Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces. Beneficiaries (technically referents) of security may be persons and social groups, objects and institutions, ecosystems, and any other entity or phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change by its environment.
Security mostly refers to protection from hostile forces, but it has a wide range of other senses: for example, as the absence of harm (e.g. freedom from want); as the presence of an essential good (e.g. food security); as resilience against potential damage or harm (e.g. secure foundations); as secrecy (e.g. a secure telephone line); as containment (e.g. a secure room or cell); and as a state of mind (e.g. emotional security).
A security referent is the focus of a security policy or discourse; for example, a referent may be a potential beneficiary (or victim) of a security policy or system.
Security referents may be persons or social groups, objects, institutions, ecosystems, or any other phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change by the forces of its environment. The referent in question may combine many referents, in the same way that, for example, a nation state is composed of many individual citizens.
The security context is the relationships between a security referent and its environment. From this perspective, security and insecurity depend first on whether the environment is beneficial or hostile to the referent, and also how capable is the referent of responding to its/their environment in order to survive and thrive.
The means by which a referent provides for security (or is provided for) vary widely. They include, for example:
- Coercive capabilities, including the capacity to project coercive power into the environment (e.g. aircraft carrier, handgun);
- Protective systems (e.g. lock, fence, antivirus software, air defence system)
- Warning systems (e.g. alarm, radar)
- Diplomatic and social action intended to prevent insecurity from developing (e.g. conflict prevention and transformation strategies); and
- Policy intended to develop the lasting economic, physical, ecological and other conditions of security (e.g. economic reform, ecological protection, progressive demilitarization).
Any action intended to provide security may have multiple effects. For example, an action may have wide benefit, enhancing security for several or all security referents in the context; alternatively, the action may be effective only temporarily, or benefit one referent at the expense of another, or be entirely ineffective or counterproductive.
Approaches to security are contested and the subject of debate. For example, in debate about national security strategies, some argue that security depends principally on developing protective and coercive capabilities in order to protect the security referent in a hostile environment (and potentially to project that power into its environment, and dominate it to the point of strategic supremacy). Others argue that security depends principally on building the conditions in which equitable relationships can develop, partly by reducing antagonism between actors, ensuring that fundamental needs can be met, and also that differences of interest can be negotiated effectively.
Contexts of security (examples)
The table shows some of the main domains where security concerns are prominent.
The range of security contexts is illustrated by the following examples (in alphabetical order):
Computer security, also known as cybersecurity or IT security, refers to the security of computing devices such as computers and smartphones, as well as computer networks such as private and public networks, and the Internet. The field has growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems in most societies. It concerns the protection of hardware, software, data, people, and also the procedures by which systems are accessed. The means of computer security include the physical security of systems and security of information held on them.
Corporate security refers to the resilience of corporations against espionage, theft, damage, and other threats. The security of corporations has become more complex as reliance on IT systems has increased, and their physical presence has become more highly distributed across several countries, including environments that are, or may rapidly become, hostile to them.
Ecological security, also known as environmental security, refers to the integrity of ecosystems and the biosphere, particularly in relation to their capacity to sustain a diversity of life-forms (including human life). The security of ecosystems has attracted greater attention as the impact of ecological damage by humans has grown.
Food security refers to the ready supply of, and access to, safe and nutritious food. Food security is gaining in importance as the world's population has grown and productive land has diminished through overuse and climate change.
Home security normally refers to the security systems used on a property used as a dwelling (commonly including doors, locks, alarm systems, lighting, fencing); and personal security practices (such as ensuring doors are locked, alarms activated, windows closed etc.)
Human security is the name of an emerging paradigm which, in response to traditional emphasis on the right of nation states to protect themselves, has focused on the primacy of the security of people (individuals and communities). The concept is supported by the United Nations General Assembly, which has stressed "the right of people to live in freedom and dignity" and recognized "that all individuals, in particular vulnerable people, are entitled to freedom from fear and freedom from want".
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its people, economy, and institutions. In practice, state governments rely on a wide range of means, including diplomacy, economic power, and military capabilities.
Perceptions of security
Since it is not possible to know with precision the extent to which something is 'secure' (and a measure of vulnerability is unavoidable), perceptions of security vary, often greatly. For example, a fear of death by earthquake is common in the United States (US), but slipping on the bathroom floor kills more people; and in France, the United Kingdom and the US there are many fewer deaths by terrorism than there are women killed by their partners in the home.
Another problem of perception is the common assumption that the mere presence of a security system (such as armed forces, or antivirus software) implies security. For example, two computer security programs installed on the same device can prevent each other from working properly, while the user assumes that he or she benefits from twice the protection that only one program would afford.
Security theater is a critical term for measures that change perceptions of security without necessarily affecting security itself. For example, visual signs of security protections, such as a home that advertises its alarm system, may deter an intruder, whether or not the system functions properly. Similarly, the increased presence of military personnel on the streets of a city after a terrorist attack may help to reassure the public, whether or not it diminishes the risk of further attacks.
Security concepts (examples)
Certain concepts recur throughout different fields of security:
- Assurance - an expression of confidence that a security measure will perform as expected.
- Countermeasure - a means of preventing an act or system from having its intended effect.
- Defense in depth - a school of thought holding that a wider range of security measures will enhance security.
- Exploit (noun) - a means of capitalising on a vulnerability in a security system (usually a cybersecurity system).
- Resilience - the degree to which a person, community, nation or system is able to resist adverse external forces.
- Risk - a possible event which could lead to damage, harm, or loss.
- Threat - a potential source of harm.
- Vulnerability - the degree to which something may be changed (usually in an unwanted manner) by external forces.
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- Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver, and Jaap de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998), p. 32
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- "Reliance spells end of road for ICT amateurs", May 07, 2013, The Australian
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- United Nations. "Hunger and food security". United Nations Sustainable Development. Retrieved 2017-12-17.
- Food and Agriculture Organizatoin (2013). "Greater focus on soil health needed to feed a hungry planet". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2017-12-17.
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- United Nations (1945). "Charter of the United Nations, Chapter VII". www.un.org. Retrieved 2017-12-17.
- United Nations. "UN Trust Fund for Human Security". www.un.org. Retrieved 2017-12-17.
- United Nations General Assembly (2005). "Resolution adopted by the General Assembly 60/1: World Summit Outcome" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-17.
- Bruce Schneier, Beyond Fear: Thinking about Security in an Uncertain World, Copernicus Books, pages 26-27
- David Anderson QC (2012). "The Terrorism Acts in 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-17.
- Womens Aid. "What is femicide?". Womens Aid. Retrieved 2017-12-17.
- "Don't Believe In The War On Women? Would A Body Count Change Your Mind?". Upworthy. Retrieved 2017-12-17.
- "Violences conjugales: 118 femmes tuées en 2014". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 2017-12-17.
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