RAF officer ranks

The officer ranks of the Royal Air Force, as they are today, were introduced in 1919. Prior to that Army ranks were used.

Ranks (Highest to Lowest)

NATO codeOF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1OF(D)Student officer
United Kingdom
(Edit)
No equivalent
Marshal of the RAF1 Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice-Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer Pilot Officer
/Acting Pilot Officer
Officer Cadet
AbbreviationMRAFAir Chf MshlAir MshlAVMAir CdreGp CaptWg CdrSqn LdrFlt LtFg OffPlt OffOff CdtNA [1]
  • 1 Currently honorary/wartime rank only.

Origins

Lieutenant General David Henderson originally proposed that Royal Air Force officers use a combination of British Army and Royal Navy ranks. However, the War Office argued that the RAF should have its own ranks and the Admiralty opposed any use of their rank titles.[2]

Badges of rank

On 1 April 1918, Air Force Memorandum 2 specified rank insignia for the newly established independent force. Rank was to be worn on the jacket cuff and was derived from the Royal Navy's rings, each equivalent rank having the same number of rings. However, second lieutenants (now pilot officers) displayed a crowned eagle only and the Navy's loop was not used for any rank.[3] Depending on the uniform, either gold or pale blue on grey braid was worn.

In August 1918, Air Ministry Weekly Order 617 added a single band of 14-inch (6 mm) braid below the second lieutenant's eagle and all other officer ranks also received a crowned eagle above their braid.

In 1919 the colour of the rank braid was changed to black with a central pale blue stripe. However, on RAF mess dress rank continued to be displayed in gold.

Sleeve ranks

The ranks worn on the sleeve are common to all RAF uniform variants incorporating the Jacket. The centre of the rank (measured from the bottom of the lowest braid to the top of the highest) should be 3 34 inches (9.5 cm) from the cuff and each row of braiding should have a space of 18 inch (3 mm) from other rows. The thinnest braid, as found on the pilot officer's rank (and in the middle of the squadron leader's rank), is 14 inch (6 mm); the flying officer's braid common to all the ranks except air commodore and pilot officer, is 12 inch (1.3 cm), and the thickest braid, as found on all air officer ranks, is 2 inches (5.1 cm).

Shoulder boards

Distinctive shoulder boards (as shown) are worn by Marshals of the Royal Air Force.

Officers entitled to wear aiguillettes and/or the Royal Cypher, AVMs and above, the Director of Nursing Services, and those officers assigned to certain 1-Star posts, wear plain blue shoulder boards when in No 1 Service Dress.

AVMs and above and those officers assigned to the 1-Star posts of Comdt RAFC Cranwell, Air Officer Wales and Air Officer Scotland wear distinctive unranked ceremonial shoulder boards when in No 1A (ceremonial day) dress. If these officers wear a greatcoat, gold ranked shoulder straps in Crombie material are used.[4]

Rank titles

As mentioned above, it was originally proposed that the RAF ranks were to be derived from existing Royal Navy and Army ranks. Both services were consulted and both reacted unfavourably—the Navy unhappy about the use of its higher ranks and the Army complaining it provided the "junior ranks". This resulted in a compromise whereby the officer ranks were proposed to be: ensign, lieutenant, flight leader, squadron leader, reeve, banneret, fourth ardian, third ardian, second ardian, ardian and air marshal. A further proposal was: ensign, lieutenant, flight-leader, squadron-leader, wing-leader, leader, flight ardian, squadron ardian, wing ardian, ardian, air marshal.

Unsurprisingly, perhaps, these contrived ranks were rejected and on 1 August 1919, Air Ministry Weekly Order 973 introduced new rank titles for RAF officers. They were based on Royal Navy ranks and their titles were influenced by the usage in the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) during World War I. For example, the RAF rank of flight lieutenant was based on the RNAS rank of the same name. The rank of squadron leader derived its name from the RNAS rank of squadron commander. Initially the highest rank was titled marshal of the air. However, only a few days after it was promulgated, this rank title was changed to marshal of the Royal Air Force at the request of King George V, his belief being that the former sounded too much like it encroached on the attributes of God.

