Reform of the United Nations Security Council
Reform of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) encompasses five key issues: categories of membership, the question of the veto held by the five permanent members, regional representation, the size of an enlarged Council and its working methods, and the Security Council-General Assembly relationship. Member States, regional groups and other Member State interest groupings developed different positions and proposals on how to move forward on this contested issue.
Any reform of the Security Council would require the agreement of at least two-thirds of UN member states in a vote in the General Assembly, and must be ratified by two thirds of Member States. All of the permanent members of the UNSC (which have veto rights) must also agree.
The composition of the Security Council was established in 1945. Since then the geopolitical realities have changed drastically, but the Council has changed very little. The victors of World War II shaped the United Nations Charter in their national interests, assigning themselves the permanent seats and associated veto power, among themselves. Any reform of the Security Council would require an amendment to the Charter. Article 108 of the Charter states:
Amendments to the present Charter shall come into force for all Members of the United Nations when they have been adopted by a vote of two thirds of the members of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations, including all the permanent members of the Security Council.
With the enlargement of the United Nations membership and increasing self-confidence among the new members, going hand in hand with processes of decolonization, old structures and procedures were increasingly challenged. The imbalance between the number of seats in the Security Council and the total number of member States became evident, and the only significant reform of the Security Council occurred in 1965: this included an increase in the non-permanent membership from six to 10 members. With Boutros Boutros-Ghali elected as Secretary-General in 1992, the reform discussions of the UN Security Council were launched again as he started his new term with the first-ever summit of the Security Council and then published "An Agenda for Peace". His motivation was to restructure the composition and arguably anachronistic procedures of the UN organ to recognize the changed world. In the twenty-first century, the mismatch between the structure of the UN Security Council and the global reality the former is supposed to reflect became even more glaring. So much so that demands were raised by many politicians, diplomats and scholars to reform the Council at the earliest so that it reflects the reality of the present times and not the time of its establishment. For example, Indian scholar of diplomacy Rejaul Karim Laskar argues, "for the continued existence and relevance of the UN, it is necessary to ensure that it represents as nearly as possible the reality of the power equation of the twenty-first century world".
By 1992, Japan and Germany had become the second- and third-largest financial contributors to the United Nations, and started to demand a permanent seat. Also Brazil (fifth largest country in terms of territory) and India (second largest country in terms of population) as the most powerful countries within their regional groups and key players within their regions saw themselves with a permanent seat. This group of four countries formed an interest group later known as the G4.
On the other hand, their regional rivals were opposed to the G4 becoming permanent members with a veto power. They favored the expansion of the non-permanent category of seats with members to be elected on a regional basis. Italy, Pakistan, Mexico and Egypt started to form an interest group, known as the "Coffee Club" and later "Uniting for Consensus".
Simultaneously, the African Group started to demand two permanent seats for themselves, on the basis of historical injustices and because much of the Council's agenda is concentrated in that continent. Those two seats would be permanent African seats, that would rotate between African countries chosen by the African group.
The existing permanent members, each holding the right of veto on Security Council reform, announced their positions reluctantly. The United States supported the permanent membership of Japan and India, and a small number of additional non-permanent members. The United Kingdom and France essentially supported the G4 position, with the expansion of permanent and non-permanent members and the accession of Germany, Brazil, India, and Japan to permanent-member status, as well as more African countries on the Council. China supported the stronger representation of developing countries, voicing support for India. Russia has also endorsed India's candidature for a permanent seat on the Security Council.
In September 2017, U.S. Representatives Ami Bera and Frank Pallone introduced a resolution (H.Res.535) in the US House of Representatives (115th United States Congress), seeking support for India for a permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council.
General Assembly Task Force
The General Assembly Task Force on Security Council Reform has delivered a Report (on the question of equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council) recommending a compromise solution for entering intergovernmental negotiations on reform.
The report builds on existing transitional/intermediary approaches to suggest a "timeline perspective". The "timeline perspective" suggests that Member States begin by identifying the negotiables to be included in short-term intergovernmental negotiations. Crucial to the "timeline perspective" is the scheduling of a mandatory review conference—a forum for discussing changes to any reforms achieved in the near-term, and for revisiting negotiables that cannot be agreed upon now.
|“||Asia’s inadequate representation poses a serious threat to the UN’s legitimacy, which will only increase as the world’s most dynamic and populous region assumes an increasingly important global role. One possible way to resolve the problem would be to add at least four Asian seats: one permanent seat for India, one shared by Japan and South Korea (perhaps in a two-year, one-year rotation), one for the ASEAN countries (representing the group as a single constituency), and a fourth rotating among the other Asian countries.||”|
|— Jeffrey Sachs at Columbia University|
2005 Annan plan
On 21 March 2005, the then UN Secretary General Kofi Annan called on the UN to reach a consensus on expanding the council to 24 members, in a plan referred to as "In Larger Freedom". He gave two alternatives for implementation, but did not specify which proposal he preferred.
