Rose Bowl Game

Rose Bowl Game
Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual[1]
"The Granddaddy of Them All"
Stadium Rose Bowl
Location Pasadena, California
Previous stadiums Tournament Park
(1902, 1916–1922)
Duke Stadium[lower-alpha 1]
Previous locations Durham, North Carolina[lower-alpha 1]
Operated 1902, 1916–present
Conference tie-ins Big Ten, Pac-12, CFP
Previous conference tie-ins Pacific Coast, BCS
Payout US$35 million/conference (As of 2016)[2]
Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association (1902, 1916–1998)
AT&T (1999–2002)
Sony/PlayStation 2 (2003)
Citi (2004–2010)
Vizio (2011–2014)
Northwestern Mutual (2015–2020)
Former names
Tournament East–West football game (1902, 1916–1922)
Rose Bowl (1923–1998)
Rose Bowl presented by AT&T (1999–2002)
Rose Bowl presented by PlayStation 2 (2003)
Rose Bowl presented by Citi (2004–2010)
Rose Bowl presented by Vizio (2011–2014)
2016 season matchup
USC vs. Penn State (USC 52–49)
2017 season matchup
Oklahoma vs Georgia (Georgia 54–48)
Location in the United States
Location in California
Location in L.A. metro area

The Rose Bowl Game, also frequently known as simply the Rose Bowl, is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 (New Year's Day) at the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California. When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, the game is played on Monday, January 2 (15 times now). The Rose Bowl Game is nicknamed "The Granddaddy of Them All" because it is the oldest bowl game. It was first played in 1902 as the Tournament East–West football game, and has been played annually since 1916. Since 1945, it has been the highest attended college football bowl game. [3] It is a part of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association's "America's New Year Celebration", which also includes the historic Rose Parade.

Since 2015, the game has been sponsored by Northwestern Mutual and officially known as the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual. In 2015 and 2018, the game was also officially known as the College Football Playoff semifinal at the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual. Previous sponsors include Vizio (2011–2014), Citi (2004–2010), Sony/PlayStation 2 (2003), and AT&T (1999–2002)

The Rose Bowl Game has traditionally hosted the conference champions from the Big Ten and Pac-12 conferences (or their predecessors), but due to its past and present membership in two consortia that seek to determine a national champion in Division I FBS, in 2002, the Rose Bowl began to infrequently deviate from its traditional match-up in order to facilitate championship games. In 2002 and 2006 (2001 and 2005 football seasons), under the Bowl Championship Series system, the Rose Bowl was designated as its championship game, and hosted the top two teams determined by the BCS system. Beginning in 2015, the Rose Bowl has been part of the College Football Playoff and hosts one of its semifinal games every three years. During non-Playoff years, the Rose Bowl reverts to its traditional Pac-12/Big Ten matchup.


Originally titled the "Tournament East–West football game",[4] the first Rose Bowl was played on January 1, 1902, starting the tradition of New Year's Day bowl games. The football game was added in 1902 to help fund the cost of the Rose Parade.[5] The inaugural game featured Fielding H. Yost's dominating 1901 Michigan team, representing the East, which crushed a previously 3-1-2 team from Stanford University, representing the West, by a score of 49–0 after Stanford quit in the third quarter. Michigan finished the season 11–0 and was crowned the national champion. Yost had been Stanford's coach the previous year. The game was so lopsided that for the next thirteen years, the Tournament of Roses officials ran chariot races, ostrich races, and other various events instead of football.[6] But, on New Year's Day 1916, football returned to stay as the State College of Washington (now Washington State University) defeated Brown University in the first annual Rose Bowl with that explicit name.

Tournament Park and Rose Bowl stadium

Before the Rose Bowl was built for the January 1, 1923 match, games were played in Pasadena's Tournament Park, approximately three miles (5 km) southeast of the current Rose Bowl stadium near the campus of Caltech. Tournament Park was found to be unsuitable for the increasingly large crowds gathering to watch the game and a new, permanent home for the game was commissioned.

The Rose Bowl stadium, designed after the Yale Bowl in New Haven, then hosted the first "Rose Bowl" game in 1923. The name of the stadium was alternatively "Tournament of Roses Stadium" or "Tournament of Roses Bowl", until the name "Rose Bowl" was settled on before the 1923 game.[7]

The stadium seating has been reconfigured several times since its original construction in 1922. For many years, the Rose Bowl stadium had the largest football stadium capacity in the United States, eventually being surpassed by Michigan Stadium in 1998.[8][9] The maximum stated seating capacity was 104,594 from 1972 to 1997. Capacity was lowered after the 1998 game; the 2006 game, which was also the BCS championship game, attracted a crowd of 93,986; and there were 94,118 spectators at the 2011 game between TCU and Wisconsin.[10] As of 2012, the Rose Bowl is number seven on the list of American football stadiums by capacity with a current official seating capacity of 92,542 and is still the largest stadium that hosts post-season bowl games.[11] The Rose Bowl is also the only CFP bowl game that is held in a non-NFL stadium.

Team selection 1916–1946

In the game's early years, except during World War I, the Rose Bowl always pitted a team—not necessarily the conference champion—from the Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), the predecessor of the current Pac-12 Conference, against an opponent from the Eastern U.S. During the last two years of World War I, teams from military bases met in the Rose Bowl. During its history, a number of notable matchups have been made with the top football teams and top coaches of the time. These include the 1925 game, with Knute Rockne's Notre Dame and their Four Horsemen, against "Pop" Warner's Stanford; the 1926 edition saw the Alabama Crimson Tide's win over Washington; and 1940 featured Howard Jones' USC Trojans against Bob Neyland's Tennessee Volunteers. During this period, there were ten games in which undefeated teams were matched.

World War II – 1942 venue change to Durham, North Carolina

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and a series of attacks on West Coast shipping beginning on December 18,[12] there were concerns about a possible Japanese attack on the West Coast. The Rose Parade, with a million watchers, and the Rose Bowl, with 90,000 spectators, were presumed to be ideal targets for the Japanese. Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt recommended that the Rose Parade and Rose Bowl festivities be cancelled.[13][14][15] The Rose Bowl committee originally planned to cancel the game. On December 16, Duke University invited the game and Oregon State to Duke's home stadium in Durham, North Carolina.[16][17] After the 1942 Allied victory in the Battle of Midway and the end of the Japanese offensives in the Pacific Theater during 1942, it was deemed that the West Coast was no longer vulnerable to attack, and the Rose Bowl game continued on in the Rose Bowl Stadium. Few Georgia fans were able to make the trip to the 1943 Rose Bowl because of wartime travel restrictions.[18] There were a large number of military servicemen in attendance.[19] The Tournament of Roses parade itself still was not held in 1943 due to the war.[20]

Big Nine–PCC agreement

During World War II, many college football schools had dropped some conference opponents and instead played football against local military base teams. Many colleges could not even field teams due to the draft and manpower requirements.[21] After the war was over, demobilization and the G.I. Bill enabled returning servicemen to attend college. The 1946 season was the first true post-war college football season with travel restrictions lifted and civilian college opponents returning to schedules.

