Scottish Australians

Scottish Australians
Total population

2,023,474 (by ancestry, 2016)

119,416 (by birth, 2016)[1]
Languages
English, Scots, Scottish Gaelic
Religion
Presbyterianism, Roman Catholic
Related ethnic groups
Scottish people, Anglo-Celtic Australians, Irish Australians, English Australians, Welsh Australians, Manx Australians[2]

Scottish Australians are ‌‍‍‍‍residents of Australia who are fully or partially of Scottish descent.

According to the 2016 Australian census, 119,416 Australian residents were born in Scotland, while 2,023,474 claimed Scottish ancestry, either alone or in combination with another ancestry.[3] This is the fourth most commonly nominated ancestry in Australia.

History

The links between Scotland and Australia stretch back to the first British expedition of the Endeavour under command of Lieutenant James Cook who was himself the son of a Scottish ploughman. Cook navigated and charted the east coast of Australia, making first landfall at Botany Bay on 29 April 1770. His reports in Cook's expedition would lead to British settlement of the continent, and during the voyage Cook also named two groups of Pacific islands in honour of Scotland: New Caledonia and the New Hebrides.[4] The first European to die on Australian soil was a Scot; Forbey Sutherland from Orkney, an able seaman died on 30 April 1770 of consumption and was the first to be buried on the colony by Captain Cook, who named Sutherland Point at Botany Bay in his honour.

Colonial period

Scotland-born population 2006 - 2011
Year Population % of total Australian pop. Ref
2006130,205[5]
2011133,4320.6%[5]

The first Scottish settlers arrived in Australia with the First Fleet in 1788,[6] including three of the first six Governors of New South Wales John Hunter, Lachlan Macquarie (often referred to as the father of Australia) [4][6] and Thomas Brisbane. The majority of Scots arriving in the early colonial period were convicts: 8,207 Scottish convicts, of the total 150,000 transported to Australia, made up about 5% of the convict population. The Scottish courts were unwilling to punish crimes deemed to be lesser offences in Scots Law by deportation to Australia. Scottish law was considered more humane for lesser offences than the English and Irish legal systems.[4] Although Scottish convicts had a poor reputation, most were convicted of minor property offences and represented a broad cross-section of Scotland's working classes. As such, they brought a range of useful skills to the colonies.[7]

From 1793-1795, a group of political prisoners later called the 'Scottish Martyrs', were transported to the colonies. They were not all Scots, but had been tried in Scotland. Their plight as victims of oppression was widely reported and the subsequent escape of one of them, Thomas Muir, in 1796 caused a sensation and inspired the poetry of Robert Burns.[4] The majority of immigrants, 'free settlers', in the late 18th century were Lowlanders from prominent wealthy families. Engineers like Andrew McDougall and John Bowman arrived with experience in building corn mills, while others were drawn to Australia by the prospects of trade. William Douglas Campbell, Robert Campbell, Charles Hook, Alexander Berry Laird of the Shoalhaven, were some of the first merchants drawn to the colonies.

19th century

Prior to 1830, most Scottish immigrants were farmers and landholders who chose to emigrate willingly due to the Scottish economic recessions of the 1820s. Economic disruption and riots caused by the Agrarian revolution resulted in a second group of Scottish radicals being deported to the colonies in 1820. All of them were educated and were esteemed by the free colonists. In the coming years Australia was one of many countries to benefit from the Scottish population exodus of the late 18th century. The majority of immigrants were predominantly from Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen, which encouraged strong commercial and financial links between the Scottish east coast and Western Australia.

At this time, several Scottish regiments were recorded in the colonies: Macquarie's unit or the 73rd Regiment, the Royal North British Fusiliers, and the King's Own Scottish Borderers. Three of the Deputy Commissaries-General (the highest rank in the colony) from 1813 to 1835 were Scots: David Allan, William Lithgow, Stewart.

