Records of the Three Kingdoms

Records of the Three Kingdoms
A fragment of the biography of Bu Zhi from the Records of the Three Kingdoms, part of the Dunhuang manuscripts
Author Chen Shou
Original title 三國志
Country China
Language Classical Chinese
Subject History of the Three Kingdoms period
Publication date
3rd century
Records of the Three Kingdoms
Traditional Chinese 三國志
Simplified Chinese 三国志

The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty (c. 184–220 AD) and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). It is widely regarded as the official and authoritative historical text for that period. Written by Chen Shou in the third century, the work combines the smaller histories of the rival states of Cao Wei, Shu Han and Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period into a single text. The Records of the Three Kingdoms provided the basis for the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century.

Origin and structure

Together with the Records of the Grand Historian, Book of Han and Book of the Later Han, the Records of the Three Kingdoms is part of the early four historiographies of the Twenty-Four Histories canon. It contains 65 volumes and about 360,000 Chinese characters which are broken into three books. The Book of Wei contains 30 volumes, the Book of Shu 15 volumes, while the Book of Wu contains 20 volumes. Each volume is organised in the form of one or more biographies. The amount of space a biography takes up is dictated by the importance of the figure.

The original author was Chen Shou, who was born in present-day Nanchong, Sichuan, in the state of Shu. After the fall of Shu in 263, he became an official historian under the government of the Jin dynasty, and was assigned to create a history of the Three Kingdoms period. After the fall of Wu in 280, his work received the acclaim of the senior minister Zhang Hua. Prior to the Jin dynasty, both the states of Wei and Wu already had their official histories, such as the Book of Wei by Wang Chen, the Weilüe by Yu Huan, and the Book of Wu by Wei Zhao. Chen Shou created the Records of the Three Kingdoms with these preexisting works as a foundation. However, since the state of Shu lacked documents about its history, the Book of Shu in the Records of the Three Kingdoms was composed by Chen Shou himself based on his personal memories of his early life in Shu and other primary sources he collected, such as the writings of Zhuge Liang.[1] The Records of the Three Kingdoms used the year 220 AD — which marked the end of the Han dynasty — as the year in which the state of Wei was established. The Records of the Three Kingdoms referred the rulers of Wei as 'Emperors' and those of Shu and Wu as 'Lords' or by their personal names. This was to uphold the legitimacy of the Jin dynasty as the inheritor of the Mandate of Heaven from Wei — because Wei must first be "designated" as the true successor to the Han dynasty in order for Jin's claim to be effective.

Historical record

The romantic and historical traditions for the Three Kingdoms period have been so confused over the centuries that the Records of the Three Kingdoms is often regarded as an invaluable resource. Although it contains errors, it is nevertheless more historically accurate than the embellishments of writers in later periods. Many of the political, economic and military figures from the Three Kingdoms period have their own biographies in the Records of the Three Kingdoms, as are those who contributed to the fields of culture, arts and science. In its nature, the work is indeed a chronicle, much like those of early Medieval Europe written much later. The text is bland and little more than a collection of historical facts.

A typical extract, roughly translated, is as follows:

In the 24th year (of Jian'an), the Former Lord became the King of Hanzhong, and he appointed (Guan) Yu as the General of the Vanguard. In the same year, (Guan) Yu led his men to attack Cao Ren at Fan. Lord Cao sent Yu Jin to aid (Cao) Ren. In autumn, great rains caused the Han River to flood. (Yu) Jin and the seven armies were lost.[2]

From this, we can establish reasonably accurately the flow of events and how history unfolded but almost nothing about society or elements of institutions or policies.

The amount of creative imagination used in ancient Chinese historical narratives — of "fictionalising" — is impossible to estimate precisely. Sima Qian employed this device in his Records of the Grand Historian and it can be assumed that Chen Shou also did the same in the Records of the Three Kingdoms. It is highly unlikely that various remarks which leaders or soldiers are supposed to have made in the heat of battle could have been taken down stenographically and thus many of them may be false.

Chen Shou, a former Shu subject, favoured his state over Wu in the work, but this preference was subordinate to the Jin dynasty's point of view, which saw Wei as the legitimate successor to the Han dynasty. He referred to the Wei rulers as 'Emperors', the Shu rulers as 'Lords', and the Wu rulers by their personal names. He also never referred to the Wu empresses as "empresses", instead calling them "Ladies".[3]

The book is also important to the research of Japanese history (where it is known as Sangokushi (三国志)), for its volume on Wa is the first historical document to make explicit mention of Japan. It describes the ancient country of Yamatai and its queen Himiko.


