Sheremetyevo International Airport
|Sheremetyevo International Airport|
Международный аэропорт Шереметьево
Mezhdunarodnyĭ aėroport Sheremet'evo
|Operator||International Airport Sheremetyevo|
|Location||Khimki, Moscow Oblast|
|Elevation AMSL||192 m / 630 ft|
|Coordinates||55°58′22″N 037°24′53″E / 55.97278°N 37.41472°ECoordinates: 55°58′22″N 037°24′53″E / 55.97278°N 37.41472°E|
Location in Moscow Oblast
Sheremetyevo International Airport (Russian: Международный аэропорт Шереметьево, IPA: [ʂɨrʲɪˈmʲetʲjɪvə]) (IATA: SVO, ICAO: UUEE) is an international airport located in Molzhaninovsky District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, Russia, 29 km (18 mi) northwest of central Moscow. It is a hub for passenger operations of the Russian international airline Aeroflot, and is one of the three major airports that serve Moscow, along with Domodedovo International Airport and Vnukovo International Airport (the IATA city code for Sheremetyevo, Domodedovo, and Vnukovo is MOW). The airport serves a number of international airlines, including Air France, KLM, Korean Air, Hainan Airlines, Alitalia, Air China and Flydubai.
The airport was originally built as a military airfield called Sheremetyevsky (Russian: Шереметьевский) named after a settlement with the same name. The decree about the construction of the Central Airdrome of the Air Force near the settlement of Chashnikovo (Russian: Чашниково) on the outskirts of Moscow was issued on September 1, 1953 by the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union. The airport became operational on October 7, 1957 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution.
After it was decided to turn the airport into a civilian one, Sheremetyevo was opened on 11 August 1959; the first international flight took place on 1 June 1960 to Berlin Schönefeld Airport. The new airport received its name for two nearby venues: the village of Sheremetyevsky and the Savelov station on the railway of the same name. Sheremetyevo-1 (used by domestic flights) was opened on 3 September 1964. On 12 September 1967, the first scheduled passenger flight of the Tupolev Tu-134 departed from Sheremetyevo (to Stockholm), followed by the first scheduled flight of the Ilyushin Il-62 (to Montreal) on 15 September. Sheremetyevo-2, the larger of the two terminal complexes, opened on 1 January 1980 for the 1980 Summer Olympics. It was built according to the principles of design of Hannover-Langenhagen Airport and was the arrival and departure point for international flights. Flights to cities in Russia and charter flights arrived and departed from Sheremetyevo-1. There is no physical connection between the two terminal complexes; they are essentially separate airports that use the same set of runways. Pulkovo Airport in Saint Petersburg; Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport in Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota; Sydney Airport in New South Wales, Australia; Perth Airport in Western Australia; Ferihegy in Budapest; Sofia International Airport in Bulgaria and Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Manila, Philippines are other examples.
Development since the 2000s
In the 2000s, Sheremetyevo saw growing competition from Domodedovo International Airport, which was more modern and convenient to access. With major airlines leaving Sheremetyevo (most notably, Lufthansa, El Al, British Airways, Iberia, Japan Airlines, Brussels Airlines, Austrian Airlines, and Swiss International Air Lines), the need for reconstruction became evident.
In July 2010, a walkway opened between Terminals D, E, F, and the Aeroexpress railway terminal on the public access side. In November 2010, a walkway opened between Terminals D, E, and F on the security side. Both of have simplified transfer between transit flights. Ultimately, after the northern the recent construction work, the airport now has the capacity to receive more than 40 million passengers annually. Since 2009 all terminals have been identified by letters (Latin characters). In December 2011, a new Area control center (ACC) was opened. It consolidates the gathering, monitoring, and control of the airport's different control centres across all of the organizations that affect its efficient operation. The Situational Center also forms part of the airport control center. SC is intended for joint work of top-managers, heads of state bodies, and partners of Sheremetyevo. It is activated only in the case of an emergency.
