Resurrection of Jesus
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The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".
According to the New Testament, after the Romans crucified Jesus, he was anointed and buried in a new tomb by Joseph of Arimathea but God raised him from the dead and he appeared to witnesses before he ascended into heaven, to sit at the right hand of Father.
Paul the Apostle declared that "Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures".(1 Corinthians 15:3–4) The chapter states that such a belief in both the death and resurrection of Christ is of central importance to the Christian faith: "And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain."(1 Cor 15:14) Paul further asserted "And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile and you are still in your sins. Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ have perished. If in Christ we have hope in this life only, we are of all people most to be pitied."(1 Cor 15:17–19)
Christians celebrate the resurrection of Jesus on Easter Sunday, two days after Good Friday, the day of his crucifixion. Easter's date corresponds roughly with Passover, the Jewish observance associated with the Exodus, that is fixed for the night of the full moon near the time of the spring equinox.
Belief in a bodily resurrection of the dead became well established within some segments of Jewish society in the centuries leading up to the time of Christ, as recorded by Daniel 12:2, from the mid-2nd century BC: "Many of those sleeping in the dust shall awaken, some to everlasting life, and some to everlasting peril". Josephus (1st century AD) gives the following outline: The Pharisees believed in resurrection of the dead, and the Sadducees did not. The Sadducees, politically powerful religious leaders, rejected the afterlife, angels, and demons as well as the Pharisees' oral law. The Pharisees, whose views became Rabbinic Judaism, eventually won (or at least survived) this debate. The promise of a future resurrection appears in the Torah as well as in certain Jewish works, such as the Life of Adam and Eve, c 100 BC, and the Pharisaic book 2 Maccabees, c 124 BC.
The resurrection is mentioned in several locations in the Bible. There are several places in the Four Gospels in which Jesus foretells his coming death and resurrection, which he states is the plan of God the Father. Christians view the resurrection of Jesus as part of the plan of salvation and redemption by atonement for man's sin.
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Paul and the first Jewish-Christian followers of Jesus
The letters of Paul, which began to appear around two decades after the death of Jesus, record widespread belief in the resurrection of Jesus among his earliest followers. Their many references include:
- Romans 1:3–4: "...concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh and designated the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord".
- 2 Timothy 2:8: "Remember Jesus Christ, raised from the dead... this is my gospel for which I am suffering even to the point of being chained like a criminal. But God’s word is not chained...".
- 1 Corinthians 15:3–7: "...that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures..."
Paul's proof of the resurrection is the appearances of the risen Lord to others and himself. In his First Epistle to the Corinthians he lists these appearances, first to the Apostle Peter, then to "the Twelve," then to five hundred at one time, then to James (generally believed to be the member of Jesus' family with that name), then to "all the Apostles," and finally to Paul himself. In contrast to the Gospels, Paul doesn't mention appearances to women such as Mary Magdalene, but does mention an appearance to a group of 500 which is not mentioned in other New Testament sources.
Just before sunrise on the day after the regular weekly Sabbath three women, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome, came to anoint Jesus' body, wondering how they would be able to roll the large rock away from the tomb; but they found the rock already rolled aside and a young man in white inside; he told them that Jesus had risen, and that they should tell Peter and the disciples that he will meet them in Galilee, "just as he told you". Then the women "fled from the tomb".[Mark 16]
Just before sunrise on the day after the regular weekly Sabbath two women, Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary", went to visit the tomb. An angel had come down from Heaven, accompanied by an earthquake, and rolled the rock aside from the tomb. The angel waited for them and told them not to be afraid, but to tell the disciples that Jesus had risen and will meet them in Galilee. The women were joyful and set out to tell the disciples the good news, then soon afterward Jesus appeared and told them not to be afraid, and told them that He had risen and that they should tell the disciples that they will see Him in Galilee. The disciples went to Galilee, where they then saw Jesus in the flesh.
The soldiers guarding the tomb were terrified by the angel, and informed the chief priests; the priests and elders bribed them to spread a lie that the disciples stole the body, "[a]nd this story has been widely circulated among the Jews to this very day".[Matthew 27:61–28:3]
Just after sunrise on the day after the Sabbath, "the women" came to anoint Jesus's body. They found the stone rolled away and the tomb empty. Suddenly two men in clothing glowing "like lightning" stood beside them and said, "[Jesus] is not here; he has risen". The women told the disciples, but the disciples did not believe them, except for Peter who ran to the tomb. Peter found the grave-clothes in the empty tomb and went away, wondering.
The same day Jesus appeared to two of his followers on the road to Emmaus. They failed to recognize him until he broke bread and gave thanks, and he then vanished. The two go at once to Jerusalem where they found the disciples describing Jesus' appearance to Peter. As they told their story Jesus appeared to them all. They were afraid, but he invited them to touch his body, then ate with them, and explained the prophecies which are fulfilled through him.[Luke 24]
(The Acts of the Apostles is presented as a continuation of the Gospel of Luke.)
Jesus appeared to the apostles for forty days, giving many proofs that he was alive, and instructing them not to leave Jerusalem until they were baptised with the Holy Spirit.[Acts 1]
Early on the day after the Sabbath, before sunrise, Mary Magdalene visited the tomb and found the large stone had already been rolled away. She told Peter and "the beloved disciple", who then ran to the tomb to only find the grave-clothes, then went home. They assumed his body had been stolen. Mary wept, then saw two angels who spoke to her, and then saw Jesus, whom she did not recognize. Jesus told her to tell the disciples that he is ascending to God, and Mary then told the disciples she had seen the Lord.
