A royal bastard is a child of a reigning monarch born out of wedlock. The king might have a child with a mistress, or the legitimacy of a marriage might be questioned for reasons concerning succession. Notable royal bastards include Henry FitzRoy, son of King Henry VIII of England, and the Duke of Monmouth, son of Charles II. The surname "Fitzroy" means "son of a king" and was used by various illegitimate royal offspring, and by others who claimed to be such. In medieval England, a bastard's coat of arms was marked with a "bend" or "baton sinister."
Unlike medieval royalty, the Romans were more concerned with continuity of family name than with bloodline. If a man recognized a child as his, this was accepted by law, and the issue of who the biological father was did not arise. If a child was not recognized, he or she could be exposed or brought up as a slave. For example, Emperor Claudius initially accepted a girl as his daughter, but later rejected her and had her exposed. Emperors often adopted their successors. There are no recorded examples of aristocrats in classical times accusing other aristocrats of being illegitimate, as was common among in later periods.
A book published in February 2011 claimed that Albert II of Belgium has an illegitimate half-sister named Ingeborg Verdun, the daughter of King Leopold III and Austrian-Belgian ice skater Liselotte Landbeck.
Flanders and Brabant
- House of Witthem, legitimised son of John II, Duke of Brabant.
- House of Brant, legitimised son of John III, Duke of Brabant.
- House of Glymes, legitimised son of John II, Duke of Brabant.
- House of Nassau-Corroy, legitimised son of Henry III of Nassau-Breda
- House of Dongelberghe, Legitimised son of John I, Duke of Brabant.
- House of Mechelen, Legitimised son of John I, Duke of Brabant.
England, Scotland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom
In Anglo-Saxon times, the descendants of kings were called aethelings, whether legitimate or not. When the office of king became vacant, a Witan would meet to name a successor from among the aethelings. Papal legates visited the court of Offa of Mercia in 786 and decreed that an English king "must not be begotten in adultery or incest" and that "he who was not born of a legitimate marriage" could not succeed to the throne. It is likely that there was no succession rule regarding bastards prior to this decree. All the same, Athelstan, bastard of Edward the Elder, succeeded as king in 924. English monarch William the Conqueror was also a bastard.
Gervais of Blois, a bastard of King Stephen, was abbot of Westminster. Richard III justified his accession to the throne by claiming that the children of Edward IV were the product of an invalid marriage.
Henry I had 21 to 25 bastards, including Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, Sybilla of Normandy (wife of King Alexander I of Scotland) Maud FitzRoy (wife of Conan III, Duke of Brittany), Constance or Maud FitzRoy, Mabel FitzRoy, Alice FitzRoy, Gilbert FitzRoy, and Emma. "It might be permissible to wonder how it was that Henry I managed to keep track of all his illegitimate children, but there is no doubt that he did so," wrote historian Given-Wilson.
Henry II had several bastards, most notably Geoffrey, Archbishop of York and William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (who inherited his earldom from his father-in-law, William of Salisbury. William's mother was Ida de Tosny, while Geoffrey's may have been called Ykenai.
John had at least five children with mistresses during his first marriage to Isabelle of Gloucester, and two of those mistresses are known to have been noblewomen. He had several others, 13 or more in total, including Joan, Lady of Wales (wife of Llywelyn the Great) and Richard FitzRoy.
Edward IV of England
Henry VIII had one acknowledged royal bastard, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset. As he had many mistresses, six other people are also put forward by historians as possibly being Henry's illegitimate children, including the mercenary Thomas Stukley, the poet Richard Edwardes and two of Mary Boleyn's children. His daughter Elizabeth was also considered illegitimate, as Henry had married her mother, Anne Boleyn, while still married to Queen Catherine.
James II (r. 1437–1460) had a bastard son, John Stewart, Lord of Sticks (d. 1523).
James IV (r. 1488–1513) had at least 5 illegitimate children with his mistresses, including Alexander Stewart, Archbishop of St Andrews, James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray and Lady Janet Stewart, la Belle Écossaise.
James V (r. 1513–1542) had at least 9 illegitimate children with his mistresses, including Lady Jean Stewart (by Elizabeth Bethune), Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney (by Euphemia Elphinstone) and James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (by Margaret Erskine).
Charles II fathered at least 20 illegitimate children, of whom he acknowledged 14. The most famous of these was James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, his son by Lucy Walter. After Charles' death, Monmouth led a rebellion against his uncle James II.
When Nell Gwynn brought her first child to Charles, she told it, 'Come hither you little Bastard and speak to your father!'.
- "Nay, Nellie, do not call the child such a name", said the king.
- "Your Majesty has given me no other name by which I may call him."
Charles then named the child "Beauclerk" and bestowed the title "Earl of Burford".