The text includes biographies of historical figures such as Cao Cao and Guan Yu who feature prominently in the 14th-century novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In addition, Chen Shou's literary style and vivid portrayal of characters have been a source of influence for the novel. The text is the last of the "Four Histories" (四史), which together influenced and served as a model for Korean and Japanese official histories.[4]



Due to the biographical rather than primarily annalistic arrangement of the work, assigning dates to the historical content is both imprecise and non-trivial. Certain volumes contain background information about their subjects' forebears which date back centuries before the main record. For example, the biography of Liu Yan begins with discussing his ancestor Liu Yu's enfeoffment at Jingling (present-day Tianmen, Hubei) in around 85 AD.[5] The first event to receive detailed description throughout the work is the Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184. Many biographies make passing mention of the event, but more concrete information such as correspondence and troop movements during the uprising can be found in fragmentary form in at least four volumes: the biographies of Cheng Yu,[6] Yu Jin,[7] Liu Bei,[8] and Sun Jian.[9]

The three books in the Records of the Three Kingdoms end at different dates, with the main section of the Book of Wei ending with the abdication of Cao Huan in 265, the Book of Shu ending with the death of Liu Shan in 271, and the Book of Wu ending with the death of Sun Hao in 284.[10]

Book of Wei (魏書)

Volume 1武帝紀Annals of Emperor WuCao Cao
Volume 2文帝紀Annals of Emperor WenCao Pi
Volume 3明帝紀Annals of Emperor MingCao Rui
Volume 4三少帝紀Annals of the three young emperorsCao Fang, Cao Mao, Cao Huan
Volume 5后妃傳Biographies of empresses and concubinesLady Bian, Lady Zhen, Guo Nüwang, Empress Mao, Empress Guo
Volume 6董二袁劉傳Biographies of Dong, the two Yuans, and LiuDong Zhuo, Yuan Shao, Yuan Shu, Liu Biao
Volume 7呂布臧洪傳Biographies of Lü Bu and Zang HongZhang Miao, Chen Deng
Volume 8二公孫陶四張傳Biographies of the two Gongsuns, Tao, and the four ZhangsGongsun Zan, Tao Qian, Zhang Yang, Gongsun Du, Zhang Yan, Zhang Xiu, Zhang Lu
Volume 9諸夏侯曹傳Biographies of the Xiahous and CaosXiahou Dun, Han Hao, Xiahou Yuan, Cao Ren, Cao Chun, Cao Hong, Cao Xiu, Cao Zhen, Cao Shuang, Xiahou Shang, Xiahou Xuan
Volume 10荀彧荀攸賈詡傳Biographies of Xun Yu, Xun You, and Jia Xu
Volume 11袁張涼國田王邴管傳Biographies of Yuan, Zhang, Liang, Guo, Tian, Wang, Bing, and GuanYuan Huan, Zhang Fan, Zhang Cheng, Liang Mao, Guo Yuan, Tian Chou, Wang Xiu, Bing Yuan, Guan Ning
Volume 12崔毛徐何邢司馬傳Biographies of Cui, Mao, Xu, He, Xing, and SimaCui Yan, Mao Jie, Xu Yi, He Kui, Xing Yong, Bao Xun, Sima Zhi
