Short track speed skating

Short track speed skating
3000 meters short track relay during the 2014 Winter Olympics
Highest governing body International Skating Union
Characteristics
Mixed gender Yes
Equipment ice skates, helmet, gloves, suit, shin guards, neck guard, safety glasses
Presence
Olympic 1988 (demonstration)
1992 - present

Short track speed skating is a form of competitive ice speed skating. In competitions, multiple skaters (typically between four and six) skate on an oval ice track with a length of 111.12 metres (364.6 ft). The rink itself is 60 metres (200 ft) long by 30 metres (98 ft) wide, which is the same size as an Olympic-sized figure skating rink and an international-sized ice hockey rink. Short track speed skating is the sister sport to long track speed skating and the cousin sport to inline speed skating.

History

Short track speed skating developed from speed skating events that were held with mass starts. This form of speed skating was mainly practised in the United States and Canada, as opposed to the international form, where athletes skated in pairs. At the 1932 Winter Olympics, speed skating events were conducted in the mass start form. Competitions in North America tended to be held indoors, for example in Madison Square Garden, New York, and therefore on shorter tracks than was usual for outdoor skating.

In 1967, the International Skating Union (ISU) adopted short track speed skating, although it did not organize international competitions until 1976. World Championships in short track speed skating have been officially held since 1981, although events held in 1976–1980 under different names have since received the status of World Championships retrospectively. The name of the competition was changed several times before it was eventually titled the "World Short Track Speed Skating Championships" in 1989; the championships are now held annually.

Short track speed skating was introduced as a demonstration sport at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta in Canada. It was upgraded to a full Olympic sport in 1992 and has been part of the Winter Olympics ever since. There were only four short track events in the 1992 Winter Games, but the programme was expanded to include six events in 1994 and 1998, and finally eight events in the 2002 Winter Games. The events are the same for both men and women: 500 meters, 1000 meters, 1500 meters, plus the relay event (5000 meters for men, 3000 meters for women). A 3000 meter super-final event is included in the European and World Championships, but this is not currently part of the Olympic short track programme.

Rules

There are several actions that will result in skaters being disqualified from a race, and having their time rendered invalid.[1]

  • Impeding: Intentionally pushing, blocking, tripping or otherwise causing an impediment for another skater
  • Off track: Skating outside the designated track
  • Assistance: Giving physical assistance to another skater. For example: pushing a teammate from behind for an extra boost, or allowing a teammate to lean on another for stability in corners
  • Shooting the line or Kicking out: Driving the foot in lead ahead to reach the finish faster, resulting in the lead foot lifting off the ice and creating a dangerous situation for others
  • Unsportsmanlike conduct: Acting in a manner not befitting an athlete or a role model. Including cursing at a competitor, kicking your feet, striking other skaters or officials, etc.
  • Equipment: Not wearing the proper safety equipment, losing equipment during the race, or exposure of skin not on face or neck.
  • False Start: Leaving before firing of the starter's pistol. On the second violation in the race, the offender on that start is disqualified.[2]
  • Did not finish: Usually due to injury, the skater did not finish the race.
  • Did not skate: The skater did not go to the starting line.

In relay races, each team has four skaters, who can take turns freely by tagging. All skaters of each team must take at least one turn, and only one exchange is allowed in the final three laps. Usually, the outgoing skater pushes the incoming skater to help the teammate to gain speed.

World records

Men

DistanceAthleteNationCityDateRecord TimeRef
500 meters Wu Dajing ChinaPyeongchang, South Korea22 February 201839.584[3]
1000 meters Hwang Dae-heon South KoreaSalt Lake City, United States12 November 20161:20.875[4]
1500 meters Sjinkie Knegt NetherlandsSalt Lake City, United States13 November 20162:07.943[5]
3000 meters Noh Jin-kyu South KoreaWarsaw, Poland19 March 20114:31.891[6]
3000m relay South Korea* South KoreaInnsbruck, Austria30 January 20173:57.047[7]
5000m relay United States** United StatesShanghai, China12 November 20176:29.052[8]
* The South Korean men's 3000m relay team were: Kim Si-un, Moon Won-jun, Park Noh-won and Jung Hok-young
** The United States men's 5000m relay team were: J.R. Celski, John-Henry Krueger, Thomas Insuk Hong and Keith Carroll, Jr.