The two options mentioned by Annan are referred to as Plan A and Plan B:
- Plan A calls for creating six new permanent members, plus three new nonpermanent members for a total of 24 seats in the council.
- Plan B calls for creating eight new seats in a new class of members, who would serve for four years, subject to renewal, plus one nonpermanent seat, also for a total of 24.
In any case, Annan favored making the decision quickly, stating, "This important issue has been discussed for too long. I believe member states should agree to take a decision on it—preferably by consensus, but in any case before the summit—making use of one or other of the options presented in the report of the High-Level Panel".
The summit mentioned by Annan is the September 2005 Millennium+5 Summit, a high-level plenary meeting that reviewed Annan's report, the implementation of the 2000 Millennium Declaration, and other UN reform-related issues.
Uniting for Consensus
On 26 July 2005, five UN member countries, Italy, Argentina, Canada, Colombia and Pakistan, representing a larger group of countries called Uniting for Consensus led by Italy, proposed to the General Assembly another project that maintains five permanent members and raises the number of non-permanent members to 20.
Permanent member proposals
|“||The U.N. Security Council reform, being debated since two decades is too long overdue and the necessary expansion must be made considering how much the world has changed.||”|
|— Ban Ki-Moon|
One proposed change is to admit more permanent members. The candidates usually mentioned are Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan. They comprise the group of G4 nations, mutually supporting one another's bids for permanent seats. The United Kingdom, France and Russia support G4 membership in the U.N. Security Council. This sort of reform has traditionally been opposed by the Uniting for Consensus group, which is composed primarily of nations who are regional rivals and economic competitors of the G4. The group is led by Italy and Spain (opposing Germany), Mexico, Colombia, and Argentina (opposing Brazil), and South Korea (opposing Japan), in addition to Turkey, Indonesia and others. Since 1992, Italy and other members of the group have instead proposed semi-permanent seats or the expansion of the number of temporary seats.
Most of the leading candidates for permanent membership are regularly elected onto the Security Council by their respective continental groups: Japan was elected for eleven two-year terms, Brazil for ten terms, and Germany for three terms. India has been elected to the council seven times in total, with the most recent successful bid being in 2010 after a gap of almost twenty years since 1991–92.
In 2017, it was reported that the G4 nations were willing to temporarily forgo veto power if granted a permanent UNSC seat. As of 2013, the current P5 members of the Security Council, along with the G4, account for eight of the world's ten largest defense budgets, according to SIPRI. They also account for 9 of the 10 largest economies by both nominal GDP and Purchasing Power Parity GDP.
|Comparison of G4 and P5 Members|
|Country||Proportion of world
|G4||2.8% (5th)||$3,101 (7th)||$1,535 (9th)||3.82% (7th)||1,305 (20th)||$24.6 (11th)||318,480 (16th)||No||–|
|P5||18.8% (1st)||$20,853 (1st)||$11,383 (2nd)||7.92% (3rd)||2,622 (12th)||$215.0 (2nd)||2,333,000 (1st)||Yes||260 (5th)|
|P5||0.9% (20th)||$2,703 (10th)||$2,787 (7th)||4.86% (5th)||880 (33rd)||$50.9 (7th)||222,200 (24th)||Yes||300 (4th)|
|G4||1.1% (17th)||$3,935 (5th)||$3,468 (4th)||6.39% (4th)||434 (45th)||$39.4 (9th)||186,450 (28th)||No3||–|
|G4||17.7% (2nd)||$10,339 (3rd)||$2,876 (5th)||0.74% (22nd)||7,713 (2nd)||$55.3 (5th)||1,443,921 (2nd)||Yes||120–130 (7th)|
|G4||1.7% (10th)||$4,901(4th)||$4,413 (3rd)||9.68% (2nd)||272 (55th)||$40.9 (8th)||247,150 (21st)||No||–|
|P5||2.0% (9th)||$3,685 (6th)||$1,133 (14th)||3.09% (9th)||98 (68th)||$66.4 (4th)||845,000 (5th)||Yes||7,300 (1st)|
|P5||0.9% (22nd)||$2,757 (9th)||$2,807 (6th)||4.46% (6th)||336 (52nd)||$55.5 (6th)||169,150 (32nd)||Yes||215 (6th)|
|P5||4.4% (3rd)||$18,558 (2nd)||$18,558 (1st)||22.00% (1st)||68 (73rd)||$597.0 (1st)||1,281,900 (3rd)||Yes||6,970 (2nd)|
|1$US billions 2Percent contributed to total UN budget 3Takes part in NATO nuclear weapons sharing agreement|
Brazil has been elected ten times to the Security Council. It has contributed troops to UN peacekeeping efforts in the Middle East, the former Belgian Congo, Cyprus, Mozambique, Angola, and more recently East Timor and Haiti. Brazil is one of the main contributors to the UN regular budget.
Prior to the UN's founding in 1945, Franklin D. Roosevelt lobbied for Brazil to be included on the Security Council, but the UK and the Soviet Union refused. The United States has sent strong indications to Brazil that it was willing to support its membership; albeit, without a veto. In June 2011, the Council on Foreign Relations recommended that the US government fully endorse the inclusion of Brazil as a permanent member of the Security Council.