That evening Jesus appeared among them inside a locked room, and gave them power over sin and forgiveness of sin. A week later he appeared to doubting Thomas, who had not believed, but when Thomas was instructed to touch the wounds of Jesus he said, "My Lord and my God!" Jesus replied: "Because you have seen me, you have believed; blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed".[John 20]
Comparison of narratives in the Gospels and Acts
In the New Testament all four gospels conclude with an extended narrative of Jesus's arrest, trial, crucifixion, burial, and his resurrection. In each gospel these five events in the life of Jesus are treated with more intense detail than any other portion of that gospel's narrative. Scholars note that the reader receives an almost hour-by-hour account of what is happening. The death and resurrection of Jesus are treated as the climax of the story, the point to which everything else has been moving all the while.:91–92
After his death by crucifixion, Jesus was placed in a new tomb which was discovered early Sunday morning to be empty. The New Testament does not include an account of the "moment of resurrection". In the Eastern Church icons do not depict that moment, but show the myrrhbearers and depict scenes of salvation. The major resurrection appearances of Jesus in the canonical gospels (and to a lesser extent other books of the New Testament) are reported to have occurred after his death, burial and resurrection, but prior to his ascension.
The synoptic gospels agree that, as the evening came after the crucifixion, Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate for the body of Jesus, and that, after Pilate granted his request, wrapped it in linen cloth and laid it in a tomb. This was in accordance with Mosaic Law, which stated that a person hanged on a tree must not be allowed to remain there at night, but should be buried before sundown.
In Matthew, Joseph was identified as "also a disciple of Jesus;" in Mark he was identified as "a respected member of the council (Sanhedrin) who was also himself looking for the Kingdom of God;" in Luke he was identified as "a member of the council, good and righteous, who did not consent to their purpose or deed, and who was looking for the Kingdom of God'" and in John he was identified as "a disciple of Jesus".
The Gospel of Mark states that when Joseph of Arimathea asked for Jesus's body, Pilate marveled that Jesus was already dead, and he summoned the centurion to confirm this before releasing the body to Joseph. In the Gospel of John, it is recorded that Joseph of Arimathea was assisted in the burial process by Nicodemus, who brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes and included these spices in the burial clothes per Jewish customs.
- Attention to the stone that had closed the tomb
- The linking of the empty tomb tradition and the visit of the women on "the first day of the week;"
- That the risen Jesus chose first to appear to women and to commission them to announce the resurrection to the disciples, including Peter and the other apostles;
- The prominence of Mary Magdalene;
All four gospels report that women were the ones to find the tomb of Jesus empty. According to Mark and Luke, the announcement of Jesus' resurrection was made to several women. According to Mark and John, Jesus appeared first (in Mark 16:9 and John 20:14) to Mary Magdalene.
In the gospels, especially the synoptics, women play a central role as eyewitnesses at Jesus' death, entombment, and in the discovery of the empty tomb. All three synoptics repeatedly make women the subject of verbs of seeing, clearly presenting them as eyewitnesses.
Post-Resurrection appearances of Jesus
After the tomb was found empty, the gospels indicate that Jesus made a series of appearances to the disciples. He was not immediately recognizable, according to Luke.:277 E. P. Sanders concluded that although he could appear and disappear, he was not a ghost. Writing that Luke was very insistent about that, Sanders pointed out that "the risen Lord could be touched, and he could eat".[Lk. 24:39–43] He first appeared to Mary Magdalene, but she did not recognize him at first. The first two disciples to whom he appeared, walked and talked with him for quite a while without knowing who he was, (the road to Emmaus appearance).[Lk. 24:13–32] He was made known "in the breaking of the bread".[Lk. 24:35] When he first appeared to the disciples in the upper room, Thomas was not present and would not believe until a later appearance where he was invited to put his finger into the holes in Jesus' hands and side.[Jn. 20:24–29] Beside the Sea of Galilee he encouraged Peter to serve his followers. [Jn. 21:1–23] His final gospel appearance is reported as being forty days after the resurrection when he was "carried up" into heaven where he sits on the right hand of God.[Mark 16:19]
At a later time, on the road to Damascus, Saul of Tarsus, then the arch-persecutor of the early disciples, was converted to Christ following an extraordinary vision and discourse with Jesus which left him blind for three days.[Acts 9:1–20] (Saul later became known as Paul the Apostle.)[Acts 13:6] He became one of Christianity's foremost missionaries and theologians.[1 Cor. 15:6]
Historicity and origin of the narrative
As historical event
New Testament scholar and theologian E. P. Sanders argues that a concerted plot to foster belief in the Resurrection would probably have resulted in a more consistent story, and that some of those who were involved in the events gave their lives for their belief. Sanders offers his own hypothesis, saying "there seems to have been a competition: 'I saw him,' 'so did I,' 'the women saw him first,' 'no, I did; they didn't see him at all,' and so on." In defending the historicity of the resurrection, Sanders goes so far as to state, "That Jesus’ followers (and later Paul) had resurrection experiences is, in my judgment, a fact. What the reality was that gave rise to the experiences I do not know."
James D.G. Dunn writes that, whereas the apostle Paul's resurrection experience was "visionary in character" and "non-physical, non-material," the accounts in the Gospels describe physical appearances to the other apostles and women. He contends that the "massive realism'...of the [Gospel] appearances themselves can only be described as visionary with great difficulty—and Luke would certainly reject the description as inappropriate," and that the earliest conception of resurrection in the Jerusalem Christian community was physical. Conversely, Helmut Koester writes that the descriptions of the resurrection were originally epiphanies in which the disciples are called to a ministry by the risen Jesus and were interpreted as physical proof of the event at a secondary stage. He contends that the more detailed accounts of the resurrection are also secondary and do not come from historically trustworthy sources, but instead belong to the genre of the narrative types.
N.T. Wright argues that the account of the empty tomb and the visionary experiences point towards the historical reality of the resurrection. He suggests that multiple lines of evidence from the New Testament and the early Christian beliefs it reflects shows that it would be highly unlikely that belief in the empty tomb would simply appear without a clear basis in the memory of early Christians. In tandem with the historically certain visionary experiences of the early disciples and apostles, Jesus' resurrection as a historical reality becomes far more plausible. Wright treats the resurrection as a historical and accessible event, rather than as a 'supernatural' or 'metaphysical' event.
