Retroflex nasal

Retroflex nasal
ɳ
IPA number 117
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɳ
Unicode (hex) U+0273
X-SAMPA n`
Kirshenbaum n.
Braille
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The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɳ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is n`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of an en (the letter used for the corresponding alveolar consonant). It is similar to ɲ, the letter for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the left stem, and to ŋ, the letter for the velar nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem.

Features

Features of the retroflex nasal:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Because the consonant is also nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.

Occurrence

LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Enindhilyagwayingarna[jiŋaɳa]'snake'
Faroeseørn[œɻɳ]'eagle'
Hindiगणेश[ɡəɳeʃ]'Ganesha'See Hindi phonology
Kannadaಅಣೆ[ʌɳe]'dam'
KhantyEastern dialectsеңә[eɳə]'large'
Some northern dialects
Malayalam[1]അണ[aɳə]'jaw'
Marathiबा[baːɳə]'arrow'See Marathi phonology
MarshalleseŅadikdik[ɳˠɑrʲiɯɡɯirʲiɯk]'Knox Atoll'
Norwegiangarn [ɡɑːɳ] 'yarn'See Norwegian phonology
Oriyaବଣି[bɔɳi]'old'
Pashtoاتڼ/Ata [at̪aɳ] 'Attan'
Punjabiਪੁਰਾਣਾ / پُراڻا[pʊraːɳaː]'old'
Swedish[2]garn [ɡɑːɳ] 'yarn'See Swedish phonology
Tamil[3]அணல்[aɳal]'neck'See Tamil phonology
Teluguఒణ్ఢు[oɳɖu]'cook'
Vietnamese[4]bạn trả[ɓaɳ˧ˀ˨ʔ ʈa˧˩˧]'you pay'Allophone of /n/ before /ʈ/. See Vietnamese phonology

See also

Notes

References

  • Eliasson, Stig (1986), "Sandhi in Peninsular Scandinavian", in Anderson, Henning, Sandhi Phenomena in the Languages of Europe, Berlin: de Gruyter, pp. 271–300 
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232 
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