Volume 13鍾繇華歆王朗傳Biographies of Zhong Yao, Hua Xin, and Wang LangZhong Yu, Wang Su
Volume 14程郭董劉蔣劉傳Biographies of Cheng, Dong, Guo, Liu, Jiang, and LiuCheng Yu, Cheng Xiao, Guo Jia, Dong Zhao, Liu Ye, Jiang Ji, Liu Fang
Volume 15劉司馬梁張溫賈傳Biographies of Liu, Sima, Liang, Zhang, Wen, and JiaLiu Fu, Liu Jing, Sima Lang, Liang Xi, Zhang Ji (Derong), Zhang Ji (Jingzhong), Wen Hui, Jia Kui
Volume 16任蘇杜鄭倉傳Biographies of Ren, Su, Du, Zheng, and CangRen Jun, Su Ze, Du Ji, Zheng Hun, Cang Ci
Volume 17張樂于張徐傳Biographies of Zhang, Yue, Yu, Zhang, and XuZhang Liao, Yue Jin, Yu Jin, Zhang He, Xu Huang
Volume 18二李臧文呂許典二龐閻傳Biographies of the two Lis, Zang, Wen, Lü, Xu, Dian, the two Pangs, and YanLi Dian, Li Tong, Zang Ba, Wen Ping, Lü Qian, Xu Chu, Dian Wei, Pang De, Pang Yu, Yan Wen
Volume 19任城陳蕭王傳Biographies of the princes of Rencheng, Chen, and XiaoCao Zhang, Cao Zhi, Cao Xiong
Volume 20武文世王公傳Biographies of nobles in Emperors Wu and Wen's timeCao Ang, Cao Shuo, Cao Chong, Cao Ju (Prince of Pengcheng), Cao Yu, Cao Lin (Prince of Pei), Cao Gun, Cao Xuan, Cao Jun (Prince of Chenliu), Cao Ju (Prince of Fanyang), Cao Gan, Cao Zishang, Cao Biao, Cao Ziqin, Cao Zicheng, Cao Zizheng, Cao Zijing, Cao Jun (Duke of Fan), Cao Ziji, Cao Hui, Cao Mao (Prince of Laoling), Cao Xie, Cao Rui (Prince of Beihai), Cao Jian, Cao Lin (Prince of Donghai), Cao Li, Cao Yong, Cao Gong, Cao Yan
Volume 21王衛二劉傳Biographies of Wang, Wei, and the two LiusWang Can, Wei Ji, Liu Yi, Liu Shao, Fu Jia
Volume 22桓二陳徐衛盧傳Biographies of Huan, the two Chens, Xu, Wei, and LuHuan Jie, Chen Qun, Chen Tai, Chen Jiao, Xu Xuan, Wei Zhen, Lu Yu
Volume 23和常楊杜趙裴傳Biographies of He, Chang, Yang, Du, Zhao, and PeiHe Qia, Chang Lin, Yang Jun, Du Xi, Zhao Yan, Pei Qian
Volume 24韓崔高孫王傳Biographies of Han, Cui, Gao, Sun, and WangHan Ji, Cui Lin, Gao Rou, Sun Li, Wang Guan
Volume 25辛毗楊阜高堂隆傳Biographies of Xin Pi, Yang Fu, and Gaotang Long
Volume 26滿田牽郭傳Biographies of Man, Tian, Qian, and GuoMan Chong, Tian Yu, Qian Zhao, Guo Huai
Volume 27徐胡二王傳Biographies of Xu, Hu, and the two WangsXu Miao, Hu Zhi, Wang Chang, Wang Ji
Volume 28王毌丘諸葛鄧鍾傳Biographies of Wang, Guanqiu, Zhuge, Deng and ZhongWang Ling, Guanqiu Jian, Zhuge Dan, Deng Ai, Zhong Hui
Volume 29方技傳Biographies of fangshis and artisansHua Tuo, Du Kui, Zhu Jianping, Zhou Xuan, Guan Lu
Volume 30烏丸鮮卑東夷傳Biographies of the Wuhuan, Xianbei, and DongyiWuhuan, Xianbei, Buyeo, Goguryeo, Okjeo, Yilou, Yemaek, Samhan, Wa; and a long footnote at the end containing the chapter on the Xirong, or ‘Peoples of the West’ from the Weilüe, or “Brief Account of the Wei Dynasty,” composed by Yu Huan in the second third of the 3rd century AD.

Book of Shu (蜀書)