A 20-year master plan (until 2025) that includes the incorporation of Terminal 3, the construction of a third runway, and the phased expansion of the airport, was developed in September 2008. The master plan aims to create a strategy for long-term land development. The Ministry of Transport has granted approximately $2bn from the Federal budget and $1bn from non-budgetary funds for the upgrade project. The contract to prepare the airport master plan was awarded to Scott Wilson Group. Additionally, the airport's two runways are set for major reconstruction, including widening and resurfacing. The Moscow Oblast government has reserved adjacent land for a future third runway.
In 2013, TPS Avia – a company controlled by Alexander Ponomarenko, Arkady Rotenberg and Alexander Skorobogatko – successfully won a competitive tender to develop Sheremetyevo International Airport’s northern area, including a new passenger terminal, a new freight terminal, a refuelling area and a tunnel linking the passenger terminal to three others terminals.
In February 2016, TPS Avia combined its assets with Sheremetyevo Airport and committed to invest US$840 million to upgrade and expand the airport's infrastructure – as a result TPS Avia secured 68% stake in Sheremetyevo Airport. This infrastructure project, called the Long-Term Development Plan, aims to increase airport’s capacity to 80 million passengers a year by 2026.
Sheremetyevo International Airport was the official airport of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. During the tournament, the airport observed a 16% increase in landing operations and an 11% increase in passenger traffic.
Terminals and infrastructure
Sheremetyevo International Airport has four operating passenger terminals and one special terminal reserved for the use of private and business aviation. The airport's terminals are divided into two groups based on geographical location: the north and south terminal areas. The two terminal areas are linked by regular internal and external bus services.
Opened in 2012 to the east of Terminal B, Terminal A is used for the servicing of business and private aviation. Twenty-two remote stands, which previously made up the 'Western Sector' of Terminal B, now belong to Terminal A.
Terminal B, previously Sheremetyevo-1, catered mainly to internal low-cost flights. The terminal had 64 remote aircraft stands, including 8 stands used for the maintenance of Aeroflot aircraft, and five in the 'Eastern Sector' which were used to service cargo flights. Located in the northern part of the airport, the terminal was put into operation in 1964. It was divided into two buildings: the arrival hall zone and departures area. Terminal B was remarkable for its architecturally unique and unusual spaceship-like gate area, which was connected to the main building by a passenger footbridge. The terminal's design was masterminded by a project team working under the guidance of architects and G Elkin Yu Kryukov. The terminal was demolished in August 2015 to allow a construction of a terminal building which began in October 2015.
The new terminal B commenced its operations on 3 May 2018, with the Aeroflot's flight to Saratov. All airlines that have domestic flights from Sheremetyevo and some flights of Aeroflot began shifting to Terminal B from Terminal D. Compared to the previous terminal B, that was demolished, new terminal will have an increased passenger capacity of 20 million passengers and will serve domestic flights only. Terminal B was upgraded in anticipation of the 2018 World Cup, which took place in Russia.
Terminal C cost an estimated US$87.7 million to construct. It has 40,000 m2 (430,000 sq ft) of floorspace and has a capacity of 5 million passengers per year. The terminal now tends to handle flights of CIS carriers and charter airlines. On March 12, 2007, Sheremetyevo opened its first entirely new-build terminal for the servicing of international flights. Located in the northern part of the airport and adjacent to Terminal B, it has 30 check-in counters, 36 passport control booths, a three-level automatic baggage sorting system, and six air bridges. Terminal C is connected by way of an elevated pedestrian gallery with a multistory parking facility for 1,000 vehicles. In autumn 2008, an orthodox chapel (of Archangel Michael and the other Bodiless) was opened on the terminal's third (departures) floor. Terminal C was closed on April 1, 2017 it was planned that after renovation works and will then become integrated with the new Terminal B but as of 07/12/2017 the building was demolished.
There is no official information about construction of Terminal C, however, there is information that the construction of the new terminal already commenced and will open in late 2019.
