Retinoic acid receptor

retinoic acid receptor alpha
Symbol RARA
Entrez 5914
HUGO 9864
OMIM 180240
RefSeq NM_000964
UniProt P10276
Other data
Locus Chr. 17 q21.1
retinoic acid receptor beta
Symbol RARB
Entrez 5915
HUGO 9865
OMIM 180220
RefSeq NM_000965
UniProt P10826
Other data
Locus Chr. 3 p24
retinoic acid receptor gamma
Symbol RARG
Entrez 5916
HUGO 9866
OMIM 180190
RefSeq NM_000966
UniProt P13631
Other data
Locus Chr. 12 q13

The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is a type of nuclear receptor which can also act as a transcription factor[1] that is activated by both all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid.[2] There are three retinoic acid receptors (RAR), RAR-alpha, RAR-beta, and RAR-gamma, encoded by the RARA, RARB, RARG genes, respectively. Each receptor isoform has ten splice variants: four for alpha, four for beta, and two for gamma.

As with other type II nuclear receptors, RAR heterodimerizes with RXR and in the absence of ligand, the RAR/RXR dimer binds to hormone response elements known as retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) complexed with corepressor protein. Binding of agonist ligands to RAR results in dissociation of corepressor and recruitment of coactivator protein that, in turn, promotes transcription of the downstream target gene into mRNA and eventually protein.

See also


  1. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans RM, Lazar MA, Leid M, De Lera AR, Lotan R, Mangelsdorf DJ, Gronemeyer H (2006). "International Union of Pharmacology. LX. Retinoic acid receptors". Pharmacol Rev. 58 (4): 712–25. doi:10.1124/pr.58.4.4. PMID 17132850.
  2. Allenby G, Bocquel MT, Saunders M, Kazmer S, Speck J, Rosenberger M, Lovey A, Kastner P, Grippo JF, Chambon P, Levin AA (1993). "Retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors: interactions with endogenous retinoic acids". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 90 (1): 30–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.1.30. PMC 45593. PMID 8380496.

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