Summarizing its traditional analysis, the Catholic Church stated in its Catechism: "Although the Resurrection was an historical event that could be verified by the sign of the empty tomb and by the reality of the apostles' encounters with the risen Christ, still it remains at the very heart of the mystery of faith as something that transcends and surpasses history."
In his book The First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity, Thomas Sheehan argues that even Paul's account of the resurrection is not meant to be taken as referring to a literal, physical rising from the grave, and that stories of a bodily resurrection did not appear until as much as half a century following the crucifixion. Instead, Sheehan believes that Paul's understanding of the resurrection, and perhaps Peter's as well, is a metaphysical one, with the stories of Jesus's (figurative) resurrection reflecting his triumphant "entry into God's eschatological presence," and that Paul's reference to Jesus having risen "on the third day" (1 Corinthians 15:4) "is not a chronological designation but an apocalyptic symbol for God's eschatological saving act, which strictly speaking has no date in history. Thus the 'third day' does not refer to Sunday, April 9, 30 C.E., or to any other moment in time. And as regards the 'place' where the resurrection occurred, the formula in First Corinthians does not assert that Jesus was raised from the tomb, as if the raising were a physical and therefore temporal resuscitation. Without being committed to any preternatural physics of resurrection, the phrase 'he was raised on the third day' simply expresses the belief that Jesus was rescued from the fate of utter absence from God (death) and was admitted to the saving presence of God (the eschatological future)."
An early alternative interpretation was provided by George Bush, Professor of Hebrew at New York City University, in 1845 in a book entitled The Resurrection of Christ. He reviews in detail the post-crucifixion appearances of Jesus and demonstrates how they can be better understood as visions of a spiritual or celestial body rather than as appearances of a material body using, in many cases, a careful analysis of the original Greek or Hebrew words.
Peter Kirby, the founder of EarlyChristianWritings.com, states that, "Many scholars doubt the historicity of the empty tomb."[a] According to Robert M. Price, Christian "apologists love to make the claims ... that the resurrection of Jesus is the best attested event in history", but "probabilistic arguments" show that "the resurrection is anything but an open-and-shut case". Robert Greg Cavin, a professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies at Cypress College, states that, "our only sources of potential evidence, the New Testament Easter traditions, fall far short of providing the kind of information necessary for establishing the resurrection hypothesis."[b]
Biblical scholar Géza Vermes analyzes this subject in his book, The Resurrection. He concludes that there are eight possible theories to explain the resurrection of Jesus. Vermes outlines his boundaries as follows,
I have discounted the two extremes that are not susceptible to rational judgment, the blind faith of the fundamentalist believer and the out-of-hand rejection of the inveterate skeptic. The fundamentalists accept the story, not as written down in the New Testament texts, but as reshaped, transmitted, and interpreted by Church tradition. They smooth down the rough edges and abstain from asking tiresome questions. The unbelievers, in turn, treat the whole Resurrection story as the figment of early Christian imagination. Most inquirers with a smattering of knowledge of the history of religions will find themselves between these two poles.
From his analysis, Vermes presents the remaining six possibilities to explain the resurrection of Jesus account,
- "The body was removed by someone unconnected with Jesus",
- "The body of Jesus was stolen by his disciples",
- "The empty tomb was not the tomb of Jesus",
- Buried alive, Jesus later left the tomb",
- Jesus recovered from a coma and departed Judea, and
- the possibility that there was a "spiritual, not bodily, resurrection".
According to N. T. Wright in his book The Resurrection of the Son of God, "There can be no question: Paul is a firm believer in bodily resurrection. He stands with his fellow Jews against the massed ranks of pagans; with his fellow Pharisees against other Jews." And according to Gary Habermas, "Many other scholars have spoken in support of a bodily notion of Jesus’ resurrection."
Habermas also argues three facts in support of Paul's belief in a physical resurrection body. (1) Paul is a Pharisee and therefore (unlike the Sadducees) believes in a physical resurrection. (2) In Philippians 3:11 Paul says "That I may attain to the ek anastasis (out-resurrection)" from the dead, which according to Habermas means that "What goes down is what comes up". And (3) In Philippians 3:20–21 "We look from heaven for Jesus who will change our vile soma (body) to be like unto his soma (body)". According to Habermas, if Paul meant that we would change into a spiritual body then Paul would have used the Greek pneuma instead of soma. Although others argue that a "body" (or "soma") can be a spirit "body", not necessarily "flesh", in order for it to be a body, according to Paul's own words to the Corinthians, regarding "spiritual body". But they say that it was a true resurrection nonetheless.
Flavius Josephus (c. 37–c. 100), a Jew and Roman citizen who worked under the patronage of the Emperor Vespasian and his son Titus, wrote the Antiquities of the Jews c. 93 which contains a passage known as the Testimonium Flavianum. This passage mentions John the Baptist and Jesus as two holy men among the Jews. The text describes the death and resurrection of Jesus as follows: "When Pilate, upon the accusation of the first men amongst us, condemned [Jesus] to be crucified, those who had formerly loved him did not cease [to follow him], for he appeared to them on the third day, living again, as the divine prophets foretold, along with a myriad of other marvelous things concerning him."
There are various other arguments against the historicity of the resurrection story. For example, the number of other historical figures and gods with similar death and resurrection accounts has been pointed out.[c] However the majority consensus among biblical scholars is that the genre of the Gospels is a kind of ancient biography and not myth. Robert M. Price claims that if the resurrection could, in fact, be proven through science or historical evidence, the event would lose its miraculous qualities. In a more focused argument, Carrier asserts that, "The surviving evidence legal and historical, suggests that Jesus was not formally buried Friday night," but that "it had to have been placed Saturday night in a special public graveyard reserved for convicts. On this theory, the women who visited the tomb Sunday morning mistook its vacancy."