The Big Nine and PCC were of the same accord when it came to treating players as amateurs, as compared to the semi-professional status that the Southern Universities proposed. Also, the Big Nine and PCC both had the same attitudes towards desegregation and allowing African-Americans to play football.[22] Many other universities were still segregated. None of the Southeastern Conference schools had an African American athlete until 1966. The Cotton Bowl, Orange Bowl, and Sugar Bowl would not be integrated until 1948, 1955, and 1956 respectively.[23]

The Big Nine agreed in 1946, after eight years of negotiating over payments, rules, and ticket allocations, to a five-year exclusive deal with the Rose Bowl to send the conference champion to meet the PCC conference champion.[24] UCLA, USC, Minnesota and Illinois all voted against it.[25] The 1947 Rose Bowl, with UCLA meeting Illinois, was the first game under this agreement.

Big Ten–AAWU/Pac-8/10 agreement

When the PCC dissolved prior to the 1959 season following a pay-for-play scandal in 1958, there was no official agreement in force. The Tournament of Roses selected from the former members of PCC and invited Washington, the first champion of the newly formed Athletic Association of Western Universities (AAWU), to play Big Ten champion Wisconsin in the 1960 Rose Bowl. The Big Ten authorized its members to accept any Rose Bowl invitation at their discretion.

The AAWU signed an agreement with the Rose Bowl that remained in force from the 1961 Rose Bowl until the advent of the BCS era in 1998. In 1962, after Minnesota changed its vote against pursuing a new agreement (resolving a 5–5 voting deadlock which had prevented any new negotiations for years), a Big Ten agreement was finalized, which went into effect with the 1963 Rose Bowl and lasted until the BCS era.

While the Big Ten supplied the "East" representative and the PCC, AAWU, or Pac-8/10 supplied the "West" representative from the 1947 Rose Bowl to the BCS era, statements about an "exclusive" Rose Bowl agreement existing during this period are not entirely accurate: the Big Ten was not part of any agreement for the 1961 and 1962 games and the status of the agreement for 1960 is questionable, at best. The fact that the 1961 Big Ten champion, Ohio State, declined the invitation to play in the 1962 Rose Bowl (without penalty) is the clearest evidence that this "exclusive agreement" did not exist in these years.

The AAWU used "Big Five", "Big Six", and "Pacific-8" as unofficial nicknames (each reflecting the number of conference members). It officially adopted the "Pacific-8" name for the 1968 season. The name changed to "Pacific-10" with the arrival of Arizona and Arizona State in 1978, its last official name change prior to the formation of the BCS in 1998. The Big Ten Conference retained the same name throughout this period, even though it had eleven members by the start of the BCS era due to the addition of Penn State in 1990.

Both conferences had a "no repeat" rule in force for a number of years. Under this rule, any team that had appeared in the Rose Bowl game the previous season could not go, even if they were the conference champion. The notable exceptions to this rule were Washington playing in the 1960 and 1961 games and Minnesota playing in the 1961 and 1962 games during the period when the conference agreements were in a state of flux. The Big Ten abolished this rule in 1972. The AAWU/Pac-8 had abandoned its no-repeat rule by the time Southern California played in four consecutive Rose Bowl games from 1967 to 1970.

Both conferences also had "exclusive agreements" with the Rose Bowl game, in the sense that member schools were not allowed to play in any other bowl game. Both conferences abolished this rule before the 1975 college football season. As a result, Michigan and USC were allowed to play in the 1976 Orange Bowl and the 1975 Liberty Bowl, respectively.

Bowl Championship Series

As of the 1998 season, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS), team selection for the Rose Bowl was tied to the other three BCS bowls, although in any given year the Rose Bowl still attempted, if possible, to maintain the traditional Pac-10 (Pac-12 after the addition of Utah and Colorado in 2011) versus Big Ten format (though if the champ from either or both conference was ranked BCS #1 or #2, they were allowed into the national championship game and the runner up of their conference got the nod). Twice in this era, the Rose Bowl had served as the BCS championship game.

The 2002 game served as the BCS championship game between the BCS No. 1–ranked Miami, then a member of the Big East Conference, and the BCS No. 2–ranked Nebraska, then a member of the Big 12 Conference. The Nebraska selection as the BCS No. 2 team was controversial because Oregon was ranked No. 2 in both the AP and Coaches Polls, while Nebraska was ranked No. 4 in both polls and did not play in its conference championship game (No. 3 Colorado, who would play Oregon in that year's Fiesta Bowl, did and won the Big 12's automatic bid to the BCS). This prevented a West Coast team playing in the Rose Bowl for their first time, and it also marked the first matchup since 1946 not to feature the traditional pairing of Pac-10 vs. Big Ten teams.

The 2006 Rose Bowl game featured offensive powerhouses Texas, riding a 19-game winning streak, and USC, which entered the game with a 34-game winning streak and two Heisman Trophy winners. Texas won 41–38. The game had a television viewership of 35.6 million,[26] the highest for college football contest since the 1987 Fiesta Bowl between Penn State and Miami.

On two other occasions during the BCS era, Rose Bowl participation had expanded beyond the Big Ten and Pac-10. The 2003 Rose Bowl couldn't select Big Ten co-champion and automatic qualifier Ohio State, who finished No. 2 in the BCS and thus received a bid to the Fiesta Bowl to play for the national championship. The Rose Bowl was poised to select Big Ten co-champion Iowa as an at-large in order to preserve the traditional Big Ten/Pac-10 match up. However, the Orange Bowl, which selected ahead of the Rose Bowl that year, chose the Hawkeyes. As a result, the Rose Bowl featured the first appearance by Oklahoma, who faced Pac-10 Champion Washington State. The 2005 game featured Texas of the Big 12 Conference, selected, amid some controversy, over California of the Pac-10, marking the second time a West Coast team did not make the Rose Bowl. The controversy was the result of the BCS computer rankings which elevated Texas over California. Texas went on to defeat Michigan in the 2005 game, featuring a four-touchdown performance by Vince Young, foreshadowing his 467-yard performance a year later in the 2006 defeat of USC that won the National Title for Texas.

The 2004 game is also noteworthy. In this game, USC defeated Michigan, 28–14, thus earning the top ranking in the AP Poll and a share of the national championship with BCS champion LSU. USC, despite being No. 1 in the AP poll, did not qualify for the BCS championship game because of their standing in the BCS system.

The second BCS-era Rose Bowl arrangement ran from 2004 through 2014. The Big Ten and Pac-12 (the new name of the Pac-10) retained their bids, but a provision was inserted mandating that the first time that either conference could not fill their bid (due to a school from the Big Ten or Pac-12 qualifying for the BCS National Championship Game), and if a non-BCS conference school qualified, the Rose Bowl was required to take that school.[27] As a result, Texas Christian University (TCU) became the first team from a non-automatic qualifying conference to play in the Rose Bowl in the BCS era. The 2010 TCU Horned Frogs finished their second consecutive regular season at 12–0, were back-to-back champions of the Mountain West Conference, and ranked No. 3 in the final BCS Poll. TCU defeated No. 5 Wisconsin 21–19 in the 2011 Rose Bowl. TCU's appearance satisfied the 'first time' clause of the current agreement.

The 100th Rose Bowl Game featured a traditional pairing of Big Ten champion versus Pac-12 champion, with Michigan State playing against Stanford on January 1, 2014. Michigan State won the game, 24–20.