Volume 31劉二牧傳Biographies of the two Governor LiusLiu Yan, Liu Zhang
Volume 32先主傳Biography of the Former LordLiu Bei
Volume 33後主傳Biography of the Later LordLiu Shan
Volume 34二主妃子傳Biographies of concubines and sons of the two LordsLady Gan, Empress Wu, Empress Zhang (former), Empress Zhang (later), Liu Yong, Liu Li, Liu Xuan
Volume 35諸葛亮傳Biography of Zhuge LiangZhuge Qiao, Zhuge Zhan, Dong Jue
Volume 36關張馬黃趙傳Biographies of Guan, Zhang, Ma, Huang, and ZhaoGuan Yu, Zhang Fei, Ma Chao, Huang Zhong, Zhao Yun
Volume 37龐統法正傳Biographies of Pang Tong and Fa Zheng
Volume 38許麋孫簡伊秦傳Biographies of Xu, Mi, Sun, Jian, Yi, and QinXu Jing, Mi Zhu, Mi Fang, Sun Qian, Jian Yong, Yi Ji, Qin Mi
Volume 39董劉馬陳董呂傳Biographies of Dong, Liu, Ma, Chen, Dong, and LüDong He, Liu Ba, Ma Liang, Ma Su, Chen Zhen, Dong Yun, Chen Zhi, Huang Hao, Lü Yi
Volume 40劉彭廖李劉魏楊傳Biographies of Liu, Peng, Liao, Li, Liu, Wei, and YangLiu Feng, Peng Yang, Liao Li, Li Yan, Liu Yan, Wei Yan, Yang Yi
Volume 41霍王向張楊費傳Biographies of Huo, Wang, Xiang, Zhang, Yang, and FeiHuo Jun, Huo Yi, Wang Lian, Xiang Lang, Xiang Chong, Zhang Yi, Yang Hong, Fei Shi, Wang Chong
Volume 42杜周杜許孟來尹李譙郤傳Biographies of Du, Zhou, Du, Xu, Meng, Lai, Yin, Li, Qiao, and XiDu Wei, Zhou Qun, Zhang Yu, Du Qiong, Xu Ci, Hu Qian, Meng Guang, Lai Min, Yin Mo, Li Zhuan, Qiao Zhou, Xi Zheng
Volume 43黃李呂馬王張傳Biographies of Huang, Li, Lü, Ma, Wang, and ZhangHuang Quan, Li Hui, Lü Kai, Ma Zhong, Wang Ping, Zhang Ni
Volume 44蔣琬費禕姜維傳Biographies of Jiang Wan, Fei Yi, and Jiang Wei
Volume 45鄧張宗楊傳Biographies of Deng, Zhang, Zong, and YangDeng Zhi, Zhang Yi, Zong Yu, Liao Hua, Yang Xi

Book of Wu (吳書)

Volume 46孫破虜討逆傳Biographies of Sun Who Destroys Barbarians, and Sun Who Attacks RebelsSun Jian, Sun Ce
Volume 47吳主傳Biography of the Lord of WuSun Quan
Volume 48三嗣主傳Biographies of the three heirsSun Liang, Sun Xiu, Sun Hao
Volume 49劉繇太史慈士燮傳Biographies of Liu Yao, Taishi Ci, and Shi XieZe Rong, Liu Ji
Volume 50妃嬪傳Biographies of concubines and ladiesLady Wu, Wu Jing, Lady Xie, Lady Xu, Bu Lianshi, Empress Dayi, Empress Jinghuai, Empress Pan, Quan Huijie, Empress Zhu, Empress Dowager He, Teng Fanglan
Volume 51宗室傳Biographies of noblesSun Jing, Sun Yu, Sun Jiao, Sun Huan, Sun Ben, Sun Fu, Sun Yi, Sun Kuang, Sun Shao, Sun Huan
Volume 52張顧諸葛步傳Biographies of Zhang, Gu, Zhuge, and BuZhang Zhao, Zhang Cheng, Zhang Xiu, Gu Yong, Gu Shao, Gu Tan, Gu Cheng, Zhuge Jin, Bu Zhi
Volume 53張嚴程闞薛傳Biographies of Zhang, Yan, Cheng, Kan, and XueZhang Hong, Yan Jun, Cheng Bing, Kan Ze, Xue Zong
Volume 54周瑜魯肅呂蒙傳Biographies of Zhou Yu, Lu Su, and Lü Meng
Volume 55程黃韓蔣周陳董甘淩徐潘丁傳Biographies of Cheng, Huang, Han, Jiang, Zhou, Chen, Dong, Gan, Ling, Xu, Pan, and DingCheng Pu, Huang Gai, Han Dang, Jiang Qin, Zhou Tai, Chen Wu, Dong Xi, Gan Ning, Ling Tong, Xu Sheng, Pan Zhang, Ding Feng
Volume 56朱治朱然呂範朱桓傳Biographies of Zhu Zhi, Zhu Ran, Lü Fan, and Zhu HuanShi Ji, Zhu Yi
Volume 57虞陸張駱陸吾朱傳Biographies of Yu, Lu, Zhang, Luo, Lu, Wu, and ZhuYu Fan, Lu Ji, Zhang Wen, Luo Tong, Lu Mao, Wu Can, Zhu Ju
Volume 58陸遜傳Biography of Lu XunLu Kang
Volume 59吳主五子傳Biographies of the five sons of the Lord of WuSun Deng, Sun Lü, Sun He, Sun Ba, Sun Fen
Volume 60賀全呂周鍾離傳Biographies of He, Quan, Lü, Zhou, and ZhongliHe Qi, Quan Cong, Lü Dai, Zhou Fang, Zhongli Mu
Volume 61潘濬陸凱傳Biographies of Pan Jun and Lu Kai
Volume 62是儀胡綜傳Biographies of Shi Yi and Hu Zong
Volume 63吳範劉惇趙達傳Biographies of Wu Fan, Liu Dun, and Zhao Da
Volume 64諸葛滕二孫濮陽傳Biographies of Zhuge, Teng, the two Suns, and PuyangZhuge Ke, Teng Yin, Sun Jun, Sun Chen, Puyang Xing
Volume 65王樓賀韋華傳Biographies of Wang, Lou, He, Wei, and HuaWang Fan, Lou Xuan, He Shao, Wei Zhao, Hua He

