Robert F. Wagner Jr.
|Robert F. Wagner Jr.|
Wagner greets the Little Rock Nine (1958)
|102nd Mayor of New York City|
January 1, 1954 – December 31, 1965
|Preceded by||Vincent R. Impellitteri|
|Succeeded by||John V. Lindsay|
|United States Ambassador to Spain|
June 24, 1968 – March 7, 1969
Lyndon B. Johnson|
|Preceded by||Frank E. McKinney|
|Succeeded by||Robert C. Hill|
|17th Borough President of Manhattan|
January 1, 1950 – December 31, 1953
|Preceded by||Hugo Rogers|
|Succeeded by||Hulan Jack|
|Member of the New York State Assembly|
from the New York County, 16th district
January 1, 1938 – January 13, 1942
|Preceded by||William Schwartz|
|Succeeded by||John P. Morrissey|
Robert Ferdinand Wagner II|
April 20, 1910
New York City, New York, U.S.
February 12, 1991 80) (aged|
New York City, New York, U.S.
Susan Edwards |
(m. 1942-64; her death)
(m. 1965; div. 1971)
(m. 1975-91; his death)
|Children||Robert Ferdinand Wagner III|
|Father||Robert Ferdinand Wagner I|
Robert Ferdinand Wagner II (April 20, 1910 – February 12, 1991), usually known as Robert F. Wagner Jr. served three terms as the mayor of New York City, from 1954 through 1965. When running for his third term, he broke with the Tammany Hall leadership, ending the reign of clubhouse bosses in city politics.
Life and early career
Wagner was born in the Manhattan borough of New York City, the son of Margaret Marie (McTague) and German-born United States Senator Robert Ferdinand Wagner I. He attended Taft School and graduated from Yale University in 1933, where he was on the business staff of campus humor magazine The Yale Record and became a member of Scroll and Key (as was John Lindsay, his successor as mayor). He attended Harvard Business School and the Graduate School of International Studies in Geneva. He graduated from Yale Law School in 1937. In 1942, he was the Exalted Ruler of New York Lodge No. 1 of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. A residential building is named after him on the Stony Brook University campus.
Wagner was a member of the New York State Assembly (New York Co., 16th D.) in 1938, 1939–40 and 1941–42. He resigned his seat on January 13, 1942, and joined the Army Air Corps to fight in World War II. After the war he served as City Tax Commissioner, Commissioner of Housing and Buildings, and Chairman of the City Planning Commission. He was Borough President of Manhattan from 1950 to 1953. He also served as delegate to numerous Democratic conventions, and was the Democratic nominee for the U.S. Senate in 1956.
His nomination and election as New York City mayor in 1953 caused a rift in the Democratic Party, and instigated a long-standing feud between Eleanor Roosevelt and Carmine DeSapio, Boss of Tammany Hall. Mrs. Roosevelt was a Wagner supporter, and DeSapio offered only reluctant support to Wagner until 1961, when Wagner ran for a third term on an anti-Tammany platform, which eventually helped end DeSapio's leadership.
During Wagner's tenure as New York City's mayor, he built public housing and schools, created the City University of New York system, established the right of collective bargaining for city employees, and barred housing discrimination based on race, creed or color. He was the first mayor to hire significant numbers of people of color in city government. His administration also saw the development of the Lincoln Center and brought Shakespeare to Central Park. In the fall of 1957 after the Dodgers and Giants left New York City he appointed a commission to determine whether New York City could host another National League baseball team, eventually leading to the Mets franchise being awarded to New York City.
During his years in office, the city experienced the visit of a number of notables from around the world. In January, 1957, President Eisenhower invited King Saud to the United States to discuss strategies for resolving the Suez crisis. Wagner refused Eisenhower's request of a ticker tape parade for the King and even went so far as to refuse to formally greet him, stating that the Moslem ruler was anti-Jewish and anti-Catholic, all of which was "a crude appeal to the prejudices of the hyphenated voters." He did greet Queen Elizabeth II later in 1957.
He was mayor in 1957 when the New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers left New York City for California, during the 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike, its 300th anniversary in 1964, Catherine Genovese's murder, the Harlem Riot of 1964, the Beatles first visit amid mid-decade's British invasion and Beatlemania, Malcolm X's assassination, a 24-day New York Times strike in 1965 and Pope Paul VI's first visit of any pontiff to the U.S. in 1965. Some believe, perhaps erroneously, that the long term policies of Mayor Wagner pushed City government spending up - leading to the near bankruptcy of New York City in the 1970s.
In 1956, he ran on the Democratic and Liberal tickets for U.S. Senator from New York, but was defeated by Republican Jacob K. Javits. Like his father, Wagner was aligned with Tammany Hall for much of his career. However, when he sought a third term in 1961 Wagner broke with Carmine DeSapio and won the Democratic primary anyway, despite a challenge from Tammany's candidate Arthur Levitt Sr. A Democratic Mayor not aligned with Tammany was a new development and marked a milestone in the decline of traditional clubhouse or machine politics in New York City.