The Bowl Championship Series format ended with the 2014 BCS National Championship Game, played at the Rose Bowl stadium on January 6.

College Football Playoff

The BCS was replaced in 2014 by the College Football Playoff, which selects four teams for two national semifinal games, leading to a championship game. As part of the arrangement, the Rose Bowl game functions as a semifinal playoff game every three years. In years when the Rose Bowl is not hosting a semifinal, it takes the Pac-12 and Big Ten champions, provided they are outside of the top four and not in a semifinal.

The first game under the new arrangement was played on January 1, 2015 and was known as the College Football Playoff semifinal at the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual. It featured the Oregon Ducks of the Pac-12 Conference and the Florida State Seminoles, the first Atlantic Coast Conference team to participate in the Rose Bowl. Oregon defeated Florida State, 59–20, ending the Seminoles' 29-game winning streak, which dated back to the end of the 2012 season. As a result, Oregon advanced to the 2015 College Football Playoff National Championship played on January 12. The 59 points were a new Rose Bowl Game scoring record for a team.

The 2016 Rose Bowl featured Pac-12 champions Stanford against Big Ten West Division champions Iowa. Stanford defeated Iowa 45–16, scoring 35 points in the first half, the most points ever scored in the first half of a Rose Bowl. Big Ten champions Michigan State defeated Iowa 16–13 in the Big Ten championship Game, but lost 38–0 to Alabama in a CFP semifinal on New Year's Eve. There was some controversy over the selection of the Big Ten's Rose Bowl representative, given that both Iowa and Ohio State finished their seasons with only one loss, both losing to Michigan State. In the end, the College Football Playoff Committee ranked Iowa ahead of Ohio State, which led to Iowa's first Rose Bowl berth since 1991.[28][29] Iowa was ranked fifth in the final College Football Playoff rankings, and Stanford sixth, meaning that the 2016 Rose Bowl featured the strongest matchup that was not part of the College Football Playoff.

In the 2018 Rose Bowl, the Georgia Bulldogs (12–1) defeated the Oklahoma Sooners (12–1) 54–48 in double overtime in a semifinal playoff game to advance to the 2018 College Football Playoff National Championship game. It was the first Rose Bowl game to ever go into overtime period(s).

Sponsorship and broadcasting rights

For many years the Rose Bowl eschewed sponsorship, but in 1999, it became "The Rose Bowl Game presented by AT&T." Unlike the other bowl games, the sponsor was not added to the title of the game, but instead as a presenter.[31] In 2002 it was branded The Rose Bowl Game presented by PlayStation 2. From 2003 to 2010, after the agreement with Sony expired, the game was presented by Citi.

In June 2010, Citi decided to end sponsorship of the Rose Bowl games, including the National Championship game.[32] In October 2010, HDTV maker Vizio signed a 4-year contract to be the official sponsor of the Rose Bowl games through 2014.[33] After Vizio declined to renew sponsorship in 2014, financial services giant Northwestern Mutual became the new presenting sponsor.[34]

The 1952 game was the first nationally televised bowl game and the first nationally televised college game of any sport.[35] From 1952 to 1988,[36] the Rose Bowl was televised by NBC at 2 p.m. PST, and in most years was the only New Year's Day bowl airing at that time. The 1962 game was the first college football game broadcast in color.

From 1989 to 2010, the game was broadcast on ABC, usually at 2 p.m. PST; the 2005 edition was the first one broadcast in HDTV. Beginning in 2007, FOX had the broadcast rights to the other Bowl Championship Series games, but the Rose Bowl, which negotiates its own television contract independent of the BCS, had agreed to keep the game on ABC.

Beginning with the 2010 season, ESPN (majority-owned by ABC's parent company, The Walt Disney Company) now broadcasts all the BCS/CFP games, including the Rose Bowl game.[37][38] The game is also broadcast nationally by ESPN Radio and by ESPN International for Latin America. In 2013 ESPN Deportes provided the first Spanish language telecast in the U.S. of the Rose Bowl Game.[39]

The Rose Bowl game contract with ESPN was extended on June 28, 2012, to 2026, for a reportedly $80 million per year.[40][41] Northwestern Mutual took over as presenting sponsor in 2015 and will continue until 2020.