Pei Songzhi's annotations

The Liu Song Dynasty historian Pei Songzhi (372-451) extensively edited and annotated Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms using a variety of contemporary sources, and the completed work made the book close to twice the length of the original. This work, completed in 429, became the official history of the Three Kingdoms period, under the title Sanguozhi zhu (zhu meaning "notes"). He went about providing detailed explanations to some of the geography and other elements mentioned in the original. More importantly, he made corrections to the work, in consultation with records he collected of the period. In regard to historical events and figures, as well as Chen Shou's opinions, he added his own commentary. From his broad research, he was able to create a history which was relatively complete, without many of the loose ends of the original.


The Records of the Three Kingdoms has not been fully translated into English. William Gordon Crowell alludes to a project to translate Chen Shou's work with Pei Songzhi's commentary in full, but it was apparently discontinued.[11] Parts of that project are published by Robert Joe Cutter and William Gordon Crowell under the title Empresses and Consorts: Selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States With Pei Songzhi's Commentary (University of Hawaii Press, 1999), which includes the translations for volumes 5, 34, and 50.[12]

Other translations include Kenneth J. Dewoskin's Doctors Diviners and Magicians of Ancient China: Biographies of Fang-Shih (Columbia University Press, 1983), which includes a full translation of volume 29. Rafe de Crespigny, in addition to his translation of Sun Jian's biography (Volume 46), also translated excerpts of the Records of the Three Kingdoms in his translation of the Zizhi Tongjian that deals with the last years of the Han dynasty, as does Achilles Fang, who translated the Zizhi Tongjian volumes that deal with the Three Kingdoms period proper. Further excerpts of the Records can be found in various sourcebooks dealing with East Asian history.

Below is a table containing the known English translations of the Records of the Three Kingdoms that have been published in academia:

Volume Title of translation Translator(s) Publish year URL/page numbers Notes
5 (Wei 5) Empresses and Consorts: Selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States With Pei Songzhi's Commentary Robert Joe Cutter and William Gordon Crowell 1999 pp. 89–114 Lady Bian, Lady Zhen, Guo Nüwang, Empress Mao, Empress Guo
8 (Wei 8) Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook, 2nd Ed Patricia Buckley Ebrey 2009 pp.84-5 The section titled "Heterodox Bandits" is an unannotated translation of the Dianlüe footnote of the Zhang Lu chapter, about Zhang Xiu (張脩)
9 (Wei 9) Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook Timothy M. Davis 2013 pp. 135-46 Translation of the correspondence between Xiahou Xuan and Sima Yi from the biography of Xiahou Xuan
29 (Wei 29) Doctors Diviners and Magicians of Ancient China: Biographies of Fang-Shih Kenneth J. Dewoskin 1983 Hua Tuo, Du Kui, Zhu Jianping, Zhou Xuan, Guan Lu
"The Biography of Hua-t'o from the History of the Three Kingdoms" in The Columbia Anthology of Traditional Chinese Literature Victor H. Mair 1994 pp. 688–696 Hua Tuo
30 (Wei 30) Sourcebook of Korean Civilization: Volume One: From Early Times to the 16th Century Michael C. Rogers 1993 pp.13-24 Buyeo, Goguryeo, Okjeo, Yemaek, Samhan (abridged, Yilou omitted)
"Chinese Accounts of Koguryŏ and its Neighbours" in The Review of Korean Studies, Volume 15 Number 2 Kenneth H. J. Gardiner 2012 pp. 91-113 Buyeo, Goguryeo, Okjeo
"The Account of the Han in the Sanguozhi—An Annotated Translation" in Early Korea Vol. 2 (The Samhan Period in Korean History) Mark E. Byington 2009 pp. 125-52 Samhan
Japan in the Chinese dynastic histories: Later Han through Ming dynasties Ryūsaku Tsunoda and Luther Carrington Goodrich 1951 pp. 8–16 Wa (Japan) only
Himiko and Japan's Elusive Chiefdom of Yamatai: Archaeology, History, and Mythology J. Edward Kidder 2007 pp. 12-18 Wa (Japan) only
The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. John E. Hill 2004 Translation of the long Xirong footnote from the Weilüe, includes descriptions of the Western Regions including Rome
31 (Shu 1) Record of The Three Kingdoms: The History of Shu - Fascicle One: “The Two Shepherds Liu” William Gordon Crowell 2005 Liu Yan, Liu Zhang
32 (Shu 2) Record of The Three Kingdoms: The History of Shu - Fascicle Two: “The Former Lord” William Gordon Crowell 2006 Liu Bei
34 (Shu 4) Empresses and Consorts: Selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States With Pei Songzhi's Commentary Robert Joe Cutter and William Gordon Crowell 1999 pp. 115-21 Lady Gan, Empress Wu, Empress Zhang (former), Empress Zhang (later), Liu Yong, Liu Li, Liu Xuan
35 (Shu 5) Zhuge Liang: Strategy, Achievements, and Writings Ralph D. Sawyer 2014 Zhuge Liang (partial translation)
39 (Shu 9) Record of The Three Kingdoms: The History of Shu - Fascicle Nine: Biographies of Dong He, Liu Ba, Ma Liang, Chen Zhen, Dong Yun, and Lü Yi William Gordon Crowell 2006 Dong He, Liu Ba, Ma Liang, Ma Su, Chen Zhen, Dong Yun, Chen Zhi, Lü Yi
42 (Shu 12) Sanguo Zhi Fascicle 42: The Biography of Qiao Zhou J. Michael Farmer 2017 Qiao Zhou only
46 (Wu 1) The Biography of Sun Chien: Being an Annotated Translation of Pages 1 to 8a of Chüan 46 of the San-kuo Chih of Ch'en Shou in the Po-na Edition Rafe de Crespigny 1966 Sun Jian only
49 (Wu 4) Men of Hu, Men of Han, Men of the hundred man: the biography of Sī Nhiêp and the conceptualization of early Vietnamese society Stephen O'Harrow 1986 pp. 259-65 Shi Xie only
50 (Wu 5) Empresses and Consorts: Selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States With Pei Songzhi's Commentary Robert Joe Cutter and William Gordon Crowell 1999 pp. 122-36 Lady Wu, Wu Jing, Lady Xie, Lady Xu, Bu Lianshi, Empress Dayi, Empress Jinghuai, Empress Pan, Quan Huijie, Empress Zhu, Empress Dowager He, Teng Fanglan

See also



  1. Roberts 1991, pg. 946
  2. (二十四年,先主為漢中王,拜羽為前將軍,假節鉞。是歲,羽率眾攻曹仁於樊。曹公遣於禁助仁。秋,大霖雨,漢水汎溢,禁所督七軍皆沒。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
  3. Roberts 1991, pg. 947
  4. Durrant, Stephen (2017). "Chapter 13: Histories (Shi 史)". The Oxford Handbook of Classical Chinese Literature (1000 BCE-900CE) (e-book ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 195–196.
  5. Sanguozhi vol. 31.
  6. Sanguozhi vol. 14.
  7. Sanguozhi vol. 17.
  8. Sanguozhi vol. 32.
  9. Sanguozhi vol. 46.
  10. Sanguozhi vol. 28.
  11. Crowell, William (2005). "Sanguo zhi 31 (Shu 1) Biographies of Liu Yan and Liu Zhang".
  12. Chen, Shou; Pei, Songzhi; Cutter, Robert Joe; Crowell, William Gordon (1999). Empresses and Consorts: Selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States With Pei Songzhi's Commentary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


  • Chen, Shou (1977) [280s or 290s]. Pei, Songzhi, ed. 三國志 [Records of the Three Kingdoms]. Taipei: Dingwen Printing. 
  • Cutter, Robert Joe (2015). "San guo zhi 三國志". In Chennault, Cynthia L.; Knapp, Keith N.; Berkowitz, Alan J.; Dien, Albert E. Early Medieval Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley. pp. 250–57. ISBN 1-55729-109-8. 
  • Roberts, Moss, tr. Three Kingdoms: A Historical Novel (1991) University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22503-1
  • Zhang, Xiuping; et al. (1993). 100 Books That Influenced China: Sanguo Zhi (in Chinese). Nanning: Guangxi People's Press. ISBN 9787219023396. 
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