Rape during the liberation of France
The Liberation of Paris followed on 25 August. Except for German forces penned in the south-west (e.g., around Bordeaux) or in ports, the majority of German troops were pushed back to the Siegfried Line by the end of 1944. After the war, the repatriation for demobilisation of the troops took time. Even in 1946, months after VE-day there were still about 1.5 million troops in Europe. The housing and management of the thousands of troops awaiting embarkation on a ship for home was a problem.
Life magazine reported the widespread view among American troops of France as "a tremendous brothel inhabited by 40 million hedonists who spent all their time eating, drinking, making love and in general having a hell of a good time".
By the late summer of 1944, soon after the invasion of Normandy, women in Normandy began to complain about rapes by American soldiers. Hundreds of cases were reported.
In 1945, after the end of the war in Europe, Le Havre was filled with American servicemen awaiting return to the States. A Le Havre citizen wrote to the mayor that the people of Le Havre were "attacked, robbed, run over both on the street and in our houses" and "This is a regime of terror, imposed by bandits in uniform." A coffeehouse owner from Le Havre testified "We expected friends who would not make us ashamed of our defeat. Instead, there came only incomprehension, arrogance, incredibly bad manners and the swagger of conquerors." Such behavior also was common in Cherbourg. One resident stated that "With the Germans, the men had to camouflage themselves—but with the Americans, we had to hide the women."
U.S. military response
A brothel, Blue and Gray Corral, was set up near the village of St. Renan in September 1944 by Maj. Gen. Charles H. Gerhardt, commander of the infantry division that landed at Omaha Beach, partly to counter a wave of rape accusations against G.I.s. (It was shut down after a mere five hours in order to prevent civilians in the United States from finding out about a military run brothel).
The Free French Forces high command sent a letter of complaint to the Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force General Dwight D. Eisenhower. He gave his commanders orders to take action against all allegations of murder, rape, assault, robbery and other crimes. In August 1945, Pierre Voisin, mayor of Le Havre urged Colonel Thomas Weed, U.S. commander in the region, to set up brothels outside Le Havre. However, U.S. commanders refused.
130 of the 153 troops disciplined for rape by the Army were African American. Military courts sentenced African American soldiers to more severe punishment than white American soldiers: U.S. forces executed 29 soldiers for rape, 25 of them African American. Many convictions against African Americans were, however, based on flimsy evidence. For example, Marie Lepottevin identified William Downs only because he was "much larger" than the other soldiers, despite the crime taking place in near darkness.
Historical and criminological studies
According to Alice Kaplan, an American historian of France and chair of the Department of French at Yale University, the U.S. military tolerated rape of French women less than that of German women. She argued that the number of rapes is well documented and is less than that of some other armies during that era, writing that "Nine hundred and four American soldiers were tried for rape in Europe, and even if the actual numbers were much higher, they do not compare with a terrible legacy of World War II-era rapes" committed, for example, by the Japanese in Nanking, by Germans in the German-occupied areas, by the French-Moroccans in Italy and by the Soviet soldiers across Eastern Europe and Germany. J. Robert Lilly, Regents professor of sociology and criminology at Northern Kentucky University, reported in Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe in World War II his estimate that 14,000 rapes were committed by U.S. soldiers in France, Germany and the United Kingdom between 1942 and 1945. More specifically, Lilly estimated that U.S. servicemen committed around 3,500 rapes in France between June 1944 and the end of the war.
- Allied forces
- Rape during the liberation of Poland
- Rape during the occupation of Germany
- Rape during the occupation of Japan
- Axis forces
- Levenstein p90
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- Time Inc (10 December 1945). LIFE. Time Inc. pp. 20–. ISSN 0024-3019. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- Mathieu von Rohr (May 29, 2013). "'Bandits in Uniform': The Dark Side of GIs in Liberated France". Spiegel. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- Faur, Fabienne (2013-05-26). "GI's were liberators yes, but also trouble in Normandy". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
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- Wieviorka, Olivier (2010). Normandy: From the Landings to the Liberation of Paris. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 329. ISBN 0674047478.
- Virgili, Fabrice (2002). Shorn Women: Gender and Punishment in Liberation France. Berg Publishers. p. 193. ISBN 1859735843.
- "The Dark Side of Liberation". New York Times. May 20, 2013. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- "When some liberators were criminals". CBS News. June 2, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
- Oneale, Laura (May 30, 2013). "What Soldiers Do an American WWII GI Expose". Guardian Express. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- Hitchcock, William (2009). The Bitter Road to Freedom: A New History of the Liberation of Europe. Free Press. p. 53. ISBN 1439123306.
- Schofield, Hugh (5 June 2009). "Revisionists challenge D-Day story". BBC. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- Roberts, Mary Louise (2013). What Soldiers Do: Sex and the American GI in World War II France. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-226-92311-6.
- Alice Kaplan (30 August 2005). The Interpreter. Free Press. pp. 154–. ISBN 978-0-7432-7481-4. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- Lilly, J. Robert. (2007) Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe in World War II. Palgrave Macmillan.
- Wilson, David (27 March 2007). "The secret war: We know that conflict creates conditions in which soldiers commit rape and murder. Why should American GIs in the 1940s be an exception?". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- Virgili, Fabrice (2002). Shorn Women: Gender and Punishment in Liberation France. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1859735843.
- Lilly, J. Robert (2007). Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe in World War II. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-230-50647-X.
- Hitchcock, William (2009). The Bitter Road to Freedom: A New History of the Liberation of Europe. Free Press. ISBN 1439123306.
- Wieviorka, Olivier (2010). Normandy: From the Landings to the Liberation of Paris. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674047478.