Radio Televizioni Shqiptar

Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH)
Type Broadcast radio, television and online
Country Albania
Availability National (in analogue); National Coverage, but Analog is on the Switch Off process. (digital); Broadcasting on DVB-T2 in 90% of the territory, 96.5% will be available by September 2018.
International (on satellite and internet)
Slogan Zgjedhja juaj (Your choice)
Owner Publicly owned (State funded)
Key people
Thoma Gëllçi (General Director)
Launch date
November 28, 1938 (1938-11-28) (radio)
April 29, 1960 (1960-04-29) (television)
Former names
Radiodifuzioni Shqiptar
Official website
www.rtsh.al

Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (English: Albanian Radio and Television – RTSH) is the public broadcaster of Albania, founded in 1938 in Tirana.

RTSH runs two analogue television stations RTSH 1 and RTSH 2 (formerly known as TVSH and TVSH 2, standing for Televizioni Shqiptar),

It runs 2 DVB-T2 multiplexers, one national with the RTSH channels and the second one for local channels. There are 12 TV channels in the first multiplexer and 5 radio channels. RTSH also runs a Satellite Multiplexer with 6 channels,

RTSH 1 is the flagship generalist channel. RTSH 2 is dedicated niche communities, including cultural and ethnic minorities, broadcasting news editions in Greek, Montenegrin and Aromanian. RTSH 3, formerly known as RTSH Sat, is dedicated to Albanians living abroad. RTSH also has dedicated channels, for news (RTSH-24), sports, musics, children, etc. In addition, four regional radio and TV stations serve local areas in Gjirokastër, Korçë, Kukës, and Shkodër.

The international radio service broadcasts radio programmes in Albanian and seven other languages via Internet Radio, Radio on the Satellite and on OTT with an App for both iOS and Android. Medium wave (AM) and short wave broadcasts were switched off in 2017. (SW).[1]The international television service via satellite RTSH 3 (former TVSH Sat) was launched in 1993 and is aimed at Albanian-speaking communities in Kosovo, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and northern Greece, plus the Albanian diaspora in the rest of Europe. Since 1999, RTSH has been a member of the European Broadcasting Union.

RTSH Tani, a mobile app, also offers these channels and more. [2]

RTSH is the official organizer of the Albanian Song Festival Festivali i Kenges, the winner of which represents Albania in the Eurovision Song Contest. RTSH is funded by a combination of commercial advertising, an annual licence fee of US$12.00[3] and grant-in-aid from the Albanian government.

History

The beginnings of RTSH date to the creation of Radio Tirana on 28 November 1938. The first Albanian radio station was launched by King Zog I and Queen Geraldine Apponyi in a ceremony at the former building of the Municipality of Tirana. A year earlier, a shortwave transmitter with a power of 3 kW at 40 meters was put in operation in Laprake (Tirana) and intended mainly for communication, but was also used to broadcast 3 hours of programmes per day. The first broadcast consisted of choral singing, where Jorgji Truja and Marije Kraja sang an introductory piece, followed by the unique timbre of Kaliopi Nushi's voice who pronounced the following phrase: "Mirëdita, kjo është Radio Tirana" (English: Good day, this is Radio Tirana). This officially marked the first broadcast of Radio Tirana. In 1987, 66 hours of programmes were broadcast in 20 foreign languages every day.[4]

In 1959, Radio Tirana's director by that time, Petro Kita, founded the first Experimental Television Center to provide the basis for the latter Albanian television, TVSH. The first test programme was held on 29 April 1960, at 6:00 pm and was introduced by the journalist Stoli Beli. The official launch was set for 1 May 1960. Children movies and then adults’ programmes were broadcast, three times a week for about one hour.[5] Television programs were regularly launched by 1971.[6] Color broadcasts started in 1981, and became regular by 1982. In 2002 TVSH ranked second with an audience share of 17.1%. The second channel, TVSH 2, began experimental broadcasts in 2003. In 2012, several digital only channels were launched under the RTSH logo.

RTSH in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Despite the country's tiny size and isolationist policies, Radio Tirana was a fairly major international broadcaster during the Cold War. Its programmes had a reputation for being little more than dull propaganda.

During Albania's alliance with China in the 1960s and 1970s, Radio Tirana had to walk a fine line between being anti-West whilst also being anti-Soviet. As such, Radio Tirana kept close to the official policy of the People's Republic of China, which was also both anti-West and anti-Soviet whilst still being socialist in tone. Following the break with China, programming still remained Marxist-Leninist in nature.