Brazil has received backing from 3 of the current permanent members, namely France, Russia,, and the United Kingdom. Brazilian elevation to permanent membership is also supported by the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and Brazil and the other G4 nations mutually support each other in their bids. Other countries that advocate permanent Brazilian membership of the UNSC include Australia, Chile, Finland, Guatemala, Indonesia, the Philippines, Slovenia, South Africa, and Vietnam
France has explicitly called for a permanent seat in the UN for its close EU partner: "Germany's engagement, its ranking as a great power, its international influence—France would like to see them recognized with a permanent seat on the Security Council", French president Jacques Chirac said in a speech in Berlin in 2000. The former German Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder, also identified Russia, among other countries, as a country that backed Germany's bid. Former President Fidel V. Ramos of the Philippines also expressed his country's support for Germany's bid, together with Japan's. Italy and the Netherlands on the contrary, suggest a common European Union seat in the Council instead of Germany becoming the third European member next to France and the UK. The former German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer said that Germany would also accept a common European seat, but as long as there is little sign that France and the UK will give up their own seats, Germany should also have a seat.
The German campaign for a permanent seat was intensified in 2004. Schröder made himself perfectly clear in August 2004: "Germany has the right to a seat." Its bid is supported by Japan, India, Brazil, France, the United Kingdom and Russia, among other countries. Current German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who had initially been quiet on the issue, re-stated Germany's bid in her address to the UN General Assembly in September 2007. In July 2011, Merkel's trip to Kenya, Angola, and Nigeria was thought to be motivated, in part, by the goal of seeking support from African countries for Germany's bid for a permanent seat on the Security Council.
The country currently has the world's second-largest population and is the world's largest liberal democracy. It is also the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing power parity. Currently, India maintains the world's second-largest active armed force (after China) and is a nuclear-weapon state. The International Herald Tribune has stated: "Clearly, a seat for India would make the body more representative and democratic. With India as a member, the Council would be a more legitimate and thus a more effective body." Thomas Friedman of the New York Times said: "Sometimes I wish that the five permanent members of the UN Security Council could be chosen ... with a vote by the fans .... Then the perm-five would be Russia, China, India, Britain and the United States ... India is the world's largest democracy."
India's bid for permanent member of UNSC is now backed by four of the five permanent members, namely France, Russia, United Kingdom and United States. On 15 April 2011, China officially expressed its support for an increased Indian role at the United Nations, without explicitly endorsing India's Security Council ambitions. A few months later, China endorsed Indian candidacy as a permanent UNSC member provided that India revokes its support for Japanese candidacy.
As part of the G4 nations, India is supported by Brazil, Germany, and Japan for the permanent seat. Other countries that explicitly and openly support India for UNSC permanent seat are – Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Chile, Comoros, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Jamaica, Laos, Lesotho Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Rwanda, Qatar, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Tuvalu, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia and Zimbabwe. As a whole, the African Union also supports India's candidacy for permanent member of the UNSC.
While U.S. Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice, speaking at Sophia University in Tokyo, said, "Japan has earned its honorable place among the nations of the world by its own effort and its own character. That's why the United States unambiguously supports a permanent seat for Japan on the United Nations Security Council." Her predecessor, Colin Powell, had objected to Japanese permanent membership because Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution forbids the country from going to war unless in self-defense.
Some other Asian nations have expressed support for Japan's application, including Mongolia, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Vietnam—all major recipients of loan and/or foreign investment from Japan. The other G4 countries—Germany, Brazil, and India, who are also bidding for Security Council seats—along with France and the United Kingdom, also back Japan's bid. Australia, the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu support Japan since Japan agreed to increase financial aid to the region.
For instance, Katsuyuki Kawai, then secretary for foreign affairs, member of the Japanese parliament, and special envoy to Nepal, was sent to Kathmandu to lobby for the Nepalese government's support for Japanese membership in the UNSC. Kawai met with King Gyanendra and told the press, "If Japan loses its bid this time, Japanese people will think the support Japan has been providing to the world for the last 60 years has been futile." Japan donates significantly to Nepal.
Membership based on religion
In June 2005, the foreign ministers of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) called for a permanent Muslim seat on the UN Security Council.
Currently, no country in Africa has a permanent seat on the Security Council. Although no one nation from Africa has formally been put forward as a candidate for membership on the Security Council, Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, South Africa, and Nigeria are seen as the strongest choices. Algeria has gained a great deal of respect for its neutrality over the years and its great commitment to African development; Egypt has the second-largest economy in Africa and the biggest military on the continent, was one of the founding members of the United Nations, enjoys great influence in Africa and in the Arab world, and hosts the headquarters of the Arab League; Ethiopia was also one of the founding members of the United Nations and holds the seat of the African Union Commission; South Africa has the third-largest economy on the continent; and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, has the continent's largest economy, and is one of the largest contributors of military and civilian personnel to UN peacekeeping missions.