By 1830 15.11% of the colonies' total population were Scots, which increased by the middle of the century to 25,000, or 20-25% of the total population. The Australian Gold Rush of the 1850s provided a further impetus for Scottish migration: in the 1850s 90,000 Scots immigrated, far higher than other British or Irish populations at the time.[6] Literacy rates of the Scottish immigrants ran at 90-95%. By the 1830s a growing number of Scots from the poorer working classes joined the diaspora. Immigrants included skilled builders, tradesmen, engineers, tool-makers and printers. They settled in commercial and industrial cities, Sydney, Adelaide, Hobart and Melbourne. The migration of skilled workers increased, including bricklayers, carpenters, joiners, and stonemasons. They settled in the colonies of Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania.

In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of the Australian population. Out of the 1.3 million migrants from Britain to Australia in the period from 1861-1914, 13.5 percent were Scots.[8] Much settlement followed the Highland Potato Famine, Highland Clearances and the Lowland Clearances of the mid-19th century. By 1860 Scots made up 50% of the ethnic composition of Western Victoria, Adelaide, Penola and Naracoorte. Other settlements in New south Wales included New England, the Hunter Valley and the Illawarra.

Their preponderance in pastoral industries on the Australian frontier, and in various colonial administrative roles, meant that Scottish migrants were involved in the colonisation of Indigenous Australians throughout the colonial period, including in the dispossession of Indigenous land, the creation of discriminatory administration regimes, and in killings and massacres.[9]

Throughout the 19th century, Scots invested heavily in the industries of the Australian colonies. In the 1820s, the Australian Company of Edinburgh & Leith exported a variety of goods to Australia, but a lack of return cargo led to the company's termination in 1831. The Scottish Australian Investment Company was formed in Aberdeen in 1840, and soon became one of the chief businesses in the colonies, making substantial investments in the pastoral and mining industries. Smaller companies, such as George Russel's Clyde Company and Niel & Company, also had a significant presence in the colonies. Before the 1893 Australian financial crisis, Scotland was the main source of private British loans to Australia.[10]

20th century

A steady rate of Scottish immigration continued into the 20th century, with substantial numbers of Scots continuing to arrive after 1945.[4] Between 1910 and 1914, around 9000 Scots arrived each year, and in 1921 the Scottish population of Australia was 109,000. Due to economic decline in Scotland after the First World War, there was an over-representation of Scots among British migrants to Australia during the interwar period, and by 1933 there were 132,000 Scottish migrants living in Australia.[11]

By the 1920s and 1930s, a majority of Scottish migrants in Australia were living in Victoria and New South Wales. The urban working-class background of many British migrants to Australia in the early 20th century meant that Scots were most likely to settle in industrial portside suburbs, especially in Melbourne and Sydney, where they made notable contributions to the shipbuilding industry.[12] In the late-19th and early-20th century, Scottish-born workers had a significant influence in the labour movement, and played key roles in trade unions and the Australian Labor Party,[13] as well as becoming leaders in the Communist Party of Australia.[14][15] In 1928, a significant delegation of Scottish Australians to Scotland was influential in the opening of a direct trade route between Australia and Glasgow, and by 1932 traders on the Clyde had reported a three-fold increase in imports from Australia and New Zealand.[16]

Today, a strong cultural Scottish presence is evident in the Highland games, dance, Tartan day celebrations, Clan and Gaelic speaking societies found throughout modern Australia. In the early 2000s, the number of Australians claiming to have Scottish ancestry increased almost three-fold; the majority of those who claim Scottish ancestry are third or later generation Australians.[17]

Demography

Scottish ancestry in Australia 1986–2011 (Census)
Year Ethnic group Population Percent of pop. Ref
1947 Anglo-Celtic 89.8% [18]
1986 Scottish 740,522 4.7% [19]
2001 Scottish 540,046 2.9% [19]
2006 Scottish 1,501,200 7.6% [20][21]
2011 Scottish 1,792,622 8.3% [21][22]

2011 Census

According to the 2011 Australian census 133,432 Australian residents were born in Scotland, which was 0.6% of the Australian population. This is the fourth most commonly nominated ancestry and represents over 8.3% of the total population of Australia.[21]

2006 Census

At the 2006 Census 130,205 Australian residents stated that they were born in Scotland.[23] Of these 80,604 had Australian citizenship.[24] The majority of residents, 83,503, had arrived in Australia in 1979 or earlier.[24]

Culture

Some aspects of Scottish culture can be found in Australia:

Highland gatherings

Highland gatherings are popular in Australia. Notable gatherings include:

Scottish schools

The Scots in Australia started a number of schools, some of which are state run, and some of which are private:

Scottish placenames

In Australia, Scottish names make up 17 per cent of all non-Indigenous placenames. Many are of Lowland origins, but Highland names are also common in areas of concentrated Highland settlement. There are also many other landscape features, properties, and streets in Australia with Scottish origins.[31]

Notable Scottish placenames in Australia include:

Places named after Lachlan Macquarie

Many places in Australia have been named in Macquarie's honour (some of these were named by Macquarie himself). They include:

At the time of his governorship or shortly thereafter:

Many years after his governorship:

Notable Australians of Scottish descent

NameBorn - DiedNotable forConnection with AustraliaConnection with Scotland
Jimmy Chi1948-2017Australian composer, musician and playwrightBorn in AustraliaAncestor were Scottish.
Isla Fisher1976–presentHolywood ActressEmigrated to Australia from Scotland in 1982 with her family and was raised in Perth, Western AustraliaBorn to Scottish parents in Muscat, Oman and spent her early childhood years in Bathgate, Scotland.
Jordan Smith1989–presentactorArrived in 2003Born and raised in Fife, Scotland. He emigrated to Australia from Scotland at age 14 with his family, where he later became an actor, best known for playing Andrew Robinson in the Australian soap opera Neighbours.
Captain James Cook1728–1779cartographer, navigator and Captain of the Endeavour who made first land fall at Botany Bay and named New South Wales.arrived on the Endeavour in 1770Son of a Scottish ploughman
Air Chief Marshal Allan Grant "Angus" Houston, AC, AFCborn 9 June 1947A retired senior officer of the Royal Australian Air Force. He served as Chief of Air Force (CAF) from 20 June 2001 and then as the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) from 4 July 2005. He retired from the military on 3 July 2011. Since then Houston has been appointed to a number of positions, including chairman of Airservices Australia. In March 2014 he was appointed to head the Joint Agency Coordination Centre (JACC) during the search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370. Houston was born on 9 June 1947 in Ayrshire, Scotland and educated at Strathallan School in Forgandenny, Perthshire, Scotland. He emigrated to Australia in 1968 at age 21.
James Boag I1804 - 1890Founder of Boag's Brewery in TasmaniaEmigrated 1853, settled in Tasmania after some time on the Victorian Gold Fields. Founder and proprietor of J. Boag & Sons, owner of the Boag's Brewery in Launceston, Tasmania, Australia.Born Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland.
Robert McCracken1813 - 1885Brewer and founder of the Essendon Football Club in 1873Emigrated from Ardwell Farm near Girvan in Ayrshire, Scotland in 1840. The Essendon Club was formed at a meeting at his family home "Ailsa" at Ascot Vale .Born Ayrshire, Scotland.
Keith Ross Miller1919-2004Legendary Australian Test cricketer and St Kilda and Victoria, Australian Rules FootballerA member of Bradmans 1948 Australian cricket 'Invincibles' touring team to EnglandHis paternal and maternal grandparents were Scottish.
Dave Bryden1928–2013Australian Rules FootballerA member of the 1954 Footscray now Western Bulldogs premiership teamHis father was Scottish.
Andrew McLeod1976-Australian Rules FootballerA champion player with the Adelaide Crows Football Club, Andrew played in their 1997 and 1998 AFL Premiership teams, winning two Norm Smith MedalsThe pride he feels for his Indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander as well as his Scottish heritage is reflected in Jamie Cooper's oil painting of him in action, during a game. Indigenous Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islands and Scottish flags proudly wave amongst the crowd.
Roy Cazaly1893–1963Australian Rules FootballerRoy Cazaly was a champion ruckman who played for St Kilda (1909–1920) and then South Melbourne (1921–1926). His teammate's constant cry of 'Up there Cazaly' entered the Australian idiom and became part of folk-lore'.His mother was Elizabeth Jemima, née McNee from Scotland.
Thomas Brisbane1773–1860sixth governor of New South Walesappointed governor in 1821born near Largs in Ayrshire; educated at University of Edinburgh
John Hunter1737–1821second governor of New South Walesarrived with the First Fleet in 1788born in Leith