New Testament historian Bart D. Ehrman recognizes that "Some scholars have argued that it's more plausible that in fact Jesus was placed in a common burial plot, which sometimes happened, or was, as many other crucified people, simply left to be eaten by scavenging animals." He further elaborates by saying: "[T]he accounts are fairly unanimous in saying (the earliest accounts we have are unanimous in saying) that Jesus was in fact buried by this fellow, Joseph of Arimathea, and so it's relatively reliable that that's what happened." Analyzing all ancient reports of crucifixion, he later changed his mind to Jesus having been eaten by scavengers.
Theological significance in Christianity
In Christian theology, the resurrection of Jesus is a foundation of the Christian faith.[1 Cor 15:12–20] [1 Pet 1:3] Christians, through faith in the working of God[Col 2:12] are spiritually resurrected with Jesus, and are redeemed so that they may walk in a new way of life.[Rom 6:4] As Paul the Apostle stated: "If Christ was not raised, then all our preaching is useless, and your trust in God is useless".[1 Cor 15:14] The death and resurrection of Jesus are the most important events in Christian Theology. They form the point in scripture where Jesus gives his ultimate demonstration that he has power over life and death, thus he has the ability to give people eternal life. Terry Miethe, a Christian philosopher at Oxford University, stated, " 'Did Jesus rise from the dead?' is the most important question regarding the claims of the Christian faith.' " According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead", he ascended to heaven, to the "right hand of God", and will return again[Acts 1:9–11] to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and establishment of the Kingdom of God; see also Messianism and Messianic Age.
Some modern scholars use the belief of Jesus' followers in the resurrection as a point of departure for establishing the continuity of the historical Jesus and the proclamation of the early church. Carl Jung suggests that the crucifixion-resurrection account was the forceful spiritual symbol of, literally, God-as-Yahweh becoming God-as-Job.
The apostle Paul wrote that: "If there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ has not been raised; if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain... If Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile".[1 Cor 15:13–14, 17] Many scholars have contended that in discussion on the resurrection, the apostle Paul refers to a rabbinic style transmission of an early authoritative tradition that he received and has passed on to the church at Corinth. For this and other reasons, it is widely believed that this creed is of pre-Pauline origin. Geza Vermes writes that the creed is "a tradition he [Paul] has inherited from his seniors in the faith concerning the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus". The creed's ultimate origins are within the Jerusalem apostolic community having been formalised and passed on within a few years of the resurrection. Paul Barnett writes that this creedal formula, and others, were variants of the "one basic early tradition that Paul "received" in Damascus from Ananias in about 34 [AD]" after his conversion.
But Christ really has been raised from the dead. He is the first of all those who will rise. Death came because of what a man did. Rising from the dead also comes because of what a man did. Because of Adam, all people die. So because of Christ, all will be made alive.
Paul's views went against the thoughts of the Greek philosophers to whom a bodily resurrection meant a new imprisonment in a corporeal body, which was what they wanted to avoid—given that for them the corporeal and the material fettered the spirit. At the same time, Paul believed that the newly resurrected body would be a heavenly body; immortal, glorified, powerful and spiritual in contrast to an earthly body, which is mortal, dishonored, weak and natural. According to theologian Peter Carnley, the resurrection of Jesus was different from the resurrection of Lazarus as: "In the case of Lazarus, the stone was rolled away so that he could walk out... the raised Christ didn't have to have the stone rolled away, because he is transformed and can appear anywhere, at any time".
According to international scholar Thorwald Lorenzen, the first Easter led to a shift in emphasis from faith "in God" to faith "in Christ". Today, Lorenzen finds "a strange silence about the resurrection in many pulpits". He writes that among some Christians, ministers and professors, it seems to have become "a cause for embarrassment or the topic of apologetics".:3–4 It has been argued that many Christians neglect the resurrection because of their understandable preoccupation with the Cross. However, the belief in Jesus' physical resurrection remains the single doctrine most accepted by Christians of all denominational backgrounds.
Resurrection and redemption
In the teachings of the apostolic Church, the resurrection was seen as heralding a new era. Forming a theology of the resurrection fell to the apostle Paul. It was not enough for Paul to simply repeat elementary teachings, but as Hebrews 6:1 states, "go beyond the initial teachings about Christ and advance to maturity". Fundamental to Pauline theology is the connection between Christ's Resurrection and redemption. Paul explained the importance of the resurrection of Jesus as the cause and basis of the hope of Christians to share a similar experience.
The teachings of the apostle Paul formed a key element of the Christian tradition and theology. If his death stands at the center of Paul's theology, so does the resurrection: unless the one died the death of all, the all would have little to celebrate in the resurrection of the one. Paul taught that, just as Christians share in Jesus' death in baptism, so they will share in his resurrection for Jesus was designated the Son of God by his resurrection.[Rom 1:4] In 1 Corinthians 15:20–22 Paul states:
But Christ really has been raised from the dead. He is the first of all those who will rise. Death came because of what a man did. Rising from the dead also comes because of what a man did. Because of Adam, all people die. So because of Christ, all will be made alive.
The Apostolic Fathers, discussed the death and resurrection of Jesus, including Ignatius (50–115), Polycarp (69–155), and Justin Martyr (100–165). Following the conversion of Constantine and the liberating Edict of Milan in 313, the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy.
Belief in bodily resurrection was a constant note of the Christian church in antiquity. And nowhere was it argued for more strongly than in North Africa. Saint Augustine accepted it at the time of his conversion in 386. Augustine defended resurrection, and argued that given that Christ has risen, there is resurrection of the dead. Moreover, he argued that the death and resurrection of Jesus was for the salvation of man, stating: "to achieve each resurrection of ours, the savior paid with his single life, and he pre-enacted and presented his one and only one by way of sacrament and by way of model."