Women

DistanceAthleteNationCityDateRecord TimeRef[9]
500 meters Elise Christie Great BritainSalt Lake City, United States13 November 201642.335[10]
1000 meters Shim Suk-hee South KoreaCalgary, Canada21 October 20121:26.661[11]
1500 meters Choi Min-jeong South KoreaSalt Lake City, United States12 November 20162:14.354[12]
3000 meters Jung Eun-Ju South KoreaHarbin, China15 March 20084:46.983[13]
3000m relay Netherlands* NetherlandsPyeongchang, South Korea20 February 20184:03.471[14]
* The Netherlands women's 3000m relay team were: Suzanne Schulting, Jorien ter Mors, Lara van Ruijven, Yara van Kerkhof.

Notable skaters

The following is the list of athletes who are Individual gold medalist at the Olympic Winter Games or Overall World Champion and who have won Olympic Winter Games or Overall World Championships at least three times.

Men

Athlete Nation Born Olympics World Championships (Overall) Olympics + World Championships (Overall) World Championships (Distances, Relay, Team) Total
Total Total Total Total Total
Ahn Hyun-Soo (Viktor Ahn)  South Korea
 Russia
198560286107 12121522135403414755
Marc Gagnon  Canada197530254217 723121594282211740
Charles Hamelin  Canada198431041337 443111215103716191348
Kim Ki-hoon  South Korea196730031214 42172+1+2+5+6+3+3+12+
Apolo Anton Ohno  United States198222481214 34512856191191131
Lee Ho-Suk  South Korea198614052204 3609854171111426
Kim Dong-Sung  South Korea198011022013 3115107320138425

Women

Athlete Nation Born Olympics World Championships (Overall) Olympics + World Championships (Overall) World Championships (Distances, Relay, Team) Total
Total Total Total Total Total
Yang Yang (A)  China197622156107 8311226125433415655
Wang Meng  China198541163306 7411218113322515444
Chun Lee-kyung  South Korea197640153205 7211010113241713434
Sylvie Daigle  Canada196211025218 6311022+8+?31+28+11+1+40+
Jin Sun-yu  South Korea198830033003 6006103114163120
Choi Min-jeong  South Korea199820023003 500591111141116
Nathalie Lambert  Canada196212033227 4421014+3+2+19+18+7+4+29+
Choi Eun-kyung  South Korea198422042103 4307123318166325
Park Seung-hi  South Korea199220351203 323884113116421
Shim Suk-Hee  South Korea199721141034 314873111104519
Zhou Yang  China199130030112 31155441385518

See also

References

  1. "Special Regulations & Technical Rules Speedskating and Short Track Speedskating" (PDF). International Skating Union. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  2. http://www.kolomna-speed-skating.com/en/sport/short_track/315.html
  3. "Results - Men's 500m Final A" (PDF). pyeongchang2018.com. 22 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  4. "ISU World Cup 2016/2017 Salt Lake City – Men's 1000m Results". shorttrack.sportresult.com. 12 November 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  5. "ISU World Cup 2016/2017 Salt Lake City – Men's 1500m Results". shorttrack.sportresult.com. 13 November 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  6. "2011 ISU World Team Championships – Men's 3000m Results". shorttrack.sportresult.com. 19 March 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  7. "ISU World Junior Short Track Speed Skating Championships 2017 – Men's 3000m Relay Results". shorttrack.sportresult.com. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  8. "Audi ISU World Cup 2017/18 – Men's 5000m Relay Results". shorttrack.sportresult.com. 12 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  9. "Short Track Results – Current World Records". ISU. 12 November 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  10. "ISU World Cup 2016/17 Salt Lake City - Women's 500m Results". ISU. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  11. "ISU World Cup 2016/17 Calgary - Women's 1000m Results". ISU. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  12. "ISU World Cup 2012/2013 Salt Lake City - Women's 1500m Results". ISU. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  13. "2008 ISU World Team Championships, China - Women's 3000m Bracket #2 Results". ISU. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  14. "Short Track Speed Skating – Ladies' 3,000m Relay – Finals Results" (PDF). Pyeongchang 2018. International Olympic Committee. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
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