Polish Communist Kazimierz Mijal broadcast his radical opinions in Polish 1966-1978.

During the 1970s, the station broadcast to Europe on 1214 kHz, causing interference problems for the British BBC Radio One on the same frequency. During the 1980s and early 1990s the international service was broadcast on 1395 kHz (along with various short wave frequencies) and was received throughout Europe during the evening and through the night. Radio Tirana also upset many amateur radio operators in Europe by operating transmitters in the 7 MHz (40 metre) amateur band.

In 1985, it broadcast only 2.5 hours per day. It opened at 20:00 and closed at 22:30. Later, in 1986, it broadcast each day for 4 hours, from 17:00 to 18:30 and 20:00 to 22:30. Most of the programming during the communist era consisted of propaganda and news programs.

Political programming predominated during this period. Features included Marxism-Leninism – an Ever-Young and Scientific Doctrine and Socialism and the Youth. The feature Leafing Through the Marxist-Leninist Press reviewed the journals of foreign communist parties allied to the Albanian Party of Labour. Other programs included Introducing You To Albania, Leafing Through Our Listeners' Letters, Culture and Art in Socialist Albania and The Song of Our Life. Radio Tirana also presented irregular programs of revolutionary music from around the world, while the programme What We Saw in Socialist Albania offered interviews with foreign visitors to Albania.

The interval signal of Radio Tirana during this period was the first few bars of the Albanian revolutionary song With a Pickaxe in One Hand and a Rifle in the Other (Albanian: Në njërën dorë kazmën në tjetrën pushkën). This song also served as the signature tune of Radio Tirana's foreign language broadcasts. The pickaxe and rifle were part of the logo of Albanian Radio-Television during this period, and can be seen in the above photograph.

During the last months of the socialist era, overtly political programming was drastically scaled down, and the long-established practice of playing "The Internationale" at the end of each broadcast was abandoned.

Censorship of foreign broadcasts

A similar ideological battle took place on the television spectrum. The neighboring TV signals of Italian RAI and Yugoslav RTV Titograd were particularly affected. During the 1960s, RAI was received in Tirana in decent quality. As time passed, the signal was strengthened by RTSH at Mount Dajti transmitter site only to broadcast the day's main news bulletin (TG1), films, and children's programmes. It is observed that in the news program, reports containing music concerts and papal activities, or even regular commercial spots were jammed. A similar phenomenon occurred with RTV Titograd's frequencies.

After the fall of the communist system, Albania's TV frequencies started to be filled by a variety of Western broadcasters: from RAI to CNN International. In 2002, the practice was partially discontinued as Parliament passed a law outlining protective measures for the Albanian broadcasting industry.

Radio Tirana as a cultural icon

Radio Tirana is widely seen as a symbol representing Albanian culture in the world. Through its educational, cultural, and informative programs broadcast nationally and internationally, Radio Tirana has played a major role in the transmission of Albanian people's cultural values. The station served as the first academy of Albanian literal language as in its archive can be found interesting historical artifacts such as a speech made by Fan Stilian Noli or the voice of Albanian arts' ambassador, Alexander Moissi. Furthermore, it served as a venue on which emerging Albanian artists first showcased their talents later becoming icons. The voices of Tefta Tashko-Koço, Marije Kraja, Kristaq Koço, Viktori Xhaçka and many others were first heard in the station's studios. In addition, Albanian personalities such as renowned actor Reshat Arbana, singer Vaçe Zela and Dr. Sulçebeg hosted the most popular programs.

Post-Communist Era

Experiments and brain drain

RTSH has dominated the Albanian broadcasting field up to the mid-1990s, a period when privately owned radio and TV stations started to occupy the vast empty Albanian frequencies resulting in a gradual brain-drain. Lured by higher wages and not only, numerous experienced journalists and employees left RTSH for the new media outlets. For instance, Albania's current popular political talk shows such as Opinion by Blendi Fevziu (formerly E Diela Debat) or Fokus by Robert Papa can track their beginnings at RTSH. Despite the brain-drain, the institution has held a leader's position in the production of programs pertaining to civics, education and science.