Terminal D, opened in November 2009, is adjacent to Terminal F. The 172,000 m2 (1,850,000 sq ft) building is a hub for Aeroflot and its SkyTeam partners, with capacity for 12 million passengers per year. Aeroflot had been trying to implement the project of a new terminal (Sheremetyevo-3) since January 2001. However, construction only began in 2005, with commissioning of the complex finally taking place on 15 November 2009. The acquisition of its own terminal was a condition of Aeroflot's entry into the SkyTeam airline alliance, thus necessitating the construction. The main contractor for the build was a Turkish company Enka. Terminal D has 22 jetways and 11 remote stands. On November 15, 2009 at 9:15 a.m., the first flight from Terminal D (the new official name of Sheremetyevo-3) departed for the southern resort city of Sochi. Despite this, Aeroflot took a number of months (due to unexpected administrative delays) to transfer all of its international flights from Terminal F to D (a full transfer was originally planned for February 2010). Whilst previously Terminal D had remained a separate legal entity from the rest of Sheremetyevo Airport, in spring 2012, it became an integrated unit of "Sheremetyevo International Airport" JSC. As part of the deal, Aeroflot, VEB Bank, and VTB Bank, all of which had invested in the construction of Terminal D, became part shareholders in the airport as a whole. The basis for the architectural and artistic image of Terminal D is that of a giant swan with outstretched wings.
There is an official multi storey parking at Terminal D connected with the main building by means of a pedestrian bridge. The parking size is about 4100 lots, however it has a relatively dense layout, so in most cases it is difficult to get out of the car without hitting the neighbouring car.
Between 2014 and 2018, Terminal D used to be the only terminal at Sheremetyevo that was able to serve domestic flights. Even since new Terminal B was opened and commenced it's services, Terminal D continues to operate non-Aeroflot domestic flights.
Terminal E opened in 2010 as a capacity expansion project, connecting terminals D and F. The terminal's construction has allowed for the development of terminals D and F, as well as the railway station, into a single south terminal complex. The terminals of this complex are connected by a number of pedestrian walkways with travelators, thus allowing for passengers to move freely between its constituent facilities. In December 2010, a new chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas opened on the second floor of Terminal E. The terminal is used for international flights, primarily by Aeroflot and its SkyTeam partners. Terminal E has 8 jetway equipped gates. The V-Express Transit Hotel between security/passport check-ins provides short-term accommodations for passengers changing planes without having to present a visa for entering Russia. The hotel drew international attention in June 2013 when Edward Snowden checked into the hotel while seeking asylum.
Opened on May 6, 1980 for the Moscow Summer Olympics, Terminal F, previously Sheremetyevo-2, has 15 jetways and 21 remote aircraft stands. The terminal was designed to service 6 million passengers per year. Until the completion of Terminal C, it was Sheremetyevo's only terminal that was capable of adequately servicing international flights. The design is a larger version of the one of Hannover-Langenhagen Airport by the same architects. A major reconstruction of the terminal and its interior space was completed by late 2009. For the convenience of passengers, the departures lounge and Duty Free zone were thoroughly modernised, whilst a number of partition walls were removed to create extra retail and lounge space.
Airlines and destinations
Aeroexpress, a subsidiary of Russian Railways operates a nonstop line, connecting the airport to Belorussky station in downtown Moscow. One-way journey takes 35 minutes. The trains offer adjustable seats, luggage compartments, restrooms, electric outlets. Business-class coaches available.
The service started in November 2004, when express train connection was established from Savyolovsky station to Lobnya station, which is 7 km (4.3 mi) from the airport, with the remainder of the journey served by bus or taxi. On 10 June 2008, a 60,000 square meter (645,000 ft2) rail terminal opened in front of Terminal F, with direct service from Savyolovsky station. A shuttle bus service ferried passengers to terminals B and C. From 28 August 2009, the line was extended to Belorussky station with plans to serve all three of Moscow's main airports from a single point of boarding, and service to Savyolovsky station terminated.
Interterminal underground passage
The Interterminal underground passage connects the Terminal B with Terminals D, E, F and the Aeroexpress railway station.
The Interterminal underground passage consists of two separate tunnels: one of them used for a people transportation and the other one — for luggage. The former one employs a Double Shuttle Cable Liner system, an automated people mover, by the Doppelmayr where two independent cable-propelled trains run on separate tracks. In each train the first two carriages are used for landside (not checked-in) passengers and the last two ones are used for airside passengers (after a security check).