The 5th century theology of Theodore of Mopsuestia provides an insight into the development of the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of resurrection. The crucial role of the sacraments in the mediation of salvation was well accepted at the time. In Theodore's representation of the Eucharist, the sacrificial and salvific elements are combined in the "One who saved us and delivered us by the sacrifice of Himself". Theodore's interpretation of the Eucharistic rite is directed towards the triumph over the power of death brought about by the resurrection.
The emphasis on the salvific nature of the resurrection continued in Christian theology in the next centuries, e.g., in the 8th century Saint John of Damascus wrote that: "... When he had freed those who were bound from the beginning of time, Christ returned again from among the dead, having opened for us the way to resurrection" and Christian iconography of the ensuing years represented that concept.
Views of other religions
Groups such as Jews, Muslims, Bahá'ís, and other non-Christians, as well as some liberal Christians, dispute whether Jesus actually rose from the dead. Arguments over death and resurrection claims occur at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues.
`Abdu'l-Bahá taught that Christ's resurrection was a spiritual resurrection and that the accounts in the Gospels are parables. `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote: "We explain, therefore, the meaning of Christ's resurrection in the following way: After the martyrdom of Christ the Apostles were perplexed and dismayed. The reality of Christ, which consists in His teachings, His bounties, His perfections and His spiritual power, was hidden and concealed for two or three days after His martyrdom, and had no outward appearance or manifestation—indeed, it was as though it entirely lost. For those who truly believed were few in number and even those few were perplexed and dismayed. The Cause of Christ was thus as a lifeless body. After three days the Apostles became firm and steadfast, arose to aid the Cause of Christ, resolved to promote the divine teachings and practice their Lord's admonitions, and endeavoured to serve Him. Then did the reality of Christ become resplendent, His grace shine forth, His religion find new life, and His teachings and admonitions become manifest and visible. In other words the Cause of Christ, which was like unto a lifeless body, was quickened to life and surrounded by the grace of the Holy Spirit."
Baha'is believe the Quran's statement: "And because of their saying, "We killed Messiah ʿĪsā, son of Mariam, the Messenger of Allāh",–—but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared so to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts". means that Jesus's Spirit didn't die on the cross, however Baha'is uphold that Jesus was actually crucified in the flesh.
Some Gnostics did not believe in a literal physical resurrection. "For the gnostic any resurrection of the dead was excluded from the outset; the flesh or substance is destined to perish. 'There is no resurrection of the flesh, but only of the soul', say the so-called Archontics, a late gnostic group in Palestine".
Muslims believe that ʿĪsā (Jesus) son of Mariam (Mary) was a holy prophet with a divine message. The Islamic perspective is that Jesus was not crucified and will return to the world at the end of times. "But Allāh raised him up to Himself. And Allāh is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise". The Quran says in Surah An-Nisa [Ch004:Verse157] "And because of their saying, "We killed Messiah ʿĪsā, son of Mariam, the Messenger of Allāh",—but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared so to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts".
Christianity split from Judaism in the 1st century AD, and the two faiths have differed in their theology since. According to the Toledot Yeshu, the body of Jesus was removed in the same night by a gardener named Juda, after hearing the disciples planned to steal the body of Jesus. However, Toledot Yeshu is not considered either canonical or normative within rabbinic literature. Van Voorst states that Toledot Yeshu is a medieval document set without a fixed form which is "most unlikely" to have reliable information about Jesus. The Blackwell Companion to Jesus states that the Toledot Yeshu has no historical facts as such, and was perhaps created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity.
The resurrection of Jesus has long been central to Christian faith and appears within diverse elements of the Christian tradition, from feasts to artistic depictions to religious relics. In Christian teachings, the sacraments derive their saving power from the passion and resurrection of Christ, upon which the salvation of the world entirely depends.
An example of the interweaving of the teachings on the resurrection with Christian relics is the application of the concept of "miraculous image formation" at the moment of resurrection to the Shroud of Turin. Christian authors have stated the belief that the body around whom the shroud was wrapped was not merely human, but divine, and that the image on the shroud was miraculously produced at the moment of resurrection. Quoting Pope Paul VI's statement that the shroud is "the wonderful document of His Passion, Death and Resurrection, written for us in letters of blood" author Antonio Cassanelli argues that the shroud is a deliberate divine record of the five stages of the Passion of Christ, created at the moment of resurrection.
Easter, the preeminent feast that celebrates the resurrection of Jesus, is clearly the earliest Christian festival. Since the earliest Christian times, it has focused on the redemptive act of God in the death and resurrection of Christ.
Easter is linked to the Passover and Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion that preceded the resurrection. According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as he prepared himself and his disciples for his death in the upper room during the Last Supper. He identified the loaf of bread and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. 1 Corinthians states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you really are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; this refers to the Passover requirement to have no yeast in the house and to the allegory of Jesus as the Paschal lamb.
In Christian art
In the Catacombs of Rome, artists indirectly hinted at the resurrection by using images from the Old Testament such as the fiery furnace and Daniel in the Lion's den. Depictions prior to the 7th century generally showed secondary events such as the Myrrhbearers at the tomb of Jesus to convey the concept of the resurrection. An early symbol of the resurrection was the wreathed Chi Rho (Greek letters representing the word "Khristos" or "Christ"), whose origin traces to the victory of emperor Constantine I at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312, which he attributed to the use of a cross on the shields of his soldiers. Constantine used the Chi Rho on his standard and his coins showed a labarum with the Chi Rho killing a serpent.
The use of a wreath around the Chi Rho symbolizes the victory of the resurrection over death, and is an early visual representation of the connection between the Crucifixion of Jesus and his triumphal resurrection, as seen in the 4th century sarcophagus of Domitilla. in Rome. Here, in the wreathed Chi Rho the death and Resurrection of Christ are shown as inseparable, and the Resurrection is not merely a happy ending tucked at the end of the life of Christ on earth. Given the use of similar symbols on the Roman military banner, this depiction also conveyed another victory, namely that of the Christian faith: the Roman soldiers who had once arrested Jesus and marched him to Calvary now walked under the banner of a resurrected Christ.