One of the post-communist programs leaving a lasting impression was that of talented show-man Adi Krasta, entitled Rreth Fatit për 12-Javë. The show was embedded in a national lottery, something unseen before in Albania and ran on primetime state TV for about 5 hours non-stop in addition to offering tunes of famous American song ballads such as (I've Had) The Time Of My Life by Bill Medley and Jennifer Warnes, and hit song Auberge by British Blues icon Chris Rea. In addition, American actor of Albanian descent James Belushi offered his salutations to the Albanian people from the United States in the program through an exclusive interview. Other impressive programs included 12 vallzime pa nje te shtune, Miss Albania, and musical productions from Leonard Bombaj.

Peculiar productions

TVSH is known for producing high quality documentaries on Albanian national heritage topics such as important personalities, surveys of Albanian historic regions and geographic landscapes. The Theater on the Screen segment features theater performances of past years both in the drama and comedy genres.

Another typical TVSH production is the Green Space (Hapesire e Blerte) agricultural show, a long lasting programme entirely dedicated to the Albanian agricultural scene and countryside.

The End-Year Festive Concert, a yearly TV program styled as a celebration of the New Year where a variety of humorous sketches are conducted by talented comedy troupes from across Albania directed by talented TV directors is a successful TVSH production.

Up to the early 2000s, the journalistic field was represented by experienced iconic figures such as news anchors Tefta Radi, Roland Roshi, Arben Kamberi, Reiz Çiço and many others, while TVSH journalists are known for commanding a clear spoken Albanian language. RTSH also covers daily and special proceedings of the Parliament of Albania.

Foreign relays and times of war

In 1997, in Albania, educational institutions were temporarily shut down due to the civil unrest. As a result, RTSH broadcast instructional programs for the barricaded youth, that made for a substitute to regular instruction. RTSH is known also for the vast number of shows for children and adolescents produced each year.

In 1998, journalists of RTV Pristina were obliged to flee Pristina as the situation in Kosovo was escalating. They took temporal refuge in RTSH by anchoring specific news bulletins on their region's situation.

RTSH owns and operates a vast number of transmitter sites throughout the country such as the Fushe Dajt and Dajt 1613m stations at Mount Dajt in the periphery of Tirana. As such, a number of Western radio and TV broadcasters lease the sites to broadcast their own feeds since the 1990s.

Broadcasting outlets

Television

Logo Channel Broadcast Description
RTSH 1 Digital terrestrial television
Satellite
generalist
RTSH 2 Digital terrestrial television generalist
RTSH 3 Digital terrestrial television
Satellite
generalist
RTSH Film Digital terrestrial television TV series, movies and shows
RTSH Muzikë Digital terrestrial television
Satellite
music, culture, shows
RTSH Shqip Digital terrestrial television
Satellite
Movies, culture, shows
RTSH Fëmijë Digital terrestrial television kids
RTSH Sport Digital terrestrial television sports
RTSH Plus Satellite culture, shows, music
RTSH 24 Digital terrestrial television
Satellite
news
RTSH Kuvend Digital terrestrial television parliament
RTSH Test Channel Digital terrestrial television RTSH 1 replay

Radio

  • Radio Tirana (also, Radio Tirana 1) is the name of Albania's first radio program, concentrating on news, talk, and features
  • Radio Tirana 2 is the name of the second radio program, broadcasting chiefly music and targeted at youth
  • Radio Tirana 3 (Radio Tirana International) is the name of the third program, broadcasting the international service on shortwave in Albanian, English, French. Greek, German, Italian, Serbian, and Turkish
  • Radio Tirana Klasik is a radio station broadcasting in Tirana dedicated mainly to classical music.

Regional RTV

  • Radio Televizioni Gjirokastra is the local version of RTSH in Gjirokastër
  • Radio Televizioni Korça is the local version of RTSH in Korçë
  • Radio Kukësi is the local version of RT in Kukës
  • Radio Televizioni Shkodra is the local version of RTSH in Shkodër

RTSH TANI

In 2017 RTSH launched "RTSH Tani" an app which enables users of Android and iOS to watch all the channels from the RTSH digital platform including the regional channels such as TV Korca. In addition, the app enables users to watch catch up TV content from the last 7 days for all 9 channels.

The unveiling of the new logo of RTSH took place on the opening of the 56th edition of the Festivali i Kenges national song competition on 21 December 2017. The logo is made up of rectangular shapes representing the principal of rationality, and the focus of the camera lense. Meanwhile, 2 coloured rectangular shapes represent the red and black colours of the Albanian flag.

