Population growth

In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

Global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually,[1] or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.616 billion[2] in 2018. It is expected to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at 8.6 billion by mid-2030, 9.8 billion by mid-2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100.[3] Many nations with rapid population growth have low standards of living, whereas many nations with low rates of population growth have high standards of living.[4]

Population[5]
Years passed Year Billion
18001
12719272
3319603
1419744
1319875
1219996
1220117
122023*8
142037*9
182055*10
332088*11
*World Population Prospects 2017
(United Nations Population Division)

History

Population began growing rapidly in the Western world early in the industrial revolution of the late 18th century. The reasons for the "Modern Rise of Population"[6] were particularly investigated by the British health scientist Thomas McKeown (1912-1988). In his publications, McKeown challenged four theories about the population growth:

  1. McKeown stated that the growth in Western population, particularly surging in the 19th century, was not so much caused by an increase in fertility, but largely by a decline of mortality particularly of childhood mortality followed by infant mortality,[7][8]
  2. The decline of mortality could largely be attributed to rising standards of living, whereby McKeown put most emphasis on improved nutritional status,
  3. His most controversial idea, at least his most disputed idea, was that he questioned the effectiveness of public health measures, including sanitary reforms, vaccination and quarantine,[9]
  4. The sometime fierce disputes that his publication provoked around the "McKeown thesis", have overshadowed his more important and largely unchallenged argument that curative medicine measures played little role in mortality decline, not only prior to the mid-20th century[7] but also until well into the 20th century.[10]

Although the McKeown thesis has been heavily disputed, recent studies have confirmed the value of his ideas.[11] His work is pivotal for present day thinking about population growth, birth control, public health and medical care. McKeown had a major influence on many population researchers, such as health economists and Nobel prize winners Robert W. Fogel (1993) and Angus Deaton (2015). The latter considered McKeown as 'the founder of social medicine'.[12]

Population growth rate

The "population growth rate" is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period, expressed as a fraction of the initial population. Specifically, population growth rate refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula, valid for a sufficiently small time interval:

A positive growth rate indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth rate indicates that the population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero indicates that there were the same number of individuals at the beginning and end of the period—a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times.[13]

A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than 1 indicates that the population of females is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of females is decreasing.

Most populations do not grow exponentially, rather they follow a logistic model. Once the population has reached its carrying capacity, it will stabilize and the exponential curve will level off towards the carrying capacity, which is usually when a population has depleted most its natural resources.[14]

Logistic equation

The growth of a population can often be modelled by the logistic equation[15]

where

  • = the population after time t;
  • = time a population grows;
  • = the relative growth rate coefficient;
  • = the carrying capacity of the population; defined by ecologists as the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain.[14]

As it is a separable differential equation, the population may be solved explicitly, producing a logistic function:

,

where and is the initial population at time 0.

Human population growth rate

In 2017, the estimated annual growth rate was 1.1%.[16] The CIA World Factbook gives the world annual birthrate, mortality rate, and growth rate as 1.86%, 0.78%, and 1.08% respectively.[17] The last 100 years have seen a massive fourfold increase in the population, due to medical advances, lower mortality rates, and an increase in agricultural productivity[18] made possible by the Green Revolution.

The annual increase in the number of living humans peaked at 88.0 million in 1989, then slowly declined to 73.9 million in 2003, after which it rose again to 75.2 million in 2006. In 2017, the human population increased by 83 million.[16] Generally, developed nations have seen a decline in their growth rates in recent decades, though annual growth rates remain above 2% in poverty-stricken countries of the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, and also in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Latin America.[19]

In some countries the population is declining, especially in Eastern Europe, mainly due to low fertility rates, high death rates and emigration. In Southern Africa, growth is slowing due to the high number of AIDS-related deaths. Some Western Europe countries might also experience population decline.[20] Japan's population began decreasing in 2005; it now has the highest standard of living in the world.[21]

The United Nations Population Division projects world population to reach 11.2 billion by the end of the 21st century, but Sanjeev Sanyal has argued that global fertility will fall below the replacement rate in the 2020s and that world population will peak below 9 billion by 2050, followed by a long decline.[22] A 2014 study in Science concludes that the global population will reach 11 billion by 2100, with a 70% chance of continued growth into the 22nd century.[23]

Growth by country

According to United Nations population statistics, the world population grew by 30%, or 1.6 billion humans, between 1990 and 2010.[24] In number of people the increase was highest in India (350 million) and China (196 million). Population growth was among highest in the United Arab Emirates (315%) and Qatar (271%).[24]

