy

The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[8]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing85
Mining469
Processing industry1,014
Distribution of power, gas and water36
Distribution of water and water waste management65
Construction223
Wholesale and retail, repair357
Traffic, storage and communication164
Hotels and restaurants106
Media and telecommunications19
Finance and insurance16
Property stock and charter-
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities124
Administrative and other services34
Administration and social assurance341
Education629
Healthcare and social work207
Art, leisure and recreation52
Other services53
Total3,996

Geography and climate

Sjenica is located at an altitude of 1,026 meters above sea level, making it one of the highest towns in Serbia and the Balkans. Temperatures fall below freezing on average 134 days per year, with the first freeze in late September and the last in early May. According to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, it has a humid continental climate (Dfb) with freezing and not so humid winters, and with warm and humid summers, but with cold nights.

Climate data for Sjenica, Serbia (1981–2010, extremes 1961–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
(63)
19.4
(66.9)
21.9
(71.4)
26.0
(78.8)
29.4
(84.9)
32.2
(90)
34.7
(94.5)
36.2
(97.2)
31.5
(88.7)
26.7
(80.1)
27.3
(81.1)
18.0
(64.4)
36.2
(97.2)
Average high °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
3.0
(37.4)
7.4
(45.3)
12.2
(54)
17.6
(63.7)
21.0
(69.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.7
(74.7)
19.1
(66.4)
14.8
(58.6)
8.1
(46.6)
2.6
(36.7)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.6
(25.5)
−2.7
(27.1)
1.8
(35.2)
6.5
(43.7)
11.5
(52.7)
14.7
(58.5)
16.5
(61.7)
16.2
(61.2)
11.9
(53.4)
7.8
(46)
2.2
(36)
−2.1
(28.2)
6.7
(44.1)
Average low °C (°F) −8.2
(17.2)
−7.5
(18.5)
−3.0
(26.6)
1.2
(34.2)
5.2
(41.4)
8.1
(46.6)
9.5
(49.1)
9.4
(48.9)
6.1
(43)
2.4
(36.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
−6.1
(21)
1.2
(34.2)
Record low °C (°F) −35.6
(−32.1)
−31.0
(−23.8)
−25.0
(−13)
−12.7
(9.1)
−6.4
(20.5)
−3.7
(25.3)
−0.4
(31.3)
−1.3
(29.7)
−9.3
(15.3)
−11.5
(11.3)
−26.2
(−15.2)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−35.6
(−32.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46.3
(1.823)
47.4
(1.866)
46.4
(1.827)
55.7
(2.193)
71.5
(2.815)
79.1
(3.114)
66.9
(2.634)
62.0
(2.441)
75.6
(2.976)
62.4
(2.457)
74.1
(2.917)
62.2
(2.449)
749.5
(29.508)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 14 14 14 15 15 14 12 11 12 12 12 15 160
Average snowy days 13 13 11 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 12 61
Average relative humidity (%) 82 80 77 72 72 73 72 73 78 79 81 84 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 87.0 101.3 145.6 162.3 206.2 229.5 264.4 246.1 179.6 145.7 96.6 72.6 1,936.8
Source: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia[9]

Twin cities

See also

References

  1. "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  2. "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
  3. Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: A Modern History. I.B.Tauris. p. 43. ISBN 9781860645419. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  4. Kansu, Aykut (1997). The Revolution of 1908 in Turkey. BRILL. p. 246. ISBN 9789004107915. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  5. Guidi, Andreas (2012). Traditionen im Transit: Deutung der lokalen Geschichte und Kategorisierungsprozesse am Beispiel von kulturpolitischen Institutionen im serbischen Sandžak. Südosteuropäische Hefte (in German). p. 7.
  6. "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  7. "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  8. "ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2017" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  9. "Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1981-2010" (in Serbian). Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
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