The UNSC "power of veto" is frequently cited as a major problem within the UN. By wielding their veto power (established by Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter), any of the UNSC's five permanent members can prevent the adoption of any (non-"procedural") UNSC draft resolution not to their liking. Even the mere threat of a veto may lead to changes in the text of a resolution, or it being withheld altogether (the so-called "pocket veto"). As a result, the power of veto often prevents the Council from acting to address pressing international issues and affords the "P5" great influence within the UN institution as a whole.
For example, the Security Council passed no resolutions on most major Cold War conflicts, including the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, the Vietnam War, and the Soviet–Afghan War. Resolutions addressing more current problems, such as the conflict between Israel and Palestine or Iran's suspected development of nuclear weapons, are also heavily influenced by the veto, whether its actual use or the threat of its use. Additionally, the veto applies to the selection of the UN's Secretary-General, as well as any amendments to the UN Charter, giving the P5 great influence over these processes. Recently China also exercised its veto on India's Resolution to put Masood Azhar on list of Global terrorist list. He is proclaimed head of Jaish E Mohammad a terror Outfit which is already designated as Global terrorist group by UNSC.
Discussions on improving the UN's effectiveness and responsiveness to international security threats often include reform of the UNSC veto. Proposals include: limiting the use of the veto to vital national security issues; requiring agreement from multiple states before exercising the veto; abolishing the veto entirely; and embarking on the transition stipulated in Article 106 of the Charter, which requires the consensus principle to stay in place. Any reform of the veto will be very difficult. Articles 108 and 109 of the United Nations Charter grant the P5 veto over any amendments to the Charter, requiring them to approve of any modifications to the UNSC veto power that they themselves hold.
Overall positions on reforming the Security Council
According to a formal statement by the United States Department of State:
The United States is open to UN Security Council reform and expansion, as one element of an overall agenda for UN reform. We advocate a criteria-based approach under which potential members must be supremely well qualified, based on factors such as: economic size, population, military capacity, commitment to democracy and human rights, financial contributions to the UN, contributions to UN peacekeeping, and record on counterterrorism and nonproliferation. We have to look, of course, at the overall geographic balance of the Council, but effectiveness remains the benchmark for any reform.— Bureau of Public Affairs, 20 June 2005
According to a formal statement by President of the United States Barack Obama in an address to a Joint Session of the Indian Parliament:
We salute India's long history as a leading contributor to United Nations peacekeeping missions. And we welcome India as it prepares to take its seat on the United Nations Security Council. As two global leaders, the United States and India can partner for global security—especially as India serves on the Security Council over the next two years. Indeed, the just and sustainable international order that America seeks includes a United Nations that is efficient, effective, credible and legitimate. That is why I can say today, in the years ahead, I look forward to a reformed United Nations Security Council that includes India as a permanent member. The United Nations exists to fulfill its founding ideals of preserving peace and security, promoting global cooperation, and advancing human rights. These are the responsibilities of all nations, but especially those that seek to lead in the 21st century. And so we look forward to working with India—and other nations that aspire to Security Council membership—to ensure that the Security Council is effective; that resolutions are implemented, that sanctions are enforced; that we strengthen the international norms which recognize the rights and responsibilities of all nations and all individuals.— Barack Obama, 9 November 2010
United Kingdom and France
The United Kingdom and France hold similar views on reform to the United Nations Security Council. According to a formal statement made by 10 Downing Street:
Reform of the UNSC, both its enlargement and the improvement of its working methods, must therefore succeed. We reaffirm the support of our two countries for the candidacies of Germany, Brazil, India and Japan for permanent membership, as well as for permanent representation for Africa on the Council. We regret that negotiations towards this goal remain in deadlock and are therefore ready to consider an intermediate solution. This could include a new category of seats, with a longer term than those of the current elected members and those terms would be renewable; at the end of an initial phase, it could be decided to turn these new types of seats into permanent ones. We will work with all our partners to define the parameters of such a reform.
UNSC reform requires a political commitment from the member states at the highest level. We will work in this direction in the coming months with a view to achieving effective reform.
As stated by then–President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev at the General Debate of the 64th Session of the United Nations General Assembly:
The UN must rationally adapt itself to new world realities. It should also strengthen its influence and preserve its multinational nature and integrity of the UN Charter provisions. The reform of the UN Security Council is an essential component of its revitalization. The time has come to speed up the search for a compromise formula of its expansion and increased efficiency of its work.— Dmitry Medvedev, 23 September 2009
Activities of the Security Council have greatly expanded in the past few years. The success of Security Council's actions depends upon political support of the international community. Any package for restructuring of the Security Council should, therefore, be broad-based. In particular, adequate presence of developing countries is needed in the Security Council. Nations of the world must feel that their stakes in global peace and prosperity are factored into the UN's decision making. Any expansion of permanent members' category must be based on an agreed criteria, rather than be a pre-determined selection. There must be an inclusive approach based on transparent consultations. India supports expansion of both permanent and non-permanent members' category. The latter is the only avenue for the vast majority of Member States to serve on the Security Council. Reform and expansion must be an integral part of a common package.— India's Permanent Mission to UN
It is common knowledge that the United Nations is often unable to exert an effective influence on global economic and political issues of critical importance. This is due to its what may be called as "democracy deficit", which prevents effective multilateralism, a multilateralism that is based on a democratically-evolved global consensus. Therefore, reform and restructuring of the United Nations system can alone provide a crucial link in an expanding chain of efforts to refashion international structures, imbuing them with a greater degree of participatory decision-making, so as to make them more representative of contemporary realities. The expansion of the Security Council, in the category of both permanent and non-permanent members, and the inclusion of countries like India as permanent members, would be a first step in the process of making the United Nations a truly representative body.— Manmohan Singh, 23 September 2004
We must reform the United Nations, including the Security Council, and make it more democratic and participative. Institutions that reflect the imperatives of 20th century won't be effective in the 21st. It would face the risk of irrelevance; and we will face the risk of continuing turbulence with no one capable of addressing it.