Programs

Nationally created shows (as of November 2017)

Original nameFormatOrigin
LajmeNews editionAlbania
Ndiq PrograminTalk showAlbania
Jo Vetëm KafeMorning showAlbania
Hapësirë e BlertëAgricultural affairsAlbania
DuelTalk showAlbania
Masterchef AlbaniaCompetitionAlbania
Masterchef Albania kidsCompetitionAlbania
Kafe e së DielesTalk showAlbania
DrejtperdrejtëTalk showAlbania
Netët e KlipitAwards galaAlbania
Rubrika SportiveSport showAlbania
E Hëna SportiveSport showAlbania
Supermodel of AlbaniaReality showAlbania
Aktualitet Permes ShtypitMorning showAlbania
Trupi dhe ShëndetiTalk showAlbania
Ekonomia që DuamTalk showAlbania
GlobeTalk showAlbania
FamiljaComedyAlbania
Turni 3Talk showAlbania
URATalk showAlbania
Mirëmëngjes ShqipëriMorning showAlbania
BulzaMusic & EntertainmentAlbania
Njerëz dhe FateSoap operaAlbania
Festivali i KëngësSong contestAlbania

Internationally created shows (as of November 2016)

Original nameAlbanian translationOrigin
Voice of AmericaZëri i AmerikësUnited States
The MentalistMentalistiUnited States
MillenniumMilleniumSweden
Person of Interest (TV series)Person of InterestUnited States[7]
The CloserThe CloserUnited States[8]
Hallo Robbie!Mikesha jonë RobbieGermany
SOKO WismarNjësia e ndërhyrjes së shpejtëGermany
Eurovision Song ContestFestivali European i KëngësEurope
Junior Eurovision Song ContestFestivali European i Këngës për fëmijëEurope

Technical improvements

The broadcasting quality of Radio Tirana has gradually improved throughout the years. After the Second World War, noticeable improvements were observed in Albania's coverage with signal. Improvements were also noted in the external service, as the radio center of Shijak (Durrës) was opened in November 1961 equipped with 3 transmitters, 2 in shortwave intended for the external service.

In December 1965, a new building of Radio Tirana was inaugurated. During the upcoming years, a combined total of 18 medium and short wave transmitters were installed, part of which carried Radio Tirana's external service programmes for many years.

In 2003, an attractive TV news room studio was created, and the TV (TVSH) signal on VHF band in Tirana was strengthened. TVSH became available also on UHF and experimental broadcasts of the second TV channel TVSH 2 were initiated. Later, screen graphics experienced an extreme makeover. The FM channel in the capital at 99,5 MHz was put on Stereo, and the second radio program was expanded to 24 hours a day.

In 2007, RTSH launched its official webpage with daily news briefs and a variety of information on its services. The online stream of Radio Tirana 3 was launched on 28 November 2008 by the German Radio 700 team while the Radio Tirana 1 stream was launched in January 2009.

In 2011, RTSH launched live streaming of the 50th edition of Festivali i Kenges, by possibly marking the first time that RTSH launched an online streaming video service in its history. In the last years, RTSH has upgraded TV studios and broadcasting equipment, launched a number of digital TV channels, added live online TV and radio streams, and has uploaded TV programs on YouTube.

In 2013, RTSH launched four additional channels including: RTSH HD, RTSH Muzikë, RTSH Art, RTSH Sport. By far, RTSH holds a monopoly in rural areas where its analogue signal dominates airwaves.

In 2017, RTSH launched three additional channels including: RTSH Fëmijë (featuring children's programming) and RTSH Kuvend, a channel dedicated to Kuvendi, the Albanian Parliament and RTSH 24

Special productions

  • RTSH is the producer of the annual national song competition, Festivali i Këngës. The winner of the competition goes on to represent Albania in the Eurovision Song Contest.
  • RTSH has produced the most high-rated Albanian television series, Njerëz dhe Fate, Dhimbja e Dashurisë, and radio series Rruga me Pisha
  • Miss Albania and Miss Europe were some of the fashion competitions organized by RTSH in the 1990s.

Controversies and criticisms

Allegations of bias in reporting have remained throughout the long history of RTSH. Critics and observers of the institution suggest that it leans towards the government's agenda and conclude that it unsuccessfully tries to reinvent itself as an independent public broadcaster.

Additionally, TVSH was observed simulcasting Fox News Channel at the night-time slot (apprx. 0000CET-0700CET) during the 2003 military campaign on Iraq.

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Cobani, Agron. Ju flet Tirana..., Tirana, Toena: 2010.

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