Rt Hon. Andrew Fisher1862–1928Prime Minister three times, the most successful of Australia’s early politicians and started the Commonwealth Bank.arrived in Queensland 1885born at Crosshouse, Ayrshire, Scotland.
Rt Hon. John Malcolm Fraser1930–2015Prime Minister.Born AustraliaFather was Scottish
Forby SutherlandUnknown-1770The first British born national to be buried in Australia by Captain Cook on his voyage on the Endeavour.arrived on the Endeavour in 1770born Orkney Islands Scotland
James Busby1801–1871Grew up in Australia and was key to the peace treaty and negotiations between the British and the united tribes of the Maori in New Zealand.arrived in 1824born Edinburgh
James Grant1772–1833British Royal Navy officer who was the first to sail through Bass Strait from west to east, charting the then unknown coastline and the first European to land on Phillip Island where the south west point is named after him, and Churchill Island.Arrived in Australia 1800Born Morayshire Scotland
William Balmain1762–1803Naval surgeon who sailed as an assistant surgeon with the First Fleet to establish the first European settlement in Australia, and later became its principal surgeon.arrived Port Jackson in January 1788From Rhynd Perthshire Scotland
Peter Miller Cunningham1789–1864Scottish naval surgeon and pioneer in Australia.Arrived in 1819from Dumfriesshire Scotland
Robert Campbell1982–PresentAustralian Rules footballer.Born in AustraliaAncestors were Scottish.
Elle Macpherson1964–PresentAustralian supermodel, actress and business woman.Born in Australiaancestors from Scotland.
Sir Francis Forbes1784–1841The first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales.Arrived 1820Parents were Scottish
William Lithgow1784–1864The Auditor General of the colony of Sydney in Australia. The city of Lithgow in New South Wales was named in honour.arrived in Sydney 1824Born Scotland
Colonel William Paterson1755–1810A Scottish soldier, explorer, and botanist best known for leading early settlement in Tasmania.Arrived to Australia 1789born Montrose Scotland
Charles Frazer1788–1831The colonial Botanist of New South Wales who collected and catalogued numerous Australian plant species, and participated in a number of exploring expeditions.arrived in 1815from Blair Atholl Perthshire Scotland
Andrew McDougall1983–PresentAustralian Rules footballer.born Australiaancestors were Scottish
Rod Wishart1968–PresentAn Australian former rugby league footballer who played for Illawarra Steelers, St. George Illawarra Dragons, New South Wales and Australia.born Australiaancestors were Scottish
James Alpin McPherson1842–1895explorer and bush ranger, best known as the 'Wild Scotchman'.arrived in 1855born Inverness-shire Scotland
Paul McGregor1967–PresentA former Australian rugby league player, he played for the Illawarra Steelers and, St George Illawarra Dragons and has represented New South Wales in the State of Origin and the Australian national rugby league team.Born Australiaancestors were Scottish
George Reid1845–1918Prime Minister of Australiaarrived Victoria 1852born Renfrewshire
Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell1792–1855Surveyor-General and explorer.Arrived 1811from Stirlingshire Scotland
Andrew Petrie1798–1872An Engineer who made important contributions as a private builder and was the first white Australian to climb Mount Beerwah.Arrived 1831born Fife Scotland
Alexander McLeay1767–1848Appointed Colonial Secretary for New South Wales and was the foundation president of the Australian Club.arrived with family in 1826born Ross-shire Scotland
Margie Abbott1958-Spouse of the Prime Minister of Australia and wife of Tony Abbott.born in New Zealand and emigrated to AustraliaScottish ancestry from both her parents
Campbell Drummond Riddell1796–1858Public servant who served as Colonial Treasurer.Arrived Sydney 1830born Argyllshire, Scotland
John Murray1775–1807Scottish naval officer, seaman and explorer, who also made a marked contribution to medicine.arrived 1800born Edinburgh
Sir Charles Menzies1783–1866Officer of marines who became the first commandant at Newcastle secondary Penal establishment.arrived 1810born at Bal Freike, Perthshire, Scotland
Patrick Logan1791–1830The first Commandant at Moreton Bay and regarded by many historians as the true founder of Queenslandarrived Sydney 1825from Berwickshire Scotland
John Stephen1771–1833The first Puisne Judge of New South Wales who also became the first Solicitor-General.arrived 1824born Aberdeen Scotland