Game results

Winners in boldface
Italics denote a tie game

Date played West / Pac-12 East / Big Ten Attendance[42] Notes
January 1, 1902Stanford0Michigan498,000notes
January 1, 1916Washington State14Brown07,000notes
January 1, 1917Oregon14Penn026,000notes
January 1, 1918[lower-alpha 2]Mare Island – USMC19Camp Lewis – US Army7N/Anotes
January 1, 1919[lower-alpha 2]Mare Island – USMC0Great Lakes – US Navy17N/Anotes
January 1, 1920Oregon6Harvard730,000notes
January 1, 1921California28Ohio State042,000notes
January 2, 1922California0Washington & Jefferson040,000notes
January 1, 1923USC14Penn State343,000notes
January 1, 1924Washington14Navy1440,000notes
January 1, 1925Stanford10Notre Dame2753,000notes
January 1, 1926Washington19Alabama2050,000notes
January 1, 1927Stanford7Alabama757,417notes
January 2, 1928Stanford7Pittsburgh665,000notes
January 1, 1929California7Georgia Tech866,604notes
January 1, 1930USC47Pittsburgh1472,000notes
January 1, 1931Washington State0Alabama2460,000notes
January 1, 1932USC21Tulane1275,562notes
January 2, 1933USC35Pittsburgh078,874notes
January 1, 1934Stanford0Columbia735,000notes
January 1, 1935Stanford13Alabama2984,474notes
January 1, 1936Stanford7SMU084,474notes
January 1, 1937#5 Washington0#3 Pittsburgh2187,196notes
January 1, 1938#2 California13#4 Alabama090,000notes
January 2, 1939#7 USC7#3 Duke389,452notes
January 1, 1940#3 USC14#2 Tennessee092,200notes
January 1, 1941#2 Stanford21#7 Nebraska1391,500notes
January 1, 1942#12 Oregon State20#2 Duke1656,000[lower-alpha 1]notes
January 1, 1943#13 UCLA0#2 Georgia993,000notes
January 1, 1944USC29#12 Washington068,000notes
January 1, 1945#7 USC25#12 Tennessee091,000notes
January 1, 1946#11 USC14#2 Alabama3493,000notes
January 1, 1947#4 UCLA14#5 Illinois4590,000notes
January 1, 1948#8 USC0#2 Michigan4993,000notes
January 1, 1949#4 California14#7 Northwestern2093,000notes
January 2, 1950#3 California14#6 Ohio State17100,963notes
January 1, 1951#5 California6#9 Michigan1498,939notes
January 1, 1952#7 Stanford7#4 Illinois4096,825notes
January 1, 1953#5 USC7#11 Wisconsin0101,500notes
January 1, 1954#5 UCLA20#3 Michigan State28101,000notes
January 1, 1955#17 USC7#1 Ohio State2089,191notes
January 2, 1956#4 UCLA14#2 Michigan State17100,809notes
January 1, 1957#10 Oregon State19#3 Iowa3597,126notes
January 1, 1958Oregon7#2 Ohio State1098,202notes
January 1, 1959#16 California12#2 Iowa3898,297notes
January 1, 1960#8 Washington44#6 Wisconsin8100,809notes
January 2, 1961#6 Washington17#1 Minnesota797,314notes
January 1, 1962#16 UCLA3#6 Minnesota2198,214notes
January 1, 1963#1 USC42#2 Wisconsin3798,698notes
January 1, 1964Washington7#3 Illinois1796,957notes
January 1, 1965#8 Oregon State7#4 Michigan34100,423notes
January 1, 1966#5 UCLA14#1 Michigan State12100,087notes
January 2, 1967USC13#7 Purdue14100,807notes
January 1, 1968#1 USC14#4 Indiana3102,946notes
January 1, 1969#2 USC16#1 Ohio State27102,063notes
January 1, 1970#5 USC10#7 Michigan3103,878notes
January 1, 1971#12 Stanford27#2 Ohio State17103,839notes
January 1, 1972#16 Stanford13#4 Michigan12103,154notes
January 1, 1973#1 USC42#3 Ohio State17106,869notes
January 1, 1974#7 USC21#4 Ohio State42105,267notes
January 1, 1975#5 USC18#3 Ohio State17106,721notes
January 1, 1976#11 UCLA23#1 Ohio State10105,464notes
January 1, 1977#3 USC14#2 Michigan6106,182notes
January 2, 1978#13 Washington27#4 Michigan20105,312notes
January 1, 1979#3 USC17#5 Michigan10105,629notes
January 1, 1980#3 USC17#1 Ohio State16105,526notes
January 1, 1981#16 Washington6#5 Michigan23104,863notes
January 1, 1982#12 Washington28#13 Iowa0105,611notes
January 1, 1983#5 UCLA24#19 Michigan14104,991notes
January 2, 1984UCLA45#4 Illinois9103,217notes
January 1, 1985#18 USC20#6 Ohio State17102,594notes
January 1, 1986#13 UCLA45#4 Iowa28103,292notes
January 1, 1987#7 Arizona State22#4 Michigan15103,168notes
January 1, 1988#16 USC17#8 Michigan State20103,847notes
January 2, 1989#5 USC14#11 Michigan22101,688notes
January 1, 1990#12 USC17#3 Michigan10103,450notes
January 1, 1991#8 Washington46#17 Iowa34101,273notes
January 1, 1992#2 Washington34#4 Michigan14103,566notes
January 1, 1993#9 Washington31#7 Michigan3894,236notes
January 1, 1994#14 UCLA16#9 Wisconsin21101,237notes
January 2, 1995#12 Oregon20#2 Penn State38102,247notes
January 1, 1996#17 USC41#3 Northwestern32100,102notes
January 1, 1997#2 Arizona State17#4 Ohio State20100,635notes
January 1, 1998#8 Washington State16#1 Michigan21101,219notes
January 1, 1999#6 UCLA31#9 Wisconsin3893,872notes
January 1, 2000#22 Stanford9#4 Wisconsin1793,731notes
January 1, 2001#4 Washington34#14 Purdue2494,392notes
January 3, 2002[lower-alpha 3]#4 Nebraska14#1 Miami (FL)3793,781notes
January 1, 2003#7 Washington State14#8 Oklahoma3486,848notes
January 1, 2004#1 USC28#4 Michigan1493,849notes
January 1, 2005#6 Texas38#13 Michigan3793,468notes
January 4, 2006[lower-alpha 3]#1 USC38#2 Texas4193,986notes
January 1, 2007#8 USC32#3 Michigan1893,852notes
January 1, 2008#6 USC49#13 Illinois1793,923notes
January 1, 2009#5 USC38#6 Penn State2493,293notes
January 1, 2010#7 Oregon17#8 Ohio State2693,963notes
January 1, 2011#3 TCU21#4 Wisconsin1994,118notes
January 2, 2012#6 Oregon45#9 Wisconsin3891,245notes
January 1, 2013#8 Stanford20Wisconsin1493,359notes
January 1, 2014#5 Stanford20#4 Michigan State2495,173notes
January 1, 2015[lower-alpha 4]#3 Oregon59#2 Florida State2091,322notes
January 1, 2016#5 Stanford45#6 Iowa1694,268notes
January 2, 2017#9 USC52#5 Penn State4995,128notes
January 1, 2018[lower-alpha 4]#2 Oklahoma48#3 Georgia5492,844notes
  1. 1 2 3 The 1942 game was played in Duke Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, due to a restriction on crowds allowed on the West Coast after Pearl Harbor
  2. 1 2 During World War I, military teams played
  3. 1 2 Denotes BCS National Championship Game
  4. 1 2 Denotes College Football Playoff semifinal game

Frequent participants

USC has played the most times in the Rose Bowl, with 34 appearances, followed by Michigan (20), Stanford (15), Ohio State and Washington (14 each), and UCLA (12). Alabama, 4–1–1 in Rose Bowls, has made the most appearances of any team outside the Pac-12 and Big Ten conferences. Pittsburgh appeared four times in a nine-year period, from 1927 to 1936. Among Pac-8/10/12 and Big Ten schools, the record for longest drought since a team's last Rose Bowl appearance is held by California (1959), followed by Minnesota (1962), Oregon State (1965), and Indiana (1968).

USC has also won the most Rose Bowls (25), followed by Michigan (8); Washington, Ohio State, and Stanford (7 each); and UCLA (5). Michigan has lost the most (12), followed by USC (9), Ohio State, UCLA and Stanford (7 each), Washington and Wisconsin (6 each). Among Pac-8/10/12 and Big Ten schools who have played in at least one Rose Bowl, the record for the longest period since a win is held jointly by Indiana and Nebraska, who have never won, followed by Washington State (1916), Cal (1939), Oregon State (1942), Northwestern (1949), and Iowa (1959). As of 2016, head coaches Howard Jones (5–0) and John Robinson (4–0) lead the list of undefeated Rose Bowl records.[44]

The most frequent Rose Bowl matchup is USC–Michigan, occurring for the eighth time in 2007, with USC holding a 6–2 advantage (including rare meetings outside the Rose Bowl, USC leads this series 6–4). The next most frequent matchup is USC–Ohio State, occurring for the seventh time in 1985, with USC holding a 4–3 advantage.

From the 1946 season (1947 Rose Bowl), when the Big Ten-Rose Bowl agreement began, through the 1971 season (1972 Rose Bowl), the Big Ten did not permit the same team to represent that Conference in the Rose Bowl in consecutive years. There was one exception: Minnesota played in the 1961 Rose Bowl and 1962 Rose Bowl games, as previously explained in the section on the conference agreements after the collapse of the Pacific Coast Conference.

Also of note, during this era Big Ten and Pac-8 teams could play only in the Rose Bowl; this restriction was not lifted until the 1975 season.

Archie Griffin of Ohio State and Brian Cushing of USC are the only players to ever start in four Rose Bowl games. Legendary coach Woody Hayes led Ohio State to the Rose Bowl from 1973 to 1976, while USC head coach Pete Carroll led the Trojans to the Rose Bowl from 2006 to 2009.