Illegitimate children of Charles II
By Lucy Walter (c.1630–1658)
- James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth (1649–1685).
By Elizabeth Boyle, Viscountess Shannon (1622–1680)
- Charlotte FitzRoy, Countess of Yarmouth (1650–1684),
- Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth (1657–1680), known as "Don Carlo", created Earl of Plymouth (1675)
- Catherine FitzCharles (born 1658; she either died young or became a nun at Dunkirk)
By Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland (1641–1709)
- Anne Lennard, Countess of Sussex (1661–1722). She may have been the daughter of Roger Palmer, but Charles accepted her.
- Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland (1662–1730).
- Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton (1663–1690). Ancestor of the Dukes of Grafton.
- Charlotte Lee, Countess of Lichfield (1664–1717).
- George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1665–1716).
- Lady Barbara FitzRoy (1672–1737). She was probably the child of the Duke of Marlborough. She was never acknowledged by Charles.
By Nell Gwyn (1650–1687)
- Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans (1670–1726)
- James, Lord Beauclerk (1671–1680)
By Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth (1649–1734)
- Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and Lennox (1672–1723). Ancestor of the Dukes of Richmond and Lennox.
By Moll Davis, courtesan and actress of repute
- Lady Mary Tudor (1673–1726)
James II and VII
James II and VII had 13 bastards,
George I had 3 illegitimate children by his mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Kendal, including Melusina von der Schulenburg, Countess of Walsingham.
When Victoria became queen, she banned royal bastards from court as "ghosts best forgotten." Since then, the issue has been shrouded in secrecy and any subsequent bastards have gone unacknowledged.
In recent years, there has been significant public attention given to the modern descendants of illegitimate British royalty. Referring to such people as "royal bastards" has become common, although they are generally neither royal nor bastards. For example, the term is used by the hereditary society "Descendants of the Illegitimate Sons and Daughters of the Kings of Britain." The society offered to admit Queen Elizabeth II, noting that she is a descendant of Henry I's illegitimate daughter Constance and has two other illegitimate ancestors. PBS produced a show called Lost Royals that tracked down such descendants.
Henri IV had many mistresses and bastards. The children of Gabrielle d'Estrées are notable because the King may have signed a wedding agreement with their mother before her unexpected death in 1599.
- By Gabrielle d'Estrées
- By Madame de Verneuil
- Gaston Henri, Duke of Verneuil, legitimized
- Gabrielle Angélique, mademoiselle de Verneuil, legitimized
- By Madame de Moret
- Antoine, Count of Moret, legitimized
- By Charlotte des Essarts
- Jeanne Baptiste, legitimized
- Marie Henriette, legitimized
"The bastards", as they were called, were compared to mules, unnatural hybrids who should not reproduce. "No issue should come of such species," the king once said. Louis, nonetheless, found appropriate spouses for his bastards.
As bastards were considered impure, their mothers might attempt to purify them through pious behavior. Louise de La Vallière had six children by Louis XIV, including Marie Anne de Bourbon (1666–1739) and Louis de Bourbon (1667–1683). She repented by joining a Carmelite convent. There she wore a belt of iron spikes that cut into her flesh.
Church leaders denounced Madame de Montespan, Louis' best-known mistress, who had seven children by him. In 1675, Father Lécuyer refused to give her absolution. "Is this the Madame that scandalises all France?" he asked. "Go abandon your shocking life and then come throw yourself at the feet of the ministers of Jesus Christ."
The king's efforts to legitimize his bastards showed his, "Olympian disdain for public opinion," according to one modern author. The edict of Marly, issued in July 1714, granted two of Louis' sons by Montespan the right to succeed to the French throne. This hugely unpopular decision led to a political crisis called the "bastard distortion" in 1714–1715. It was reversed by the Parliament of Paris in July 1717, after Louis had died.
- By Mademoiselle de La Vallière
- By Madame de Montespan
- Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine, legitimized and made dynast (1714-1715).
- Louis César, Count of Vexin, legitimized
- Louise Françoise, mademoiselle de Nantes, legitimized and married in the royal family
- Louise Anne, mademoiselle de Tours, legitimized
- Françoise Marie, mademoiselle de Blois, legitimized and married in the royal family
- Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse, legitimized and made dynast (1714-1715)
- By Mademoiselle des Œillets
Like his great-grandfather, Louis XV had many mistresses and bastards, but contrary to him, he never legitimized any of them.