Robert Brown1773–1858A botanist who made extensive collections during Flinders' coastal surveys. Held in high regard by his contemporaries, he received numerous academic honours and made several major discoveries in his subject, including molecular agitation now called 'Brownian movement'.arrived 1800from Aberdeen Scotland
Francis Melville1822–1857Francis McCallum, calling himself Captain Francis Melville and posing as a gentleman, he reached Victoria about October 1851. He became a bushranger and claimed leadership of the Mount Macedon gang.arrived in the 1830sborn Inverness-shire
James Macpherson Grant1822–1885A politician and prosperous Melbourne solicitor, who became vice-president of the land and works board and commissioner of railways and roads in 1864.arrived 1850born Scotland
John Flynn (minister)1880–1951Presbyterian minister and aviator who founded the Royal Flying Doctor Service, the world's first air ambulance. Appears on the Australian $20 dollar noteBorn Melbourne, Victoria.Minister of the Church of Scotland
Catherine Helen Spence1825–1910Author, teacher, journalist, politician (Australia's first female political candidate) and leading suffragette. Appears on the Australian $5 dollar noteEmigrated to South Australia in 1839Born Melrose Scotland
John Dunmore Lang1799–1878Presbyterian clergyman, writer, politician and activistarrived Australia 1823 and lived there since that timeborn Scotland
Mary Gilmore1865–1962A prominent Australian socialist, poet and journalist. Appears on the Australian $10 dollar noteborn New South WalesFamily were from Scotland
Andrew Barton Paterson1864–1941Composer of Australia's most widely known country folk song, Waltzing Matilda features on the Australian $10 dollar noteborn Orange, New South WalesFather was Andrew Bogle Paterson, a Scottish immigrant from Lanarkshire.
Lachlan Macquarie1762–1824fifth governor of New South Walesappointed governor in 1809 (often referred to as the Father of Australia)born on the island of Ulva off the coast of the Isle of Mull; buried on the Isle of Mull
Thomas Mitchell1792–1855surveyor and explorerarrived Australia 1827born Scotland
Nellie Melba1861–1931legendary Australian opera soprano and one of the most famous sopranos, and the first Australian to achieve international recognition in the form. Appears on the Australian $100 dollar noteBorn in Melbourne VictoriaFather was a Scottish building contractor
John McDouall Stuart1815–1866surveyor and the most accomplished and most famous of all Australia's inland explorersarrived Australia 1845born Dysart, Fife Scotland
David Lennox1788–1873Australian bridge builder, responsible for the construction of historic Lansdowne Bridge over Prospect Creek, Lennox Bridge over the Parramatta River and Lennox Bridge over Brookside Creek at Lapstone as well as a further fifty-three bridges in Victoriaarrived 1832 in New South Walesborn Ayr Scotland
Peter Dodds McCormick?1834-1916composer of the Australian national anthem Advance Australia Fairarrived Australia 1855born Port Glasgow
Bill Dundee1943–presentProfessional wrestlerarrived Australia 1959born Dundee
Bon Scott1946–1980AC/DC vocalistarrived Australia 1952born Kirriemuir
Angus Young1955–presentAC/DC guitaristarrived Australia 1963born Glasgow
Malcolm Young1953–2017AC/DC guitaristarrived Australia 1963born Glasgow
George Young (rock musician)1947–presentEasybeats guitaristarrived Australia 1963born Glasgow
Colin Hay1953–presentMen at Work vocalistarrived Australia 1967born North Ayrshire
Sean Wight1964–PresentAustralian rules footballerarrived Australia mid-1980sborn in Scotland
Roseanna Cunningham1951–presentSNP MSPRaised in Perth, Australiaborn in Glasgow
Mary MacKillop1842–1909Roman Catholic nun only Australian to be beatifiedBorn Fitzroy, VictoriaDaughter of Scottish immigrants
Mary, Crown Princess of Denmark1972–presentCrown Princess of DenmarkBorn Hobart, TasmaniaScottish father. Née Mary Donaldson.
Robert Menzies1894–1978Prime Minister of AustraliaBorn Jeparit, VictoriaScottish grandparents.
Ralph Abercrombie1881–1957public servant who became auditor-general for the Commonwealth.born Mount Duneed VictoriaFather was Scottish
Kaiya Jones1996–presentactressarrived in 2004born Glasgow, Scotland
Jamie Young1985–presentFootballerBorn in BrisbaneOf Scottish descent[33]
Jackson Irvine1993–presentFootballerBorn in Melbourne. Began career with Scottish-Australian club Frankston Pines and plays for the Australian national football teamFather is Scottish. Played for Celtic F.C. in the Scottish Premiership