Current members of the Pac-12 or the Big Ten to have not appeared in the Rose Bowl are Arizona (who joined the then-Pac-10 in 1978), Colorado and Utah (who both joined the Pac-12 in 2011), and Maryland and Rutgers (who both joined the Big Ten in 2014), though California appeared in the Rose Bowl only as a member of a predecessor league to the Pac-12.[45] Similar to Cal, Nebraska played in the 1941 and 2002 games, but was not a member of the Big Ten Conference at these times. Idaho and Montana, who were members of the Pacific Coast Conference from 1922 until 1958 and 1950 respectively, never finished near the top in the PCC football standings. Former Big Ten member Chicago withdrew from the league prior to the bowl arrangement being set.

USC has played the most Big Ten schools in the Rose Bowl. As of 2016, the only opponents remaining for the Trojans are Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, and the two newest Big Ten schools that have yet to appear in the Rose Bowl: Maryland and Rutgers. Michigan has played the most schools in the Pac-12 in the Rose Bowl. The remaining opponents for the Wolverines are Oregon and the three Pac-12 schools that have yet to appear in the Rose Bowl: Arizona, Utah, and Colorado.

The Rose Bowl was exclusively a Big Ten-Pac-10 affair for 52 years, from 1946 (1947 Rose Bowl) through 1997 (1998 Rose Bowl). While the Big Ten dominated the game in the late 1940s and 1950s, and the Pac-10 dominated during the 1970s and early 1980s, over the entire 52-year span, each conference won 26 games.

The BCS era covered sixteen games, starting with the 1999 (85th) Rose Bowl to the 2014 (100th) Rose Bowl. Of the eleven games featuring a Big Ten-Pac-12 matchup, the Pac-12 leads in wins, 7-4. However, the 2007 (93rd) Rose Bowl and 2008 (94th) Rose Bowl, each Big Ten losses to the Pac-12, actually featured the Big Ten runner-up, as conference champion Ohio State was selected to play each of those years in the BCS National Championship Game.

The 2002 and 2006 Rose Bowls represented the National Championship game. In 2002, there was neither a Big Ten or Pac-10 school, as Oregon was in the Fiesta Bowl while Illinois was in the Sugar Bowl. In 2006, top-ranked USC represented the Pac-10 in the National Championship Game in the Rose Bowl against second-ranked Texas from the Big 12 Conference. Third-ranked Penn State, the Big Ten Champion, played in the Orange Bowl while fourth-ranked Ohio State played in the Fiesta Bowl that year.

The other two non-Big Ten vs. Pac-10 matchups in the BCS era involved Big 12 Conference teams: Oklahoma in the 2003 (89th) Rose Bowl and Texas in the 2005 (91st) Rose Bowl.

The 2011 Rose Bowl Game marked the sole time during the BCS era that a school from a non-BCS conference played in the game (as Oregon, the Pacific-10 champion, was selected to play in the BCS National Championship Game). TCU, led by Quarterback Andy Dalton, beat Wisconsin 21–19.

Game arrangements

Beginning with the 1947 Rose Bowl, the Pacific Coast representative was the home team, and the Big Nine representative was the visitor. This arrangement would alternate each year. The stadium seating started with the Big Nine representatives in the end zone, but eventually was set with the Big Ten fans and team on the West (press box) side, and Pacific-10 fans and team on the East side. The home team wears their darkest home jerseys, and the visiting team wears the white visiting jerseys. There have been exceptions to the uniform arrangement: UCLA wore their home jerseys, light blue, in the 1962, 1966, and 1976 Rose Bowl games, with the Big Ten opponent also wearing their home uniforms.

From 1947 through 2001, the Big Ten team was the home team in odd-numbered years, and the Pac-10 team was the home team in even-numbered years. In 2003, Washington State was the home team, as a non-Big Ten or Pac-10 school (Oklahoma of the Big 12) was the opponent; the same applied in 2005, when Michigan played another Big 12 school, Texas.

Beginning with the 2002 Rose Bowl, Nebraska was home, with team and fans on the East sideline. From 2006 through 2013, the home team has been the team with the highest BCS season ending ranking. For the 2005 Rose Bowl, the Michigan team was on the East sideline; Texas was the visiting team and was on the West sideline. For the 2006 Rose Bowl, USC was the home team and Texas was the visiting team on the West sideline. Traditionally, the Big Ten (or its BCS replacement) is on the West side (press box) and the Pac-12 team is on the East side.

During the BCS era, the institution with the higher BCS ranking performed the national anthem, and performed first at halftime. With the exception of BCS championship years, the National Anthem was performed by the band. In BCS Championship years, a performer was invited to sing the Anthem, the last being LeAnn Rimes in 2006. The Rose Bowl does not have other performers during the halftime show besides the school marching bands. As part of the television contract, a portion of each band's halftime performance is shown on television. Each school and each conference are allocated television spots to advertise. For the 100th game on January 1, 2014, Merry Clayton, Lisa Fischer, Judith Hill and Darlene Love sang the national anthem. This was the first time in Rose Bowl history that the anthem was performed by singers rather than by a marching band.[46] Today, the institution with the higher ranking by the CFP selection committee performs the national anthem and performs first at halftime.

Appearances and win–loss records

^ The Pacific Coast Conference, predecessor to the Pac-12 Conference, had their first football season in 1916, so Washington State's appearance in 1916 for the 1915 season and Stanford's appearance in 1902 for the 1901 season do not count toward the conference's total.

* Penn State was not a member of the Big Ten at the time of their 1923 Rose Bowl appearance, so Penn State's appearance in 1923 for the 1922 season does not count toward the Big Ten's conference's total

† Nebraska was not a member of the Big Ten at the time of either of their appearances. Therefore, as of 2017, they have not represented the Big Ten in the Rose Bowl.

‡ The Southeastern Conference has one current member and two former members who made additional appearances in the Rose Bowl while those schools were not members of the SEC. Alabama made additional appearances in 1926, 1927, and 1931 before becoming a charter member of the SEC in 1932. Another SEC charter member, Georgia Tech, made an appearance in 1929, and left the SEC in 1964. Tulane, also a charter member, made an appearance in 1932, prior to the SEC's establishment in December of that year. Tulane left the SEC in 1966.

Rose Bowl Most Valuable Player Award

The most valuable player in the Rose Bowl game is given a crystal trophy that is the Rose Bowl Most Valuable Player Award.[47][48] The award was created in 1953 and awarded retroactively for players all the way back to the 1902 Rose Bowl. Occasionally, the award has been shared by two players. Beginning with the 2005 Rose Bowl Game, the Rose Bowl MVP Award has been given to both an offensive and defensive player.[49] Four players have been named the MVP of more than one Rose Bowl: Bob Schloredt, Washington (1960, 1961), Charles White, USC (1979, 1980), Ron Dayne, Wisconsin (1999, 2000), and Vince Young, Texas (2005, 2006).