Composite braid

RAF officers typically wear composite braid rank slides with their working and operational uniforms. Composite braid consists of a single piece of fabric, where the "background" between the rank rings is made from blue-grey or olive green material. Composite braid rank slides are often referred to as "bar-code" in RAF slang.

Command flags


MRAF

Air Chf Mshl

Air Mshl

AVM

Air Cdre

Gp Capt

Wg Cdr

Sqn Ldr

Distinction between ranks and appointments

Many RAF ranks do not imply the appointment or duties of an officer. For example, a Pilot Officer may well not be trained to pilot an aircraft. In fact, pilots skip the rank of Pilot Officer and go from Officer Cadet to Flying Officer on graduation from officer training school at RAF Cranwell. A Squadron Leader does not necessarily command a squadron, nor a Wing Commander necessarily command a wing, nor a Group Captain command a group.

RAF Air Cadets (Air Training Corps and Combined Cadet Force)

The majority of officers in the Air Cadet Organisation (ATC and CCF(RAF)) are remunerated volunteers commissioned into the 'Training' Branch of the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve (RAFVR) and although commissioned into a Reserve Air Force of the Crown, wear the insignia of the branch they serve in[5]. They are identified as such by wearing small gold-coloured insignia shaped as the letters 'VRT' on the lapel or centrally on shoulder rank slides. In the RAFVR(T), the rank system for officers is identical to the regular RAF, but the highest substantive rank is Flying Officer. Higher ranks within the RAFVR(T) are acting appointments, up to Wing Commander. Other senior ranked appointments are generally full-time staff positions (such as Regional Commandants and Commandant Air Cadets) held by regular and reserve (RAFR/FTRS) RAF officers. In certain circumstances, Honorary Appointments within the RAFVR may be made, however the rank may vary. Wef: 1 Dec 17, it is anticipated that all officers will transfer over to the new Cadet Forces Commission and the ACO is being re-branded as RAF Air Cadets (RAFAC).

The aforementioned changes did occur at the end of 2017, meaning that all officers of the two forces including adult NCO ranks, now have the words “RAF AIR CADETS” Underneath the rank insignia to identify them as Cadet Force Adult Volunteers (CFAV), therefore, VRT pins are no longer used to identify RAFAC CFAV's. The only exceptions are those officers who are members of an Air Experience Flight (AEF) and who are pilots of aircraft providing air experience flying to Air Cadets and University Air Squadrons (UAS). Pilots providing such air experience flying continue to hold the VR(T) commission.

Other air forces

NaviesArmiesAir forces
Commissioned officers
Admiral of
the fleet
Field marshal or
General of the Army
Marshal of
the air force
AdmiralGeneralAir chief marshal
Vice admiralLieutenant generalAir marshal
Rear admiralMajor generalAir vice-marshal
CommodoreBrigadier or
brigadier general
Air commodore
CaptainColonelGroup captain
CommanderLieutenant colonelWing commander
Lieutenant
commander
Major or
Commandant
Squadron leader
LieutenantCaptainFlight lieutenant
Lieutenant
junior grade
or
sub-lieutenant
Lieutenant or
first lieutenant
Flying officer
Ensign or
midshipman
Second lieutenantPilot officer
Officer cadetOfficer cadetFlight cadet
Enlisted grades
Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
Warrant officer or
sergeant major
Warrant officer
Petty officerSergeantSergeant
Leading seamanCorporal or
bombardier
Corporal
SeamanPrivate or
gunner or
trooper
Aircraftman or
airman
Talk·View

The following air forces use a similar or identical officer rank structure and rank insignia to the RAF:

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1OF(D) and student officer
Australia
(Edit)
Marshal of the RAAF Air chief marshal Air marshal Air vice-marshal Air commodore Group captain Wing commander Squadron leader Flight lieutenant Flying officer Pilot officer Officer cadet
Bangladesh
(Edit)
No equivalent
Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice-Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer Pilot Officer Officer cadet
Chile
(Edit)
No equivalent
Air General
General de Aire
Aviation General
General de Aviación
Air Brigade General
General de Brigada Aérea
Commodore
Comodoro
Aviation Colonel
Coronel de Aviación
Group Commander
Comandante de Grupo
Squadron Commander
Comandante de Escuadrilla
Flight Captain
Capitán de Bandada
Lieutenant
Teniente
Sublieutenant
Subteniente
Ensign
Alférez
Officer Cadet
Cadete
Ghana
(Edit)
No equivalent No equivalent
Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice-Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer Pilot Officer
Greece
(Edit)
No equivalent No equivalent
Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice-Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer Pilot Officer
Πτέραρχος Αντιπτέραρχος Υποπτέραρχος Ταξίαρχος Σμήναρχος Αντισμήναρχος Επισμηναγός Σμηναγός Υποσμηναγός Ανθυποσμηναγός
India
(Edit)
Unknown
Marshal of the IAF Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice-Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer
Namibia
(Edit)
No equivalent
No equivalent
Air vice marshal Air commodore Group captain Wing commander Squadron leader Flight lieutenant Flying officer Pilot officer
New Zealand
(Edit)
No equivalent
Marshal of the RNZAF Air marshal Air vice-marshal Air commodore Group captain Wing commander Squadron leader Flight lieutenant Flying officer Pilot officer Officer cadet
Nigeria
(Edit)
No equivalent
Marshal of the Air Force Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice-Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer Pilot Officer
Sri Lanka
(Edit)
No equivalent
Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice-Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer Pilot Officer Officer cadet
Thailand
(Edit)
จอมพลอากาศ พลอากาศเอก พลอากาศโท พลอากาศตรี พลอากาศจัตวา นาวาอากาศเอก นาวาอากาศโท นาวาอากาศตรี เรืออากาศเอก เรืออากาศโท เรืออากาศตรี นักเรียนนายเรืออากาศ
Marshal of the Air Force Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer Pilot Officer Air Cadet
Zimbabwe
(Edit)
No equivalent No equivalent
Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice-Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer Pilot Officer
Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1OF(D) and student officer

The following air forces use a similar or identical officer rank structure to the RAF, but use army-style rank insignia:

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1OF(D) and student officer
Egypt
(Edit)
No equivalent Unknown
Air Chief Marshal
(فريق أول)
Air Marshal
(فريق)‎‎
Air Vice-Marshal
(لواء‎‎)
Air Commodore
(عميد‎‎)
Group Captain
(عقيد‎‎)
Wing commander
(مقدم)
Squadron Leader
(رائد‎‎)
Flight Lieutenant
(نقيب‎‎)
Flying Officer
(ملازم أول)
Pilot Officer
(ملازم‎‎)
Pakistan
(Edit)
No equivalent Unknown
Air Chief Marshal Air Marshal Air Vice-Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer Pilot Officer
Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1OF(D) and student officer

The following air forces use rank insignia for their officers which are similar or identical to that of the RAF, but employ army rank titles:

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1OF(D) and student officer
Afghanistan
(Edit)
Unknown
General of the Air Force
مارشال
General
ستار جنرال
Lieutenant General
دگار جنرال
Major General
توران جنرال
Brigadier General
برید جنرال
Colonel
دگاروال
Lieutenant Colonel
دگارمان
Major
جاگران
Captain
جاگ توران
Junior Captain
توران
First Lieutenant
لمری بریدمان
Second Lieutenant
دواهوم بریدمان
Junior Second Lieutenant
دریوم بریدمان
Argentina
(Edit)
No equivalent No equivalent Unknown
Brigadier General
(Brigadier General)
Brigadier Mayor
(Brigadier-Major)
Brigadier
(Brigadier)
Comodoro
(Commodore)
Vicecomodoro
(Vice-Commodore)
Mayor
(Major)
Capitán
(Captain)
Primer Teniente
(First Lieutenant)
Teniente
(Lieutenant)
Alférez
(Ensign)
Belgium
(Edit)
No equivalent No equivalent
Général Lieutenant général Général-major Général de Brigade Colonel Lieutenant-colonel Major Capitaine-commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-lieutenant
Generaal Luitenant-generaal Generaal-majoor Brigadegeneraal Kolonel Luitenant-kolonel Majoor Kapitein-commandant Kapitein Luitenant Onderluitenant
Canada
(Edit)
No equivalent No equivalent
General Lieutenant General Major-general Brigadier-general Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Officer Cadet
Général Lieutenant-général Major-général Brigadier-général Colonel Lieutenant-colonel Major Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-lieutenant Élève-officier
Denmark
(Edit)
No equivalent No equivalent
General Generalløjtnant Generalmajor Brigadegeneral Oberst Oberstløjtnant Major Kaptajn Premierløjtnant Løjtnant Sekondløjtnant
Eritrea
(Edit)
No equivalent
Unknown
Major General Brigadier General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain First Lieutenant Second lieutenant
Finland
(Edit)
No equivalent
Kenraali
General
Kenraaliluutnantti
Generallöjtnant
Kenraalimajuri
Generalmajor
Prikaatikenraali
Brigadgeneral
Eversti
Överste
Everstiluutnantti
Överstelöjtnant
Majuri
Major
Kapteeni
Kapten
Yliluutnantti
Premiärlöjtnant
Luutnantti
Löjtnant
Vänrikki
Fänrik
Upseerikokelas
Officersaspirant
Upseerioppilas
Officerselev
Italy
(Edit)
No equivalent
Generale
awarded only to the Chief of Defense Staff
Generale di Squadra Aerea con Incarichi Speciali Generale di Squadra Aerea Generale di Divisione Aerea Generale di Brigata Aerea Colonnello Tenente Colonnello Maggiore Primo capitano Capitano Tenente Sottotenente
Ireland
(Edit)
No equivalent
Major general
Maor-ghinearál
Brigadier general
Briogáidire-ghinearál
Colonel
Coirnéal
Lieutenant colonel
Leifteanantchoirnéal
Commandant
Ceannfort
Captain
Captaen
Lieutenant
Leifteanant
Second lieutenant
Dara-leifteanant
Officer cadet
Dalta
Malaysia
(Edit)
No insignia
Marshal of the Air Force General Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Sublieutenant Officer Cadet
Marsyal Tentera Udara Jeneral Leftenan Jeneral Mejar Jeneral Brigedier Jeneral Kolonel Leftenan Kolonel Mejar Kapten Leftenan Leftenan Muda Pegawai Kadet
Netherlands
(Edit)
No equivalent No equivalent
Generaal Luitenant-generaal Generaal-majoor Commodore Kolonel Luitenant-kolonel Majoor Kapitein Eerste-luitenant Tweede-luitenant Vaandrig
Peru
(Edit)
No equivalent No equivalent
General del Aire Teniente General Mayor General Coronel Comandante Mayor Capitán Teniente Alférez Cadete F.A.P.
Romania
(Edit)
No equivalent
Mareșal1 General General-Locotenent General-Maior General de Flotilă Aeriană Comandor Căpitan-Comandor Locotenent-Comandor Căpitan Locotenent Sublocotenent
South Africa
(Edit)
No equivalent
General
Generaal
Lieutenant General
Luitenant Generaal
Major General
Generaal-Majoor
Brigadier General
Brigadier Generaal
Colonel
Kolonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Luitenant Kolonel
Major
Majoor
Captain
Kaptein
Lieutenant
Luitenant
Second Lieutenant
Tweede Luitenant
Officer candidate
Sweden
(Edit)
No equivalent



General Generallöjtnant Generalmajor Brigadgeneral Överste Överstelöjtnant Major Kapten Löjtnant Fänrik
Uruguay
(Edit)
No equivalent
No equivalent
Teniente General Mayor General Coronel Teniente Coronel Mayor Capitán Teniente Primero Teniente Segundo Alférez
Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1OF(D) and student officer

The following air forces formerly used a similar or identical officer rank structure to the RAF:

The following air forces formerly used similar rank insignia to the RAF:

See also

Notes

  1. Armitage, Michael (1998). The Royal Air Force : an illustrated history (2 ed.). London: Brockhampton Press. p. 280. ISBN 1-86019-851-1.
  2. Hering, Peter George (1961). Customs and traditions of the Royal Air Force. Aldershot: Gale and Polden Ltd. pp. 21, 22. OCLC 462209238.
  3. "Commissioned Ranks of the Royal Air Force April 1918 - Aug 1919 Initial Uniform Design". Air of Authority. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  4. "RAF AP 1358, CHAP 7 - DISTINGUISHING INSIGNIA" (PDF). MOD. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  5. AP1919 Rules and Regulations of the Air Training Corps
  6. "Royal Australian Air Force / Royal Australian Air Force". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  7. "Royal New Zealand Air Force /". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  8. "Hellenic Air Force / Πολεμική Αεροπορία - Polemikí Aeroporía". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  9. "The Nigerian Air Force Service, Colours, Wings and Rank Structure". Nigerianairforce.net. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  10. "Indian Air Force / भारतीय वायु सेना / Bhartiya Vāyu Sen&#257". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  11. "Bangladesh Air Force / বাংলাদেশ বিমান বাহিনী - Bangladesh Biman Bahini". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  12. "Sri Lanka Air Force /". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  13. "Ghana Air Force /". Uniforminsignia.org. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  14. "Air Force of Zimbabwe / Air Force of Zimbabwe". Uniforminsignia.org. 4 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  15. "Royal Thai Air Force / กองทัพอากาศไทย - Kong Thab Akat Thai". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  16. "Chilean Air Force / Fuerza Aérea de Chile". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  17. "Pakistan Air Force - PAF / پاک فضائیہ - Pak Fiza´ya". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  18. "Egyptian Air Force / القوات الجوية المصري&#1577". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  19. "Afghan National Air Corps /". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  20. "Argentine Air Force / Fuerza Aérea Argentina". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  21. "Belgian Air Component / Luchtcomponent-Composante". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  22. "Eritrean Air Force /". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  23. "Finnish Air Force / Suomen ilmavoimat / Finska flygvapnet". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  24. (PDF) http://www.mil.se/attachments/the_facts_2006_2007_eng.pdf. Retrieved 1 March 2007. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. "Royal Malaysian Air Force / Tentera Udara DiRaja Malaysia". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  26. "Peruvian Air Force / Fuerza Aérea del Perú". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  27. "Royal Netherlands Air Force / Koninklijke Luchtmacht". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  28. "Royal Danish Air Force / Flyvevåbnet". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  29. "Air Force / Aeronautica Militare". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  30. "Romanian Air Force / Forţele Aeriene Române". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  31. "Romanian Air Force / Forţele Aeriene Române". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  32. "South African Air Force /". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  33. "Royal Canadian Air Force". Uniforminsignia.org. 5 May 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  34. "Irish Air Corps / Aer Chór na hÉireann". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  35. "Uruguayan Air Force / Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  36. "Canadian Air Force / Canadian Forces Air Command - AIRCOM". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  37. "Royal Rhodesian Air Force /". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  38. "Republic of Singapore Air Force / 新加坡空军部队 - Angkatan Udara Republik Singapura - சிங்கப்பூர் ஆகாயப்பட&#3016". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  39. "U.S. Air Force / United States Air Force". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  40. Although the USAF discontinued the RAF-pattern rank insignia introduced by General Merrill McPeak in 1994, U.S. Air Force Academy, college & university Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps, and Air Force Officer Training School officer cadets use identical insignia today.
  41. "Pakistan Air Force - PAF / پاک فضائیہ - Pak Fiza´ya". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  42. "Royal Air Force of Oman / al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Sultanat Oman". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  43. "Air Force /". Uniforminsignia.org. 5 January 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  44. "Air Force of the Democratic Republic of the Congo / Force Aérienne du Congo". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  45. "Air Force /". Uniforminsignia.org. 5 January 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  46. "Air Force / Force Aérienne". Uniforminsignia.org. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2013.

References

  • Hobart, Malcolm. Badges and Uniforms of the Royal Air Force. London/Barnsley, England: Leo Cooper/Pen & Sword Books Ltd., 2000. ISBN 0-85052-739-2.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.