Wagner was mayor at the time of the controversial demolition of the original Penn Station, which began on October 28, 1963. In 1965, he signed the law that created the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission.
In February 1962, Wagner quit the New York Athletic Club because it barred blacks and Jews from becoming members.
By the early 1960s, a campaign to rid New York City of gay bars was in full effect by order of Mayor Wagner, who was concerned about the image of the city in preparation for the 1964 World's Fair. The city revoked the liquor licenses of the bars, and undercover police officers worked to entrap as many homosexual men as possible.
In 1965, Wagner decided not to run for a fourth term as mayor. Four years later, however, he ran for mayor again, but lost the Democratic primary. In 1973, he talked with the city's five Republican county chairmen about running for Mayor as a Republican, but these negotiations collapsed.
After deciding not to run for a fourth term in 1965, Wagner served as ambassador to Spain from 1968 to 1969. In that year, he decided to run for a fourth term but was soundly beaten by Mario Procaccino in the Democratic primary. He also made a brief run four years later, but withdrew before the primary took place. In 1978 he was appointed by Jimmy Carter to be his representative to the Vatican, where the College of Cardinals had recently elected John Paul II.
Wagner was a Roman Catholic.
Wagner's first wife was Susan Edwards, by whom he had two sons, Robert Ferdinand Wagner III and Duncan. Susan Wagner died of lung cancer in 1964.
He married Barbara Cavanagh in 1965. They divorced in 1971.
Wagner married Phyllis Fraser, widow of Bennett Cerf, in 1975. They lived together until his death in 1991. Her five-floor townhouse at 132 East 62nd Street, designed by Denning & Fourcade, "was so magnetic that the statesman moved in."
Death and legacy
He died in Manhattan of heart failure in 1991, aged 80. He was being treated for bladder cancer. His funeral mass was offered by Cardinal William Wakefield Baum at St. Patrick's Cathedral, and he was buried at Calvary Cemetery in Maspeth, Queens. "Mr. Wagner was buried beside the graves of his father, United States Senator Robert F. Wagner, and mother, Margaret, and first wife, Susan Edwards Wagner, and not far from the grave of New York's Governor Al Smith."
The Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University is named in his honor, as is the Robert F. Wagner Jr. Park in Battery Park City and the Robert F. Wagner Jr. Secondary School for Arts and Technology in Long Island City.
- Yale Banner & Pot Pourri. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1932. p. 182.
- Bailey, Thomas A (1980). A Diplomatic History of the American People, Prentice-Hall, Inc. ISBN 0-13-214726-2, pp. 5.
- Hunt, Richard P. (February 10, 1962). "Mayor Quits Club Over Bias Charge; He Notes Allegations That the New York A.C. Bars Negroes and Jews Accused by 2 Groups Wagner Quits New York A.C. After Hearing Charge of Bias Rules on Entry Attorney General Quit". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- Carter, David (2004). Stonewall: The Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution, St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-34269-1, pp. 29–37.
- Clarity, James F. (February 13, 1981). "Robert Wagner, 80, Pivotal New York Mayor, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
Robert Ferdinand Wagner, who oversaw a vivid transformation of the city's politics and even its personality in three terms as Mayor, died early yesterday at his home in Manhattan. He was 80 years old. The police and emergency medical technicians were summoned at 3:30 am to his town house on East 62d Street, where the ailing former Mayor was pronounced dead of heart failure. He had been suffering from bladder cancer.
- Max Abelson (February 12, 2007). "Wendy's Warren". The New York Observer. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
- McFadden, Robert D. (February 17, 1991). "Mourners Recall Wagner as Man Of Subtle Grace". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- Flanagan, Richard M. Robert Wagner and the Rise of New York City's Plebiscitary Mayoralty: The Tamer of the Tammany Tiger (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)
- Morris, Charles R. The cost of good intentions: New York City and the liberal experiment, 1960–1975 (1981).
- Sayre, Wallace S. and Herbert Kaufman, Governing New York City: Politics in the Metropolis (1965) 782pp
- Taylor, Clarence. "Robert Wagner, Milton Galamison and the Challenge to New York City Liberalism." Afro-Americans in New York Life and History (2007) 31#2 pp: 121.
- Mayor Wagner's biography on the web site of New York City
- 1973 audio interview with Robert F. Wagner Jr. by Don Swaim
- La Guardia and Wagner Archives/Wagner Collection
- Robert Ferdinand Wagner, Jr at Find a Grave
|New York Assembly|
| New York State Assembly, New York County 16th District
John P. Morrissey
| Borough President of Manhattan
Hulan E. Jack
Vincent R. Impellitteri
| Mayor of New York City
John V. Lindsay
|Party political offices|
Herbert H. Lehman
| Democratic Nominee for U.S. Senate from New York (Class 3)
James B. Donovan
Frank E. McKinney
| U.S. Ambassador to Spain
Robert C. Hill