Year played MVP Team Position
1902Neil SnowMichiganFB
1916William Henry DietzWashington StateFB
1917John BeckettOregonT
1918Hollis HuntingtonMare IslandFB
1919George HalasGreat LakesE
1920Edward CaseyHarvardHB
1921Harold MullerCaliforniaE
1922Russell SteinWashington & JeffersonT
1923Leo CallandUSCG
1924Ira McKeeNavyQB
1925Elmer LaydenNotre DameFB
Ernie NeversStanfordFB
1926Johnny Mack BrownAlabamaHB
George "Wildcat" WilsonWashingtonHB
1927Fred PickhardAlabamaT
1928Clifford "Biff" HoffmanStanfordFB
1929Benjamin LomCaliforniaHB
1930Russell SaundersUSCQB
1931John "Monk" CampbellAlabamaQB
1932Erny PinckertUSCHB
1933Homer GriffithUSCQB
1934Cliff MontgomeryColumbiaQB
1935Millard "Dixie" HowellAlabamaHB
1936James "Monk" MoscripStanfordE
Keith ToppingStanfordE
1937Bill DaddioPittsburghE
1938Victor BottariCaliforniaHB
1939Doyle NaveUSCQB
Al KruegerUSCE
1940Ambrose SchindlerUSCQB
1941Peter KmetovicStanfordHB
1942Donald DurdanOregon StateHB
1943Charles TrippiGeorgiaHB
1944Norman VerryUSCG
1945Jim HardyUSCQB
1946Harry GilmerAlabamaHB
1947Claude "Buddy" YoungIllinoisHB
Julius RykovichIllinoisHB
1948Bob ChappuisMichiganHB
1949Frank AschenbrennerNorthwesternHB
1950Fred "Curly" MorrisonOhio StateFB
1951Don DufekMichiganFB
1952William TateIllinoisHB
1953Rudy BukichUSCQB
1954Billy WellsMichigan StateHB
1955Dave LeggettOhio StateQB
1956Walter KowalczykMichigan StateHB
1957Kenneth PloenIowaQB
1958Jack CrabtreeOregonQB
1959Bob JeterIowaHB
1960Bob SchloredtWashingtonQB
George FlemingWashingtonHB
1961Bob SchloredtWashingtonQB
1962Sandy StephensMinnesotaQB
1963Pete BeathardUSCQB
Ron Vander KelenWisconsinQB
1964Jim GrabowskiIllinoisFB
1965Mel AnthonyMichiganFB
1966Bob StilesUCLADB
1967John CharlesPurdueDB
1968O.J. SimpsonUSCTB
1969Rex KernOhio StateQB
1970Bob ChandlerUSCFL
1971Jim PlunkettStanfordQB
1972Don BunceStanfordQB
1973Sam CunninghamUSCFB
1974Cornelius GreeneOhio StateQB
1975Pat HadenUSCQB
John McKay, Jr.USCSE
1976John SciarraUCLAQB
1977Vince EvansUSCQB
1978Warren MoonWashingtonQB
1979Charles WhiteUSCTB
Rick LeachMichiganQB
1980Charles WhiteUSCTB
1981Butch WoolfolkMichiganRB
1982Jacque RobinsonWashingtonRB
1983Don RogersUCLAFS
Tom RamseyUCLAQB
1984Rick NeuheiselUCLAQB
1985Tim GreenUSCQB
Jack Del RioUSCLB
1986Eric BallUCLATB
1987Jeff Van RaaphorstArizona StateQB
1988Percy SnowMichigan StateLB
1989Leroy HoardMichiganFB
1990Ricky ErvinsUSCTB
1991Mark BrunellWashingtonQB
1992Steve EmtmanWashingtonDT
Billy Joe HobertWashingtonQB
1993Tyrone WheatleyMichiganRB
1994Brent MossWisconsinRB
1995Danny O'NeilOregonQB
Ki-Jana CarterPenn StateRB
1996Keyshawn JohnsonUSCWR
1997Joe GermaineOhio StateQB
1998Brian GrieseMichiganQB
1999Ron DayneWisconsinRB
2000Ron DayneWisconsinRB
2001Marques TuiasosopoWashingtonQB
2002Ken DorseyMiamiQB
Andre JohnsonMiamiWR
2003Nate HyblOklahomaQB
2004Matt LeinartUSCQB
2005Vince YoungTexasQB
LaMarr WoodleyMichiganLB
2006Vince YoungTexasQB
Michael HuffTexasS
2007Dwayne JarrettUSCWR
Brian CushingUSCOLB
2008John David BootyUSCQB
Rey MaualugaUSCLB
2009Mark SanchezUSCQB
Kaluka MaiavaUSCLB
2010Terrelle PryorOhio StateQB
Kenny RoweOregonDE
2011Andy DaltonTCUQB
Tank CarderTCULB
2012Lavasier TuineiOregonWR
Kiko AlonsoOregonLB
2013Stepfan TaylorStanfordRB
Usua AmanamStanfordDB
2014Connor CookMichigan StateQB
Kyler ElsworthMichigan StateLB
2015Marcus MariotaOregonQB
Tony WashingtonOregonLB
2016Christian McCaffreyStanfordRB
Aziz ShittuStanfordDE
2017Sam DarnoldUSCQB
Stevie Tu’ikolovatuUSCDT
2018Sony MichelGeorgiaRB
Roquan SmithGeorgiaLB

Game records

Team Performance vs. opponent Year
Most points scored 59, Oregon vs. Florida State 2015
Most points scored (losing team) 49, Penn State 2017
Most points scored (both teams) 102, Georgia vs. Oklahoma 2018
Most points scored in a half 41 (second half), Oregon vs. Florida State 2015
Most points scored in a half (both teams) 56 (first half), Oregon vs. Wisconsin 2012
Fewest points allowed 0, Washington vs. Iowa (tied with 17 others) 1982
First downs 33, USC vs Penn State 2017
Rushing yards 503, Michigan vs. Stanford 1902
Passing yards 456, Oregon vs. Penn State 1995
Total yards 639, Oregon vs. Florida State 2015
Individual Performance, team vs. opponent Year
Total offense473, Sam Darnold, USC vs Penn State2017
Touchdowns5, Sam Darnold, USC vs Penn State2017
Rushing yards247, Charles White, USC vs. Ohio State (39 attempts, 1 TD)1980
Rushing TDs5, Neil Snow, Michigan vs. Stanford1902
Passing yards456, Danny O'Neil, Oregon vs. Penn State (41-61-2, 2 TD)1995
Tackles17, John Boyett, Oregon vs. Wisconsin (tied with 1 other)2012
Sacks3, Kenny Rowe, Oregon vs. Ohio State (tied with 3 others)2010
Interceptions3, Bill Paulman, Stanford vs. SMU (tied with 1 other)1936
Long playsPerformance, team vs. opponentYear
Touchdown run91, De'Anthony Thomas, Oregon vs. Wisconsin2012
Touchdown pass76, Rick Leach to Curt Stephenson, Michigan vs. Washington1978
Kickoff return103, Al Hoisch, UCLA vs. Illinois (TD)1947
Punt return86, Aramis Dandoy, USC vs. Ohio State (TD)1955
Interception return78, Elmer Layden, Notre Dame vs. Stanford (TD)1925
Fumble return58, Tony Washington, Oregon vs. Florida State (TD)2015
Punt73, Don Bracken, Michigan vs. Washington1981
Field goal55, Rodrigo Blankenship, Georgia vs. Oklahoma2018

Note: When there is a tie, the most recent one will be listed.