The cosmic significance of the resurrection in Western theology goes back to Saint Ambrose, who in the 4th century said that "The universe rose again in Him, the heaven rose again in Him, the earth rose again in Him, for there shall be a new heaven and a new earth". This theme developed gradually in the West, later than in the East where the resurrection had been linked from an earlier date to redemption and the renewal and rebirth of the whole world. In art this was symbolized by combining the depictions of the resurrection with the Harrowing of Hell in icons and paintings. A good example is from the Chora Church in Istanbul, where John the Baptist, Solomon and other figures are also present, depicting that Christ was not alone in the resurrection. The depiction sequence at the 10th century Hosios Loukas shows Christ as he pulls Adam from his tomb, followed by Eve, signifying the salvation of humanity after the resurrection.
Gallery of art
- For a larger gallery, please see: Resurrection gallery
- Chronology of Jesus
- Divine Mercy Sunday
- Dying-and-rising god
- Tombs of Jesus:
- The ground on which The Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands is venerated by most Christians as Golgotha, the Hill of Calvary, where the New Testament says that Jesus was crucified. This tomb is venerated as the tomb of Christ by the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox churches, and Oriental Orthodox churches.
- The Garden Tomb, discovered in the 19th century, is considered the actual site of Jesus' grave by some Protestant Christians.
- Talpiot Tomb, discovered in 1980, subject of the controversial documentary The Lost Tomb of Jesus
- a.^ In a note, Kirby states, "A very abbreviated list of twentieth-century writers on the NT who do not believe that the empty tomb is historically reliable: Marcus Borg, Günther Bornkamm, Gerald Boldock Bostock, Rudolf Bultmann, Peter Carnley, John Dominic Crossan, Stevan Davies, Maurice Goguel, Michael Goulder, Hans Grass, Charles Guignebert, Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Randel Helms, Herman Hendrikx, Roy Hoover, Helmut Koester, Hans Küng, Alfred Loisy, Burton L. Mack, Willi Marxsen, Gerd Lüdemann, Norman Perrin, Robert M. Price, Marianne Sawicki, John Shelby Spong, Howard M. Teeple, and John T. Theodore".
- b.^ Cavin continues "... even on the assumption of their complete historical reliability ... This assumption, of course, is rightly dismissed in light of contemporary New Testament scholarship".
- c.^ Robert M. Price points to the accounts of Adonis, Apollonius of Tyana, Asclepius, Attis, Empedocles, Hercules, Osiris, Oedipus, Romulus, Tammuz, and others.
- Updated version of the Nicene Creed added at First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD, in Norman Tanner, New Short History of the Catholic Church, p. 33 (Burns & Oates, 2011). ISBN 978-0-86012-455-9
- Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31–32, Acts 3:15, Acts 3:26, Acts 4:10, Acts 5:30, Acts 10:40–41, Acts 13:30, Acts 13:34, Acts 13:37, Acts 17:30–31, 1Cor 6:14, 2Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1Pet 1:3, 1Pet 1:21
- Acts 1:1–4, Acts 1:9–11, Acts 2:32–33, Colossians 3:1
- Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Broadman Press, 1962. ISBN 0-8054-1613-7
- Tamara Prosic, The Development And Symbolism Of Passover Until 70 CE, p. 65 (T & T Clark International, 2004). ISBN 0-8264-7087-4
- Pecorino, Philip (2001). "Section 3. The Resurrection of the Body". Philosophy of Religion. Dr. Philip A. Pecorino. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2007.
- Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
- Dictionary of Premillennial Theology by Mal Couch 1997 ISBN 0-8254-2410-0 p. 127
- Great Preaching on the Resurrection by Curtis Hutson 2000 ISBN 0-87398-319-X pp. 55–56
- Barnett 2005, p. 2.
- Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus – God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) pp. 118, 283, 367; Neufeld, The Earliest Christian Confessions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964) pp. 7, 50; C. H. Dodd, The Apostolic Preaching and its Developments (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1980), p. 14
- Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament vol 1, pp. 49, 81; Joachim Jeremias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus translated Norman Perrin (London: SCM Press, 1966) p. 102
- Barton & Muddiman 2010, p. 122.
- Taylor 2014, p. 374.
- Powell, Mark A. Introducing the New Testament. Baker Academic, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8010-2868-7
- Stagg, Evelyn and Frank. Woman in the World of Jesus. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978, pp. 144–150.
- Vladimir Lossky, 1982 The Meaning of Icons ISBN 978-0-913836-99-6 p. 185
- These are: Matthew 28:8–20, Mark 16:9–20 (see also the article on Mark 16), Luke 24:13–49, John 20:11–21:25, Acts 1:1–11, and 1 Corinthians 15:3–9.
- Matthew 27:57–61, Mark 15:42–47, Luke 23:50–56
- R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) p. 147; cf. Deuteronomy 21:22–23.
- Matthew 27:57–61
- Mark 15:42–47
- Luke 23:50–56
- John 19:38–42
- Mark 16:1–8, Matthew 28:1–10, Luke 24:1–12, and John 20:1–13
- Setzer, Claudia. "Excellent Women: Female Witness to the Resurrection". Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 116, No. 2 (Summer, 1997), pp. 259–272
- Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (Eerdmans Publishing Company: Cambridge, 2006), p. 48.
- B. Gerhardsson, 'Mark and the Female Witnesses', in H. Behrens, D. Loding, and M. T. Roth, eds., Dumu-E2-Dub-Ba-A (A. W. Sjöberg FS; Occasional Papers of the Samuel Noah Kramer Fund 11; Philadelphia: The University Museum, 1989), pp. 219–220, 222–223; S. Byrskog, Story as History – History as Story (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament Jerusalem Talmud 123; Tübingen: Mohr, 2000; remprinted Leiden: Brill, 2002), pp. 75–78; Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (Eerdmans Publishing Company: Cambridge, 2006), p. 48.