Next year we will be seventy, we should ask ourselves whether we should wait until we are 80 or 100. Let us fulfill our promise to reform the United Nations Security Council by 2015. Let us fulfil our pledge on a post-2015 Development Agenda so that there is new hope and belief in us around the world. Let us make 2m5 also a new watershed for a sustainable world. Let it be the beginning of a new journey together.
As stated by then President of Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the General Debate of the 63rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly:
The United Nations has spent 15 years discussing the reform of its Security Council. Today's structure has been frozen for six decades and does not relate to the challenges of today's world. Its distorted form of representation stands between us and the multilateral world to which we aspire. Therefore I am much encouraged by the General Assembly's decision to launch negotiations in the near future on the reform of the Security Council.— Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, 23 September 2008
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) urgently requires reform to rectify inequitable power relations. We reiterate that the reform of the UNSC is urgent and would go a long way in rectifying inequitable power relations within the Security Council.— Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, 1 June 2011
As stated by former Prime Minister of Portugal José Sócrates:
The 15-member Security Council must be enlarged so that it is more representative, transparent and efficient. In our view it is illogical that countries like Brazil or India that have today an irreplaceable economic and political role are still not permanent members of the Security Council. Africa also deserves consideration to take due account of the remarkable political and economic progresses that we have witnessed in that vast continent.— José Sócrates, September 2010
The Security Council must be able to take leadership in maintaining international peace and security. Thus Lithuania supports substantial reform for the better, equitable representation in both categories, permanent or non-permanent, through the inclusion of Germany and Japan, as well as certain other leading countries from other regions.— Antanas Valionis, July 2003
- Also see letter from the Chairman Archived 19 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Zahir Tanin, of the intergovernmental negotiations on the question of equitable representation and increase in the membership of the Security Council and other matters related to the Council
- "Security Council Reform". Global Policy Forum. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Frequently Asked Questions about the United Nations Security Council".
- UNSC Article 108
- "English General Assembly Resolutions Resolutions of previous sessions 1965". United Nations.
- Weiss, Thomas G. The Illusion of UN Security Council Reform, Washington Quarterly, Autumn 2003
- Laskar, Rejaul Karim (June 26, 2004). "Amending the UN Charter". Mainstream. 42 (27): 26.
- Microsoft Word – FINAL C.rtf. (PDF). Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- . Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- . Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- "US congressmen move resolution in support of India's UN security council claim". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
- "\ Tracking Developments -> Ensuring Transparency and Accountability". Reformtheun.org.
- "\ Tracking Developments -> Ensuring Transparency and Accountability". Reformtheun.org. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013.
- "\ Task Force Suggests "Timeline" Solution for Security Council Reform, States Remain Divided". Reformtheun.org. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015.
- "Archive: 3 reforms the UN needs as it turns 70". World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 1 November 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- https://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&storyID=7953909. Retrieved 22 November 2005. Missing or empty
- Karen A. Mingst and Margaret P. Karns, The United Nations in the 21st Century (United States: Westview Press, 2012),51.
- SG statement to GA, 21 March 2005 Archived 19 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine.. United Nations. (21 March 2005). Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- UN-NGLS Millennium Development Goals – MDG summit +5. United Nations-ngls.org (31 May 2005). Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- 'Uniting For Consensus' Group Of States Introduces Text On Security Council Reform To General Assembly. United Nations. (26 July 2005). Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- "Riforma ONU: Frattini, il Consiglio di Sicurezza sia più rappresentativo" (in Italian). Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Vincenzo Nigro (15 May 2011). "Consiglio di sicurezza Onu: Roma con 120 voti sfida Berlino" (in Italian). La Repubblica. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Archive: UNSC Reform is Too Long Overdue: Ban Ki-Moon". Outlook. Archived from the original on 1 November 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "Countries Welcome Work Plan as Security Council Reform Process Commences New Phase | Center for UN Reform Education". Centerforunreform.org. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- de Nesnera, Andre (1 November 2006). "UN Security Council Reform May Shadow Annan's Legacy". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 2 November 2006.