Top-ranked teams

Top No. 1 ranked teams at the end of the season that have played in the Rose Bowl games are listed below:

No. 1–ranked teams

  • 1954 Season/1955 Game: No. 1 Ohio State defeated No. 17 USC, 20–7
  • 1960 Season/1961 Game: No. 6 Washington defeated No. 1 Minnesota, 17–7
  • 1962 Season/1963 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 2 Wisconsin, 42–37
  • 1965 Season/1966 Game: No. 5 UCLA defeated No. 1 Michigan State, 14–12
  • 1968 Season/1969 Game: No. 1 Ohio State defeated No. 2 USC, 27–16
  • 1972 Season/1973 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 3 Ohio State, 42-17
  • 1975 Season/1976 Game: No. 11 UCLA defeated No. 1 Ohio State, 23-10
  • 1979 Season/1980 Game: No. 3 USC defeated No. 1 Ohio State, 17–16
  • 1997 Season/1998 Game: No. 1 Michigan defeated No. 8 Washington State, 21–16
  • 2001 Season/2002 BCS National Championship Game: No. 1 Miami defeated No. 4 Nebraska, 37–14
  • 2003 Season/2004 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 4 Michigan, 28–14
  • 2005 Season/2006 BCS National Championship Game: No. 2 Texas defeated No. 1 USC, 41–38

No. 1 vs. No. 2 teams

  • 1962 Season/1963 Game: No. 1 USC defeated No. 2 Wisconsin, 42–37.
  • 1968 Season/1969 Game: No. 1 Ohio State defeated No. 2 USC, 27–16. Ohio State was voted national champion.
  • 2005 Season/2006 BCS National Championship Game: No. 2 Texas defeated No. 1 USC, 41–38. Texas was voted national champion.

Twice in a season

Five times in Rose Bowl Game history, the two participants had played during the regular season. In three of those instances, the same team won both the regular season game and the Rose Bowl Game. UCLA won three of those five Rose Bowl games, including both instances in which a different team lost the regular season game but won the Rose Bowl Game.

Rose Bowl Hall of Fame

Inductees (by year):

All-Century Class

The Rose Bowl Game All-Century Class was announced by Rose Bowl Hall of Fame member Keith Jackson, on Sunday, December 8, 2013 at 4:00 p.m. at Tournament House.

They are:

In addition to being named as All-Century representatives for their respective decades, John McKay and Archie Griffin were named the 100th Rose Bowl Game All-Century Coach and Player respectively. Griffin and McKay (represented by his son John McKay, Jr.) will participate in the 2014 Rose Parade.

The finalists:

  • 1900–1919: Paddy Driscoll (Great Lakes Navy, 1919), Neil Snow (Michigan, 1902) and George Halas (Great Lakes Navy, 1919)
  • 1920–1929: Ernie Nevers (Stanford, 1925), Elmer Layden (Notre Dame, 1925) and Johnny Mack Brown (Alabama, 1926)
  • 1930–1939: Millard "Dixie" Howell (Alabama, 1935), Don Hutson (Alabama, 1935) and Howard Jones (USC, 1930, 1932–33, 1939–40)
  • 1940–1949: Bob Chappuis (Michigan, 1948), Harry Gilmer (Alabama, 1946) and Charley Trippi (Georgia, 1943)
  • 1950–1959: Alan Ameche (Wisconsin, 1953), Bob Jeter (Iowa, 1959) and Woody Hayes (Ohio State, 1954, 1957, 1968, 1970, 1972–1975)
  • 1960–1969: Ron Vander Kelen (Wisconsin, 1963), O.J. Simpson (USC, 1968–69) and John McKay (USC, 1963, 1967–70, 1973–1975)
  • 1970–1979: Jim Plunkett (Stanford, 1971), Charles White (USC, 1979–1980) and Archie Griffin (Ohio State, 1973–1976)
  • 1980–1989: Don James (Washington, 1978, 1981–82, 1991–93), John Robinson (USC, 1977, 1979–80, 1996) and Bo Schembechler (Michigan, 1970, 1972, 1977–79, 1981, 1983, 1987, 1989–90)
  • 1990–1999: Barry Alvarez (Wisconsin, 1994, 1999, 2000 and 2013), Keyshawn Johnson (USC, 1996) and Ron Dayne (Wisconsin, 1999 and 2000)
  • 2000–2009: Matt Leinart (USC, 2004 and 2006), Vince Young (Texas, 2005–06) and Brian Cushing (USC, 2006–09), John David Booty (USC 2006–07)
  • 2010–2012: Terrelle Pryor (Ohio State, 2010), Tank Carder (TCU, 2011) and Montee Ball (Wisconsin, 2011–13)

Nominated by The Football Writers Association of America.[53]

Player and coach

Nine former players have come back to coach a team in the game (played and coached, as listed by the Tournament of Roses Association):[54]

  • Bret Bielema: Iowa (1991); Wisconsin (2011, 2012)
  • Terry Donahue: UCLA (1966); UCLA (1983, 1984, 1986, 1994)
  • Bump Elliott: Michigan (1948); Michigan (1965)
  • Pete Elliott: Michigan (1948); California (1959); Illinois (1964)
  • Jess Hill: USC (1930); USC (1953, 1955)
  • Shy Huntington: Oregon (1917); Oregon (1920)
  • Rick Neuheisel: UCLA (1983, 1984 – MVP); Washington (2001)
  • John Robinson: Oregon (1958); USC (1977, 1979, 1980, 1996)
  • Chuck Taylor: Stanford (1941); Stanford (1952)

Coaches with two teams

  • Hugo Bezdek: Oregon, 1917; Mare Island, 1918; Penn State, 1923 (three teams)
  • John Cooper: Arizona State, 1987; Ohio State, 1997 (Only coach to win the Rose Bowl Game with both a Big Ten and Pac-10 team)
  • Bill "Lone Star" Dietz: Washington State, 1916; Mare Island, 1919
  • Pete Elliott: California, 1959; Illinois, 1964
  • Robert Folwell: Pennsylvania, 1917; Navy 1924
  • Tommy Prothro: Oregon State, 1965; UCLA 1966
  • Wallace Wade: Alabama, 1926, 1927, 1931; Duke 1939, 1942


  • Lawry's Beef Bowl – December 27, 28, 2018
  • Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony, December 30, 2018
  • Rose Bowl Bash, December 30-31, 2018
  • Rose Bowl Game Public Tailgate, January 1, 2019


  • January 1, 1918 – Hugo Bezdek was the first college football coach to lead two separate schools (Oregon, 1917 and Mare Island, 1918) to victories; He also coached Penn State in a loss in the 1923 Rose Bowl
  • January 2, 1922 – First bowl game not played on New Year's Day
  • January 3, 2002 – First time hosting the BCS National Championship where Miami defeated Nebraska, 37-14, and the Rose Parade and the Rose Bowl Game were held on separate days


  • America's New Year Celebration. The Rose Parade & Rose Bowl Game. Albion Publishing Group, Santa Barbara, California. 1999.
  • Samuelsen, Rube. The Rose Bowl Game. Doubleday Company and Inc. 1951.
  • Big Ten Conference football media guide. (PDF copy available at
  • Pacific-10 Conference football media guide. (PDF copy available at
  • Malcolm, Moran, and Keith Jackson (foreword). The Rose Bowl: 100th: The History of the Granddaddy of Them All. Whitman Publishing, LLC, 06/01/2013. ISBN 9780794837938.