- Sanders, E. P. The Historical Figure of Jesus. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-014499-4
- Lk.24:44–53, Acts 1:1–4
- Colossians 3:1 KJV If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God.
- Paul Powell writes that the apostle had two names: Saul and Paul. Saul was his Jewish name, the name of Israel's first king. The testimony of the book of Acts is that he was a Roman citizen as well, meaning that he needed a Roman name. In Acts 13:6 Saul is called Paul for the first time ("But Saul, who was also known as Paul, ... ") on the island of Cyprus. (Powell, Mark A. Introducing the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. 2009. ISBN 978-0-8010-2868-7)
- "Jesus Christ." Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 10 Jan. 2007
- Sanders, E. P. The Historical Figure of Jesus. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
- James D.G. Dunn, Jesus and the Spirit: A Study of the Religious and Charismatic Experience of Jesus and the First Christians as Reflected in the New Testament. Eerdmans, 1997. pp. 115, 117.
- Helmut Koester, Introduction to the New Testament, Vol. 2: History and Literature of Early Christianity. Walter de Gruyter, 2000. pp. 64–65.
- Wright, N.T. The Resurrection of the Son of God. Fortress Press.
- Catechism of the Catholic Church 647
- McClory, Robert (1989). "The Gospel According to Thomas Sheehan". The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Sheehan, Thomas (1986). The First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity. Random House. p. 111. ISBN 978-0394511986.
- Sheehan, Thomas (1986). The First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity. Random House. p. 112. ISBN 978-0394511986.
- Bush, George. "The Resurrection of Christ". play.google.com/books. New York City University. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Peter Kirby, "The Case Against the Empty Tomb," In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 233. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Robert M. Price, Robert M. Price, "The Empty Tomb: Introduction; The Second Life of Jesus." In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 13. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Robert Greg Cavin, "Is There Sufficient Historical Evidence to Establish the Resurrection of Jesus?" In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 36. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Vermes, Geza (2008). The Resurrection: History and Myth. New York: Doubleday. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-7394-9969-6.
- Vermes, Geza (2008). The Resurrection: History and Myth. New York: Doubleday. pp. 142–148. ISBN 978-0-7394-9969-6. The quoted material appeared in small caps in Vermes's book.
- Wright, The Resurrection of the Son of God, 272; cf. 321
- Resurrection Research from 1975 to the Present: What are Critical Scholars Saying? Link
- From a debate with Anthony Flew on the resurrection of the Jesus. Transcript
- Does Jesus have a human body right now?. The Interactive Bible. Blueprint Church. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "John the Baptist" cameo, p. 268
- Josephus Jewish Antiquities 18. 3.3
- Robert M. Price, "The Empty Tomb: Introduction; The Second Life of Jesus." In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 14. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Burridge, R. A. (2006). Gospels. In J. W. Rogerson & Judith M. Lieu (Eds) The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 437
- Richard C. Carrier, "The Burial of Jesus in Light of Jewish Law." In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 369. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Bart Ehrman, From Jesus to Constantine: A History of Early Christianity, Lecture 4: "Oral and Written Traditions about Jesus" [The Teaching Company, 2003].
- Bart D. Ehrman (25 March 2014). How Jesus Became God: The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilee. HarperCollins. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-06-225219-7.
- John 3:16, John 5:24, John 6:39–40, John 6:47, John 10:10, John 11:25–26, and John 17:3.
- Terry Miethe in Did Jesus Rise from the Dead? The Resurrection Debate, ed. Terry Miethe (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1987), xi. Quoted by Michael Martin, "The Resurrection as Initially Improbable". In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. p. 44. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Acts 2:24, Romans 10:9, 1Cor 15:15, Acts 2:31–32, Acts 3:15, Acts 3:26, Acts 4:10, Acts 5:30, Acts 10:40–41, Acts 13:30, Acts 13:34, Acts 13:37, Acts 17:30–31, 1Cor 6:14, 2Cor 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1Thess 1:10, Heb 13:20, 1Pet 1:3, 1 Pet 1:21
- Mark 16:19, Luke 22:69, Acts 2:33, Acts 5:31, Acts 7:55–56, Romans 8:34, Eph 1:20, Col 3:1, Hebrews 1:3, Hebrews 1:13, Hebrews 10:12, Hebrews 12:2, 1Pe 3:22
- The ‘‘Parousia’‘ is the term used in the Bible, see Strong's G3952 for details, which includes the Thayer's Lexicon definition: "In the N.T. especially of the advent, i.e.,the future, visible, return from heaven of Jesus, the Messiah, to raise the dead, hold the last judgment, and set up formally and gloriously the kingdom of God". According to the Bauer lexicon: "of Christ, and nearly always of his Messianic Advent in glory to judge the world at the end of this age".
- Reginald H. Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament Christology (New York: Scribners, 1965), p. 11.
- Jung, Carl, The Answer to Job online excerpt
- Vermes, Geza (2008). The Resurrection: History and Myth. New York: Doubleday. p. xv. ISBN 978-0-7394-9969-6..
- Neufeld, The Earliest Christian Confessions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964) p. 47; Reginald Fuller, The Formation of the Resurrection Narratives (New York: Macmillan, 1971) p. 10; Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus—God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) p. 90; Oscar Cullmann, The Early Church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) p. 64; Hans Conzelmann, 1 Corinthians, translated James W. Leitch (Philadelphia: Fortress 1969) p. 251; Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament vol. 1 pp. 45, 80–82, 293; R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) pp. 81, 92
- Most Fellows of the Jesus Seminar concluded that this tradition dates to before Paul's conversion, c AD 33. Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. Empty Tomb, Appearances & Ascension pp. 449–495.
