Republican Fascist Party
|Founded||13 September 1943|
|Dissolved||28 April 1945|
|Preceded by||National Fascist Party|
Democratic Fascist Party|
(not legal successor)
|Headquarters||Piazza San Sepolcro, Milan, R.S.I.|
|Newspaper||Il Popolo d'Italia|
|Paramilitary wing||Black Brigades|
|Political position||Third Position|
The Republican Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) was a political party in Italy led by Benito Mussolini during the German occupation of Central and Northern Italy and was the sole legitimate and ruling party of the Italian Social Republic. It was founded as the successor of former National Fascist Party as an anti-monarchist party. It considered King Victor Emmanuel III to be a traitor after he had signed the surrender to the Allies.
After the Nazi-engineered Gran Sasso raid liberated Mussolini, on 13 September 1943 the National Fascist Party (PNF). was revived as the PFR and as the single party of the Northern and Nazi-protected Italian Social Republic (the Salò Republic). Its secretary was Alessandro Pavolini.
The PFR did not outlast Mussolini's execution and the disappearance of the Salò state in April 1945. However, it inspired the creation of the Italian Social Movement (MSI) and the MSI has been seen as the successor to the PFR and the PNF. The MSI was formed by former fascist leaders and veterans of the republic's fascist army. The party tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction. The MSI was considered illegal under Italy's postwar constitution which forbids the formation of overtly Fascist parties.
Italian Fascism was rooted in Italian nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay. Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy and historically supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale ("living space") for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.
A corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy was advocated by the Fascists. This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes.
The Italian Fascists opposed liberalism and capitalism, but rather than seeking a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world, which it considered to have been flawed, it had a forward-looking direction. It was also opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre. It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people, alongside a commitment to a modernized Italy.
Fascism was opposed to Marxism because it was viewed as a threat to nationalism. The Fascists were also anti-communists, viewing Bolshevism as the greatest contemporary menace to Western Civilization.
Secretary of the PFR
- Alessandro Pavolini (15 November 1943 – 28 April 1945)
- Fasces and eagle respectively
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