- Archived 15 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "India Offers To Temporarily Forgo Veto Power If Granted Permanent UNSC Seat". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- "Brazil and the United Nations" Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Ministry of Foreign Relations of Brazil. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- "Regular Budget Payments of Largest Payers: 2007" Global Policy Forum. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- "Commentary: Brazil Seeking Security". The National Interest. 7 July 2010.
- "Powell: Brazil Not Developing Nukes" Archived 11 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Fox News Channel. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- "Global Brazil and U.S.-Brazil Relations".
- "France and Brazil" Archived 10 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- "Putin in Brazil" Archived 24 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Brazzil. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- "UK backs Brazil as permanent Security Council member", 10 Downing Street., 27 March 2009. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- "Chanceleres lusófonos discutem reforma das Nações Unidas", Uol Notícias. Retrieved 28 June 2009. (in Portuguese)
- "G4 Nations Bid for Permanent Security Council Seat", Global Policy Forum. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- "Brazil Gets Australia's Backing for UN Security Council Seat" Archived 15 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Brazzil. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
- "Presidente do Chile pede ingresso do Brasil no Conselho de Segurança da ONU" Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Sul21. Retrieved 4 April 2011
- "Brasil e Finlândia farão acordo para disseminação de fontes limpas de energia" Archived 19 April 2012 at Archive.is, Agência Brasil. Retrieved 28 June 2009. (in Portuguese)
- "Brasil e Guatemala acertam apoio mútuo para Conselho de Segurança", Yahoo!! Brazil. Retrieved 28 June 2009. (in Portuguese)
- "PGMA, Brazilian President Lula agree to further strengthen RP-Brazil relations", Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- "Slovenia backs Brazil as permanent member of UNSC", People's Daily. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
- "South Africa to support India, Brazil for Security Council seat", The Hindu. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- "Presidentes do Brasil e Vietnã realiza 'Comunicado Conjunto' para cooperação para o desenvolvimento econômico e social", Fator Brasil. Retrieved 28 June 2009. (in Portuguese)
- "Chirac pushes two-speed Europe". BBC News. 27 June 2000.
- Ikehata, Setsuho; Yu-Jose, Lydia, eds. (2003). Philippines-Japan Relations. Ateneo De Manila University Press. p. 588. ISBN 971-550-436-1.
- "German Hopes for U.N. Security Council Seat Dampened", Deutsche Welle, 20 August 2004. Retrieved 14 May 2006.
- Allan Odhiambo (13 July 2011). "Germany shops for U.N. seat, business in Africa visit". Business Daily. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- UN says peacekeepers overstretched – Americas. Al Jazeera English (27 January 2009). Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- Lynch, Colum (14 June 2011). "India threatens to pull plug on peacekeeping". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- "General Assembly 65th Session, 28th Plenary Meeting". 12 October 2010. A/65/PV.28. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- India wins UNSC seat with highest votes in 5 yrs. Zee News (13 October 2010). Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- "World's largest economies - CNNMoney". Retrieved 2017-04-06.
- Hardeep Puri. "Foreign Affairs: India will have Security Council reform by end 2011-beginning 2012". Indiastrategic.in. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- PTI (2 December 2016). "U.K., France back UNSC permanent seat for India". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- "Latest India News"
- "Putin backs India's UN seat bid". BBC News. 4 December 2004. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "UNSC without India unrealistic: Brown. The Economic Times.
- "Countering China, Obama Backs India for U.N. Council". The New York Times. 8 November 2010.
- "China and Russia officially endorse India's place in UN Security Council". Business Standard. 15 April 2011.
- "China backs India's aspiration for greater role in UN". Daily News and Analysis.
- Krishnan, Ananth (16 July 2011). "China ready to support Indian bid for UNSC". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
- "Armenia supports India's UNSC bid". News.outlookindia.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012.
- "UNSC seat: Australia supports India". Zeenews.india.com.
- "Sorry for the inconvenience" (PDF).
- NK. "Top News Stories @ newkerala.com, updated daily with latest Top News Stories news".
- "Denying India veto at UNSC is an insult: Belarus". Hindustan Times. 15 April 2007. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013.
- PTI (22 March 2010). "Belgium supports India's bid for permanent seat in UNSC". The Times of India.
- Archived 25 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- "India, Benin sign five agreements – Thaindian News". Thaindian.com. 4 March 2009.
- Standard, Business. "Bhutan PM says India deserves permanent seat in UN Security Council".
- "Embajada De La India – Peru – Bolivia". Indembassy.org.pe. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012.
- "National Portal of India". India.gov.in.
- "Joint Declaration by India and Bulgaria on the visit of Prime Minister of Bulgaria".
- "Cambodia supports India's bid for UN Security Council seat". The Nation. Thailand.
- "Chile supports India as permanent member of UN Security Council". En.mercopress.com. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- Gargi Parsai (11 June 2010). "Croatia supports India's bid for permanent membership in UNSC". The Hindu.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 March 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Vidya Subrahmaniam (1 November 2009). "Cyprus backs India on Security Council seat". The Hindu.