- Geza Vermes (2008) The Resurrection. London, Penguin: 121–122
- see Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus – God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) p. 90; Oscar Cullmann, The Early church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) pp. 66–66; R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) p. 81; Thomas Sheehan, First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity (New York: Random House, 1986) pp. 110, 118; Ulrich Wilckens, Resurrection translated A. M. Stewart (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew, 1977) p. 2; Hans Grass, Ostergeschen und Osterberichte, Second Edition (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1962) p. 96; Grass favors the origin in Damascus.
- Barnett, Paul William (2009). Finding the Historical Christ (Volume 3 of After Jesus). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 978-0802848901.
- (as in 1 Corinthians 15:20–22)
- Meditation and Piety in the Far East by Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Sverre Holth 2004 ISBN 0-227-17235-3 p. 30
- Corinthians 15:42–49 with commentary by Dale B. Martin, The Corinthian Body, Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-300-08172-3 p. 126 in particular.
- "Archbishop Peter Carnley; William Oats". Radio National.
- Lorenzen, Thorwald. Resurrection, Discipleship, Justice: Affirming the Resurrection of Jesus Christ Today. Macon, Georgia: Smyth & Helwys, 2003, p. 13.
- Warnock, Adrian, Raised With Christ Archived 12 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Crossway 2010
- The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology by Berard L. Marthaler 2007 ISBN 0-89622-537-2 p. 361
- See resurrection of the dead, in 1 Corinthians 15:20–22
- Theology of Paul the Apostle by James D. G. Dunn 2003 p. 235
- Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, US. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530013-0
- Ignatius makes many passing references, but two extended discussions are found in the Letter to the Trallians and the Letter to the Smyrnaeans.
- The resurrection and the icon by Michel Quenot 1998 ISBN 0-88141-149-3 p. 72
- Augustine: ancient thought baptized by John M. Rist 1996 ISBN 0-521-58952-5 p. 110
- Augustine and the Catechumenate by William Harmless 1995 ISBN 0-8146-6132-7 p. 131
- Augustine De doctrina Christiana by Saint Augustine, R. P. H. Green 1996 ISBN 0-19-826334-1 p. 115
- The Trinity by Saint Augustine (Bishop of Hippo.), Edmund Hill, John E. Rotelle 1991 ISBN 0-911782-96-6 p. 157
- Adventus Domini: eschatological thought in 4th-century apses and catecheses by Geir Hellemo 1997 ISBN 90-04-08836-9 p. 231
- Vladimir Lossky, 1982 The Meaning of Icons ISBN 978-0-913836-99-6 p. 189
- "Bahá'í Reference Library – Some Answered Questions".
- Qur'an, Sura 4:157
- Kurt Rudolph, Gnosis: The Nature & History of Gnosticism, p. 190 (T & T Clark Ltd, 1970, second and expanded edition, 1980; 1998). ISBN 0-567-08640-2
- Qur'an, Sura 4:158
- Michael J. Cook, "Jewish Perspectives on Jesus", in Delbert Burkett (editor), The Blackwell Companion to Jesus, pp. 221–223 (Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2011). ISBN 978-1-4051-9362-7
- Gary R. Habermas, The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ, p. 205 (Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2008). ISBN 0-89900-732-5
- Dan, Joseph (2006). "Toledot Yeshu". In Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 20 (2nd ed.) pp. 28–29
- Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence WmB Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 p. 128
- Michael J. Cook Jewish Perspectives on Jesus Chapter 14 in "The Blackwell Companion to Jesus" edited by Delbert Burkett 2011 ISBN 978-1-4443-2794-6
- The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Jan Milic Lochman, Geoffrey William Bromiley, John Mbiti 2008 ISBN 0-8028-2417-X p. 490
- Charles S. Brown, 2007 Bible "Mysteries" Explained ISBN 0-9582813-0-0 p. 193
- Peter Rinaldi 1972, The man in the Shroud ISBN 0-86007-010-7 p. 45
- Antonio Cassanelli, 2001 The Holy Shroud: a comparison between the Gospel narrative of the five stages of the Passion ISBN 0-85244-351-X p. 13
- Foundations of Christian Worship by Susan J. White 2006 ISBN 0-664-22924-7 p. 55
- Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 p. 224
- John, Revelation, 1 Peter 1:19, 1 Peter 1:2, and the associated notes and Passion Week table in Barker, Kenneth, ed. (2002). Zondervan NIV Study Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 1520. ISBN 0-310-92955-5.
- Understanding early Christian art by Robin Margaret Jensen 2000 ISBN 0-415-20454-2 p. 149
- "Cross and Crucifix in the Christian Assembly – Part I (The Early Christian Period: Crux Invicta, Crux Gemmata)". Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- The passion in art by Richard Harries 2004 ISBN 0-7546-5011-1 p. 8
- Ambrose, On the Belief in the Resurrection, 102
- Images of redemption: art, literature and salvation by Patrick Sherry 2005 ISBN 0-567-08891-X p. 73
- Heaven on Earth: art and the Church in Byzantium by Linda Safran 1998 ISBN 0-271-01670-1 p. 133
- Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. pp. 256–257. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Robert M. Price, "The Empty Tomb: Introduction; The Second Life of Jesus". In Price, Robert M.; Lowder, Jeffrey Jay, eds. (2005). The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave. Amherst: Prometheus Books. pp. 14–15. ISBN 1-59102-286-X.
- Allison, D.C. (2004). Matthew: A Shorter Commentary. T&T Clark. ISBN 0567082490.
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- Barton, John; Muddiman, John (2010). The Pauline Epistles. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191034664.
- Burkett, Delbert (2002). An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521007207.
- Charlesworth, James H. (2008). The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abingdon Press. ISBN 9781426724756.
- Chester, Andrew (2007). Messiah and Exaltation: Jewish Messianic and Visionary Traditions and New Testament Christology. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 9783161490910.
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