See also

References

  1. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2017), 2016 Census, Cultural Diversity dataset, TableBuilder
  2. "Scots - The Dictionary of Sydney". Dictionaryofsydney.org. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  3. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2017), 2016 Census, Cultural Diversity dataset, TableBuilder
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 The Scots in Australia (2008) M. Prentis UNSW Press.
  5. 1 2 "The people of Australia.The People of Australia : Statistics from the 2011 Census" (PDF). Omi.wa.gov.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  6. 1 2 3 The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. (2001) James Jupp p650 Cambridge University Press.
  7. Wilkie, Benjamin (November 2014). "Scottish convicts in Australia". History Scotland. 14: 22–27.
  8. "Invest and Migrate in Brisbane, Queensland" (PDF). Qldmigrationheritage.com.au. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  9. Wilkie, Benjamin (October 2017). "Unsettling History: Scots and Indigenous Australians". CABLE Magazine. 4.
  10. Wilkie, Benjamin (2017), The Scots in Australia 1788-1938, Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, ISBN 9781783272563, pp. 33-35.
  11. Wilkie, Benjamin (2016). "Lairds of Suburbia: Scottish Migrant Settlement and Housing in Australian Cities, 1880–1930". Journal of Scottish Historical Studies. 36.1: 84–87.
  12. Wilkie, Benjamin (2016). "Lairds of Suburbia: Scottish Migrant Settlement and Housing in Australian Cities, 1880-1930". Journal of Scottish Historical Studies. 36.1: 81–102.
  13. Wilkie, Benjamin (July 2017). "Scots and the early Australian labour movement". The Scottish Australian. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  14. Wilkie, Benjamin (January 2013). "Scottish communists in 1930s Australia". History Scotland. 13.1: 26–32.
  15. Wilkie, Benjamin (2013). "Scottish workers and radicals in early twentieth century Australia". Scottish Labour History. 48: 74–94.
  16. Wilkie, Benjamin (2014). "The tie that binds: popular imperialism and the Australian Scottish delegation of 1928". International Review of Scottish Studies. 39: 107–136.
  17. Wilkie, Benjamin (November 12, 2012). "Scottish ancestry in Australia since 1986". The Scottish Australian. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  18. "Environment.gov.au An Australian Context" (PDF). Environment.gov.au. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  19. 1 2 The Transformation of Australia's Population: 1970-2030 edited by Siew-An Khoo, Peter F. McDonald, Siew-Ean Khoo.(Page 164).
  20. "The People of Australia - Statistics from the 2006 Census" (PDF). Dss.gov.au. p. 50. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  21. 1 2 3 "The people of Australia.The People of Australia - Statistics from the 2011 Census (Page:55)" (PDF). Omi.wa.gov.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  22. "2011 Census data shows more than 300 ancestries". Abs.gov.au. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  23. "20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex — Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
  24. 1 2 "2914.0.55.002 2006 Census Ethnic Media Package" (Excel download). Census Dictionary, 2006 (cat.no 2901.0). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
  25. "Hogmanay feast - SCOTT FREE". Offexploring.com. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  26. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2008-11-06.
  27. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2008-11-06.
  28. Speed, Alex (6 April 2013). "Galloping gourmets put horse, game and haggis on menus". The Australian. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  29. Wilkie, Benjamin (2014), "Space, commemoration, and iconography: Scottish monuments and memorials in Australia", in Cahir, Fred, Scots Under The Southern Cross, Ballarat: Ballarat Heritage Services, pp. 157–165
  30. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  31. "Jamie Young". Aldershot Town F.C. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2013.

Further reading

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