See also


  1. Myerberg, Paul (May 13, 2014). "Northwestern Mutual to sponsor Rose Bowl". USA Today. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
  2. Media Guide, Tournament of Roses Association, December 2015
  3. NCAA Division 1 football records book. NCAA, 2007 Edition, pages 296–302 Major Bowl Game Attendance
  4. Cohen, Rich (2013). Monsters: The 1985 Chicago Bears and the Wild Heart of Football. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-374-29868-5.
  5. Mary L. Grady, Mercer Island High School Marching Band to march in 2012 Tournament of Roses Parade Archived 2010-10-04 at the Wayback Machine., Mercer Island Reporter, September 24, 2010
  6. Bowl Games: College Football's Greatest Tradition, by Robert Ours, 2004, pgs. 3-4
  7. "Huge Flagstaff For Pasadena. Enormous Steel Pole 122 and ½ Feet Long Will Stand in Rose Bowl". Los Angeles Times, December 10, 1922. Monday afternoon at 2 o'clock the new flagstaff of the Tournament of Roses stadium, now called the Rose Bowl, will be put in place with suitable ceremony under auspices of the Pasadena Lions Club, donor of the pole.
  8. "Michigan Stadium Story". Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  9. University of Michigan Official Athletics site Archived 2008-01-20 at the Wayback Machine. – Michigan Stadium
  10. Tournament of Roses Parade FAQs Archived 2007-08-14 at the Wayback Machine.. In 2006, attendance was 93,986.
  11. Historic information on the Rose Bowl Archived 2009-09-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. Lotchin, Roger W., ed. (2000). The Way We Really Were: The Golden State in the Second Great War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 14. ISBN 0-252-02505-9.
  13. "ROSE BOWL GAME CALLED OFF", San Antonio Light, December 14, 1941, pB-1
  14. "Forbidding Crowds". Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941
  15. Zimmerman, Paul "Duke Likely to Play Beavers in Durham. Blue Devils Invite Foes Rose Bowl, Shrine Grid Games Halted as Other Sports Events in Balance". Los Angeles Times, December 15, 1941.
  16. "Rose Bowl Timeline". Pasadena Tournament of Roses. Archived from the original on 2008-05-22. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
  17. Zimmerman, Paul "Scene of Rose Bowl Shifted to Durham, N.C." Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941. Perpetuation of the annual Rose Bowl intersectional football classic was assured yesterday when the Tournament of Roses officials and Oregon State College accepted the hospitality of Duke University.
  18. University of Georgia Living History – Leo Costa Interview Archived 2017-09-29 at the Wayback Machine.. University of Georgia, June 11, 2008
  19. "Rose Bowl Contest Thrills Crowd of 90,000 Rooters Rabid. During Game Servicemen Plentiful in Massive Throng at Colorful Display". Los Angeles Times, Pg A13. January 2, 1943.
  20. Gene Sherman "Rose Parade Goes to War. Spirit of Bond Drive Insures Return of Great Floral Pageant". Los Angeles Times, January 2, 1943. Quote:Once again yesterday war's ugly shadow stretched long across Colorado St. and there was no Tournament of Roses on New Year's Day in Pasadena.
  21. R.I.P. Time Magazine, December 6, 1943
  22. Michael Oriard King Football: Sport and Spectacle in the Golden Age of Radio & Newsreels, Movies & Magazines, The Weekly & The Daily Press. Published 2004 UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-5545-6 Chapter 3: Who cares about reform?
  23. football, gridiron. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Football in the United States – The racial transformation of American football. Encyclopædia Britannica
  24. Big Ten Football media guide (2007 Edition) page 5
  25. "Rose Bowl History Big Ten Tamed the West from 1948–59". Seattle Post-Intelligencer, December 30, 1997
  26. Rose Bowl sets record – Michael Starr, New York Post, 6 January 2006
  27. "BCS changes open Rose Bowl bids to outsiders". 27 July 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  28. Rittenberg, Adam. "New Year's Six bowl matchups announced". ESPN. ESPN. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  29. Sherman, Mitch. "Rose Bowl makes right call choosing Iowa over Ohio State". ESPN. ESPN. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  30. rEvolution (15 May 2007). "2004 Rose Bowl - World's Largest American Flag". Retrieved 1 January 2018 via YouTube.
  31. RICHARD SANDOMIR – TV SPORTS; A Private Line for the Rose Bowl. New York Times, January 1, 1999
  32. Citi out as Rose Bowl sponsor,, June 22, 2010
  33. ,'', October 19, 2010
  34. "Northwestern Mutual lands Rose Bowl deal". L.A. Biz.
  35. Gruver, 2002 pg. 48
  36. "ABC-TV to smell the Roses". Idahonian. Moscow. Associated Press. July 1, 1988. p. 1B.
  37. Disney makes $125 million BCS bid. Variety, November 12, 2008
  38. Reid Cherner & Tom Weir, "Rose Bowl headed to ESPN" Archived 2009-06-15 at the Wayback Machine., USA today, June 12, 2009
  39. "BCS National Championship and Bowl Games on ESPN Deportes". ESPN. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  41. Sam Farmer, ESPN agrees to pay $80 million a year to broadcast Rose Bowl, Los Angeles Times, July 16, 2012
  42. Moran, Malcolm (1989-08-27). "COLLEGE FOOTBALL '89; Defining the 80's? No Easy Task". The New York Times.
  43. Rittenberg, Adam (December 26, 2012). "Alvarez savors return to Rose Bowl". ESPN. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
  44. "List of Rose Bowl Games from official website". Archived from the original on 2007-10-20.
  45. Celebrated Singers Merry Clayton, Lisa Fischer, Judith Hill and Darlene Love to Sing National Anthem at Historic 100th Rose Bowl Game, Tournament of Roses Association, December 8, 2013
  46. "Rose Bowl Most Valuable Player Award (MVP)". Los Angeles Almanac. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  47. "Rose Bowl Champions, MVPs". Los Angeles Times. January 4, 2002. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  48. 2008 Rose Bowl Program Archived 2008-03-06 at the Wayback Machine., 2008 Rose Bowl. Accessed 26 January 2008.
  49. Knute Rockne, Dick Vermeil and Ki-Jana Carter to be Inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame, Tournament of Roses Association, August 26, 2014
  50. "Mark Brunell, Fritz Pollard, Tyrone Wheatley and Jim Muldoon to be Inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame presented by Northwestern Mutual". 24 September 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  51. Bobby Bell, Ricky Ervins, Tommy Prothro, and journalist Art Spander to be Inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame Class of 2016, Tournament of Roses, August 24, 2016
  52. First Group of Finalists Unveiled for Rose Bowl Game All-Century Class, Tournament of Roses Association, September 22, 2013
  53. 2012 Rose Bowl Game presented by Vizio Historical Media Guide, Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association, December 2011


  • Gruver, Edward (2002), Nitschke. Lanham:Taylor Trade Publishing. ISBN 1-58979-127-4

Coordinates: 34°09′40″N 118°10′05″W / 34.161°N 118.168°W / 34.161; -118.168

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