- Gargi Parsai (7 June 2010). "Czech Republic to support India's bid for UN seat". The Hindu.
- "Sorry for the inconvenience".
- "Dominican Republic to support India to be a global player". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2 February 2011.
- "India-Estonia relations". Ministry of External Affairs. Archived from the original on 12 January 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- "India, Ethiopia sign five pacts – Monsters and Critics". News.monstersandcritics.com. 5 July 2007. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013.
- "Fiji To Support India's Bid For UN Security Council - July 31, 2015".
- "Finland backs India on Security Council seat". The Hindu. 21 September 2003.
- "Morocco supports India's candidature to UNSC". Hindustan Times. 13 April 2010. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013.
- "Office of the President of Guyana". Op.gov.gy. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010.
- ""Hungary supports India's claim for Security Council seat"". 15 January 2008 – via The Hindu.
- "Iceland supports India's candidature for permanent UN Security Council seat". Rediff.com. 31 October 2000.
- "Israel backs India in expanded UNSC". Hindustan Times. 1 February 2006. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013.
- "Sorry for the inconvenience" (PDF).
- 19 November 2007, 20:34 [IST] (19 November 2007). "Laos supports India's claim for Security Council seat". News.oneindia.in.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20101123231805/http://www.indembassy.be/jd_sep_18_state.html. Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2012. Missing or empty
- IANS. "Libya backs India for UNSC seat".
- "The Hindu : Lithuania backs India's claim for U.N. seat".
- "Kazakhstan back India's candidacy for UNSC". Hindustan Times. 9 May 2005. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013.
- "Sorry for the inconvenience".
- "Brief on India-Malawi bilateral relations" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- "Malaysia supports India's UNSC bid". The Indian Express. 23 January 2010.
- ":. Maldives official website – Maldives News Bulletin". Maldivesinfo.gov.mv.
- "UNSC seat: Mauritius to back India's bid".
- "Sorry for the inconvenience" (PDF).
- PressTrust of India (29 July 2005). "Mongolia to support India's UNSC bid". The Indian Express.
- "Media Statement by Prime Minister during the visit of President of Mozambique to India (August 5, 2015)".
- "Indo-Namibian Relations" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- "UK, France, Nepal support India as permanent member of UNSC - Firstpost". 13 November 2014.
- "Text of the PM's statement in Joint Press Briefing with PM of Netherlands".
- "New Zealand assures support for India's UNSC, NSG membership appeal - Firstpost". 26 October 2016.
- "Nicaragua wants India to join in mega canal project". 24 August 2013 – via The Hindu.
- https://www.forbes.com/feeds/afx/2007/10/15/afx4220622.html. Retrieved 13 December 2012. Missing or empty
- PTI (3 November 2006). "Norway supports India's claim for UNSC seat". The Times of India.
- "Oman hails UNSC seat for India". 20 October 2010 – via The Hindu.
- "Media Statement by the President of India upon the conclusion of his state visit to Papua New Guinea and New Zealand en route from Auckland to New Delhi".
- "Embajada De La India – Peru – Bolivia". Indembassy.org.pe. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012.
- "Poland supports India UN Security Council bid". Thenews.pl.
- "Portugal among first to support India's claim for UNSC seat". Navhindtimes.in. 15 November 2010. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012.
- "Rwanda Backs India for Permanent UNSC Seat". news.outlookindia.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013.
- "Sorry for the inconvenience".
- "Natwar to visit Senegal in March". The Financial Express. 26 January 2005.
- "Media Statement by Prime Minister and President of Seychelles during the visit of President of Seychelles to India (August 26, 2015)".
- Singapore, 20 Nov (PTI). "Singapore PM backs India's bid for permanent UNSC seat". Deccan Herald.
- "Sorry for the inconvenience".
- "Kabinet van de President – Kabinet van de President". Kabinet.sr.org. Archived from the original on 19 March 2009.
- "Swaziland sympathetic to India's bid for UN seat – Thaindian News". Thaindian.com. 15 May 2010.
- "Sweden Supports India's Bid for a Permanent Seat at the UN Security Council". 2 June 2015.
- "Syria" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- "Tajikistan back India's candidacy for UNSC". Hindustan Times. 9 May 2005. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013.
- "Tanzania supports India as permanent member of UN Security Council". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "Trinidad PM to be honoured at Pravasi Bharati Divas". The Times of India. 5 January 2012.
- "Sorry for the inconvenience" (PDF).
- "Joint Statement issued during the State Visit of President of Ukraine on 'Forging a Comprehensive Partnership between India and Ukraine'". Mea.gov.in.
- PTI (23 November 2010). "UNSC permanent seat is India's right : UAE". The Hindu.
- "India's bid for permanent UNSC seat gets stronger - Rediff.com India News".
- ANI (18 May 2011). "Uzbekistan supports India's bid for permanent UNSC seat". Yahoo! News.
- "Venezuela backs India for U.N. Council seat".
- "Vietnam supports India's UNSC membership bid"
- "High Commission of India, Lusaka". Hcizambia.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013.