- By Pauline Félicité de Mailly
- Charles Emmanuel Marie Magdelon de Vintimille du Luc
- By Jeanne Perray:
- Amélie Florimond de Norville
- By Marie-Louise O'Murphy
- By Françoise de Chalus
- Philippe Louis Marie Innocent Christophe Juste de Narbonne-Lara
- Louis Marie Jacques Amalric de Narbonne-Lara
- By Marguerite Catherine Haynault
- Agnès Louise de Montreuil
- Anne Louise de La Réale
- By Lucie Madeleine d'Estaing
- Agnès Lucie Auguste
- Aphrodite Lucie Auguste
- By Anne Coppier de Romans
- By Jeanne Louise Tiercelin de La Colleterie
In 2003, Leandro Ruiz Moragas, an illegitimate son of King Alfonso XIII's, gained the right to call himself a prince.
- Given-Wilson, Chris, and Alice Curteis, The Royal Bastards of Medieval England (1995), pp. 52, 48-49.
- Shakespeare, William, King Lear
- Catharine Edwards, The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome, pp. 51–52.
- Leo Van Audenhaege, From Küssnacht to Argenteuil"
- Trophées de Brabant: tome 1, réparti en dix livres: Christophe Butkens - Christ. Leger, 1637 -
- addition contenant la succesion de aucuns bastards de Brabant; p. 652
- John Cannon, Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illustrated History of the British, p. 37
- Chris Given-Wilson, Alice Curteis, The royal bastards of medieval England (1984).
- Kathleen Thompson, "Affairs of State: The Illegitimate Children of Henry I". Journal of Medieval History Volume 29, Issue 2, June 2003, pp. 129–151.
- George Edward Cokayne, The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, Vol. 6, p. 706.
- The Museum of foreign literature, science, and art, Volume 14 edited by Robert Walsh, Eliakim Littell, John Jay Smith
- Hutton, p. 125
- Cokayne, George E.; Gibbs, Vicary (1926), "Appendix F. Bastards of Charles II", in Doubleday, H. A.; Warrand, D.; de Walden, Howard, The Complete Peerage, London: St. Catherine Press, Volume VI, pp. 706–708
- Miller, Charles II pp. 97, 123
- Fraser, Antonia (1979), King Charles II, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-77571-5, pp. 65, 286.
- Fraser, p. 287
- David Hilliam, Kings, queens, bones, and bastards: who's who in the English monarchy from Egbert to Elizabeth II
- Roger Powell, MA & Peter Beauclerk Dewar, Royal Bastards (2008).
- Descendants of the Illegitimate Sons and Daughters of the Kings of Britain
- Royal Bastards
- Cruttwell, Maud, Madame de Maintenon, p. 67.
- Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Jean-François Fitou, Saint-Simon and the court of Louis XIV, p. 106
- A lust for virtue: Louis XIV's attack on sin in seventeenth-century France By Philip F. Riley
- Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, The Ancien Régime: a history of France, 1610–1774, p. 284.
- Les enfants naturels de Louis XV - 02. Agathe-Louise de Saint-Antoine de Saint-André in: histoire-et-secrets.com [retrieved 9 March 2013].
- Camille Pascal, "Le goût du roi : Louis XV et Marie-Louise O'Murphy". This theory is supported by three facts: 1. The King gave Marie-Louise O'Murphy the sum of 350,000 livres between 1771-1772 (Marguerite, then a three-years-old child, surpassed the dangerous first year of infancy, and Louis XV probably wanted to protect the mother of his child), 2. When Marguerite married in 1786 all the royal family was present and signed the marriage contract, and 3. After the Bourbon Restoration, King Charles X gave Marguerite an "annual indemnity" of 2,000 francs from his own treasure and a further payment of 3,000 francs from the Civil List.
- Evelyne Lever: Le crépuscule des rois - chronique 1757-1789, Fayard 2013, p. 68.
- Louis XV secured for him capital of 223,000 livres who reported an annual revenue of 24,300 livres. In August 1774 Louis XVI signed a letter of Official Recognition of Nobility for him (identical to the other illegitimate children of Louis XV). In 1785 (when he took the Holy Orders) he received a dispensation from the Pope because of his illegitimate origin. After the Bourbon Restoration, Louis XVIII accorded him a pension of 6,000 francs from the Civil List, which was augmented to 20,000 francs in May 1821. Charles X (with whom he had an extraordinary physical resemblance) not only maintained his pensions but also paid his exorbitant gambling debts. In 1830 he solicited King Louis-Philippe I to secure his pensions, which the King granted.
- "Spain's 'royal bastard' becomes prince". BBC.
- Roger Powell and Peter Beauclerk, Royal Bastards: Illegitimate Children of the British Royal Family (2008)
- Chris Given-Wilson and Alice Curteis, The Royal Bastards of Medieval England (1995)
- Peter Beauclerk-Dewar and Roger Powell Right Royal Bastards: The Fruits of Passion (2007)
- Anthony J. Camp, Royal Mistresses and Bastards Fact and Fiction 1714–1936 (2007)