At the 1st floor of the Terminal B there is an entrance to Sheremetyevo 1 — the northern station. The entrance to Sheremetyevo 2 — the southern station — is at the passage between the terminals D and E.
Moscow can be reached by the municipal Mosgortrans bus lines: 817 to station Planernaya of Moscow Metro Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line (#7), 851 to station Rechnoy Vokzal of Zamoskvoretskaya Line (#2), departures every 10 minutes, travel time 33–55 minutes by schedule depending on the terminal served. At night time bus N1 (Russian: Н1) (departures every 30 minutes between 3am and 5:40am) connects the airport to Moscow's Leningradsky Avenue, downtown area and Leninsky Avenue. Travel time 30–90 minutes, fare is 50 rubles (as of September, 2016).
The main road leading to the airport—Leningradskoye Highway—has experienced large traffic jams. Since 23 December 2014, a toll road to the airport has been opened. It connects with MKAD near Dmitrovskoe Highway. Now it is possible to reach the airport in ten minutes, avoiding traffic jams.
Official airport taxis are available from taxi counters in arrivals. Prices to the city are fixed based on zones.
Accidents and incidents
- On 26 September 1960, Austrian Airlines Flight 901 crashed 11 km (6.8 mi) short of the runway at Sheremetyevo Airport. Of the 37 people on board, 31 died.
- On 27 November 1972, Japan Airlines Flight 446, a DC-8-62, crashed while in an initial climb on a route from Sheremetyevo International Airport to Haneda Airport. There were 14 crew members and 62 passengers on board the aircraft. A total of 9 crew and 52 passengers died, with a total of 61 of 76 occupants dead.
- On 28 November 1976, Aeroflot Flight 2415, a Tupolev Tu-104 crashed shortly after takeoff as result of artificial horizon failure. All 67 passengers and six crew members died in the crash.
- On 6 July 1982, Aeroflot Flight 411, an Ilyushin Il-62, crashed on takeoff; all 90 on board died.
- On 3 June 2014, Ilyushin Il-96 RA-98010 of Aeroflot was damaged beyond economical repair in a fire whilst parked.
In popular culture
- The airport is the setting of the opening of "Olympic Games" (1980), the 13th episode of the animated television series Nu, pogodi! (1969–2006).
- In Tom Clancy's spy novel The Cardinal of the Kremlin (1988), the US Negotiations team lands at Sheremetyevo from Shannon Airport in Ireland. The KGB chairman and his prisoner also arrive there to board the Negotiations team VC-137 out to defect to the United States.
- In the action thriller film Air Force One (1997), the president of the United States takes off from Sheremetyevo, but the plane is hijacked by terrorists shortly after takeoff.
- The airport is featured in the action spy film The Bourne Supremacy (2004) starring Matt Damon. Terminal 2 is shown, followed by a scene shot at the arrival/pick-up area outside Terminal 2.
- The airport (with a different name, Zakhaev International Airport) is featured in the first-person shooter video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 (2009) in the controversial mission "No Russian", during which Terminal D is attacked by terrorists.
- The airport was featured at Episode 8 of Yuri on Ice, when Yuri Plisetsky arrives in Moscow for the Rostelecom Cup event.
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- British Airways resumes Moscow Sheremetyevo service from Oct 2018 Routesonline. 25 May 2018.
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|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sheremetyevo International Airport.|
|Wikinews has related news: Russia's main airport faces high danger from dump birds|
- Sheremetyevo International Airport official website (in English) (in Russian)
- OJSC "Terminal", Aeroflot subsidiary overseeing Terminal 3 development (in English) (in Russian)
- Aeroexpress service (in English) (in Russian)
- Airport information for UUEE at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006.Source: DAFIF.
- Airport information for UUEE at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF (effective October 2006).
- Current weather for UUEE at NOAA/NWS
- Accident history for SVO at Aviation Safety Network
- International airport Sheremetyevo