- "In India, Mugabe lashes out at United Nations".
- "African Union backs India's UNSC bid". The Indian Express. 7 July 2007.
- Assessed contributions of member states to the regular budget – The United Nations Budget. Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- Krishnan, Ananth (16 July 2011). "'China ready to support Indian bid for UNSC'". The Hindu. Chennai.
- https://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=topNews&storyID=7953909&pageNumber=1. Retrieved 22 November 2005. Missing or empty
- Koizumi: No Shift in Article 9. Globalpolicy.org (25 August 2004). Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- "Philippines to support Japan's Security Council membership bid". Manila Standard. 14 January 1994. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "仏首相、日本の常任理事国入りを支持 安倍首相と京都で夕食会". J-CAST News (in Japanese). October 5, 2015. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- "UK backs Japan for UNSC bid". Central chronicle. January 11, 2007. Archived from the original on 21 February 2007.
- However, much opposition come from its East Asian neighbors due to Japan's reluctance to accept its militant past. Countries such as South Korea and China oppose Japan's bid into the Security Council.Japan increases aid to Pacific Is. Matangi Tonga Online
- Japan Seeks Nepal's Support for UN Bid Ohmynews
- "OIC wants permanent UNSC seat". The Nation. 2005-06-29. Archived from the original on 2005-11-12.
- Venter, Albert (December 4, 2003). "Reform of the United Nations Security Council: A Comment on the South African Position". International Journal on World Peace. 20 (4): 37. Retrieved November 28, 2014.
- UN permanent seat: Nigeria taunts South Africa, Egypt – Afrik-news.com : Africa news, Maghreb news – The african daily newspaper. En.afrik.com. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
- "Nigeria becomes Africa's biggest economy - BBC News".
- "Peacekeeping Contributor Profile: Nigeria". 24 April 2015.
- Schlichtmann, Klaus. "1950–How the opportunity for transitioning to U.N. Collective was missed for the first time". Global Nonkilling Working Papers #11 (April 14, 2016).
- "U.S. Priorities for a Stronger, More Effective United Nations". U.S. Department of State. 20 June 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-01-15.
- " Barack Obama in an address to a Joint Session of the Parliament of India", Lok Sabha, India, 9 November 2010
- "Joint UK-France Summit Declaration". British Prime Minister's Office. 27 March 2008. Archived from the original on 9 January 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
- "Statement by Dmitry A. Medvedev, President of the Russian Federation at the 64th Session of the UN General Assembly" (PDF).
- "India's position on UN Reform Process". Un.int. Archived from the original on 18 February 2008.
- "Prime Minister of India's Address at the 59th Session of United Nations General Assembly, New York" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2011.
- "Prime Minister of India's Address at the 69th Session of United Nations General Assembly, New York" (PDF).
- "Statement by H.E. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, President of Brazil". Un.int. 23 September 2008. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009.
- ""Statement by South Africa's International Relations Minister Maite Nkoana-Mashabane"". Archived from the original on 2 September 2011.
- "European leaders press for 'long overdue' UN reform to match changing world". United Nations. 25 September 2010.
- Banerjee, Ajit M.; Sharma, Murari R. (2007). Reinventing the United Nations. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-8120332829.
- Bardo Fassbender, UN Security Council Reform and the Right of Veto: A Constitutional Perspective, Kluwer Law International, The Hague / London / Boston, 1998. ISBN 90-411-0592-1.
- Bardo Fassbender, 'Pressure for Security Council Reform', in: David M. Malone (ed.), The UN Security Council: From the Cold War to the 21st Century, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, Colorado, and London, 2004, pp. 341–355.
- Bardo Fassbender, 'The Security Council: Progress is Possible but Unlikely', in: Antonio Cassese (ed.), Realizing Utopia: The Future of International Law, Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 52–60.
- Drifte, R. (1999). Japan's Quest for a Permanent Security-Council Seat: A Matter of Pride or Justice?. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333699386.
- Hans Köchler, The Voting Procedure in the United Nations Security Council, 1991, ISBN 3-900704-10-4
- Hans Köchler, The United Nations and International Democracy. The Quest for UN Reform, 1997, ISBN 3-900704-16-3
- Hassler, Sabine (2012). Reforming the UN Security Council Membership: The illusion of representativeness. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415505901.
- McDonald, Kara C.; Patrick, Stewart M.: UN Security Council Enlargement and U.S. Interests, Council on Foreign Relations, 2010.
- Malone, D & Mahbubani, K: "The UN Security Council – from the Cold War to the 21st Century", UN World Chronicle, 30 March 2004.
- Nadin, Peter (2016). UN Security Council Reform (Global Institutions). Routledge. ISBN 978-1138920224.
- Runjic, Ljubo, Reform of the United Nations Security Council: The Emperor Has No Clothes, Brazilian Journal of International Law, v. 14, n. 2, 2017.
- The different projects of reform (G4, Africa Union, United for consensus; 2006) (in French)
- Center for UN Reform—Independent policy research organization offering documentation and in-depth analysis on ongoing reform processes