Growth rates of the world's most populous countries
Rank Country Population
2010
Population
1990
Growth (%)
1990–2010
  World 6,895,889,000 5,306,425,000 30.0%
1  China 1,341,335,000 1,145,195,000 17.1%
2  India 1,224,614,000 873,785,000 40.2%
3  United States 310,384,000 253,339,000 22.5%
4  Indonesia 239,871,000 184,346,000 30.1%
5  Brazil 194,946,000 149,650,000 30.3%
6  Pakistan 173,593,000 111,845,000 55.3%
7  Nigeria 158,423,000 97,552,000 62.4%
8  Bangladesh 148,692,000 105,256,000 41.3%
9  Russia 142,958,000 148,244,000 -3.6%
10  Japan 128,057,000 122,251,000 4.7%
Example nation1967 population1990 population1994 population2002 population2008 populationLife expectancy in years (2008)Total population growth from 1960s to 2007- 2011
Eritrea*N/A*N/A*3,437,000[25]4,298,2695,673,520[26]61[27][27]2,236,520
Ethiopia*23,457,000*[28]50,974,000* [29]54,939,000[25]67,673,031(2003)79,221,000[30]55[27]55,764,000
Sudan14,355,000†[28]25,204,000† [29]27,361,000†[25]38,114,160 (2003)†42,272,000†[26]50†[27]27,917,000
Chad3,410,000[28]5,679,000[29]6,183,000[25]9,253,493(2003)10,329,208 (2009)[31]47[27]6,919,205
Niger3,546,000[28]7,732,000[29]8,846,000[25]10,790,352 (2001)15,306,252 (2009)[32]44[27]11,760,252
Nigeria61,450,000[28]88,500,000[29]108,467,000[25]129,934,911158,259,000[26]47[27]96,809,000
Mali4,745,000[28]8,156,000[29]10,462,000[25]11,340,48014,517,176(2010)[33]50[27]9,772,176
Mauritania1,050,000[28]2,025,000 [29]2,211,000[25]2,667,859 (2003)3,291,000 (2009)[31]54[27]2,241,000
Senegal3,607,000[28]7,327,000[29]8,102,000[25]9,967,21513,711,597 (2009)[34]57[27]10,104,597
Gambia343,000[28]861,000[29]1,081,000[25]1,367,124 (2000)1,705,000[26]55[27]1,362,000
Algeria11,833,126 (1966)[28]25,012,000[29]27,325,000 [25]32,818,500 (2003)34,895,000[30][35]74[27]23,061,874
The DRC/Zaire16,353,000[28]35,562,000[29]42,552,000[25]55,225,478 (2003)70,916,439 [30][36]54[27]54,563,439
Egypt30,083,419 (1966)[28]53,153,000[29]58,326,000[25]70,712,345 (2003)79,089,650 [30][37][37]72[27]49,006,231
Réunion (overseas region of France)418,000[28]N/A[29]N/A[25]720,934 (2003)827,000 (2009) [26]N/A[27]409,000
The Falkland Islands (British Overseas Territory)2,500[28]N/A[29]N/A[25]2,967 (2003)3,140(2010)[38] N/A[27]640
Chile8,935,500[28]13,173,000[29]13,994,000[25]15,116,43517,224,200 (2011)77[27]8,288,700
Colombia19,191,000[28]32,987,000[29]34,520,000[25]41,088,22745,925,397 (2010)[39]73[27]26,734,397
Brazil85,655,000[28]150,368,000[29]153,725,000[25]174,468,575 (2000)190,732,694 (2010) [40]72[27]105,077,694
Mexico45,671,000[28]86,154,000[29]93,008,000[25]103,400,165 (2000)112,322,757 (2010)[41]76[27]66,651,757
Fiji476,727 (1966)[28]765,000[29]771,000[25]844,330 (2001)849,000[35] (2010)70[27]372,273
Nauru6,050 (1966)[28]10,000[29]N/A[25]12,3299,322 (2011)[42]N/A[27]3,272
Jamaica1,876,000[28]2,420,000[29]2,429,000[25]2,695,867 (2003)2,847,232[43](2010)74[27]971,232
Australia11,540,764 (1964)[28]17,086,000[29]17,843,000[25]19,546,792 (2003)24,976,592[44] (2010)82[27]10,066,508
Albania1,965,500 (1964)[28]3,250,000[29]3,414,000[25]3,510,4842,986,952 (July 2010 est.)[31][45]78[27]1,021,452
Poland31,944,000[28]38,180,000[29]38,554,000[25]38,626,349 (2001)38,192,000 (2010)[46]75[27]6,248,000
Hungary10,212,000[28]10,553,000[29]10,261,000[25]10,106,0179,979,000 (2010)[47]73[27]-142,000
Bulgaria8,226,564 (1965)[28]8,980,000[29]8,443,000[25]7,707,495(2000)7,351,234 (2011)[48]73[27]-875,330
United Kingdom55,068,000 (1966)[28]57,411,000[29]58,091,000[25]58,789,19462,008,048 (2010)[49]79[27]7,020,048
Ireland2,884,002 (1966)[28]3,503,000[29]3,571,000[25]3,840,838 (2000)4,470,700[50] (2010)78[27]1,586,698
People's Republic of China720,000,000[28]1,139,060,000[29]1,208,841,000[25]1,286,975,468 (2004)1,339,724,852 (2010)[51]73[27]619,724,852
Japan‡98,274,961 (1965)[28]123,537,000[29]124,961,000[25]127,333,002127,420,000 (2010)[52]82[27]28,123,865
Ryukyu Islands (Once occupied by the United States)‡934,176 (1965)[28]N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
India#511,115,000[28]843,931,000[29]918,570,000[25]1,028,610,328 (2001)1,210,193,422 (2011)[53]69[27]699,078,422
Singapore1,956,000 (1967)[28]3,003,000 (1990) [29]2,930,000 (1994)[25]4,452,732 (2002)5,076,700 (2010)[54]82 (2008)[27]3,120,700
Sikkim#183,000 (1967)[28]N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Monaco24,000 (1967)[28]29,000 (1990) [29]N/A (1994)[25]31,842 (2000)35,586[55] (2010)(2008)[27]1,586
Greece8,716,000 (1967)[28]10,123,000 (1990) [29]10,426,000 (1994)[25]10,964,020 (2001)[56]11,305,118 (2011)[57]N/A (2008)[27]2,589,118
Faroe Islands (Danish dependency)38,000 (1967)[28]N/A (1990) [29]N/A (1994)[25]46,345 (2000)48,917 (2010) [58]N/A (2008)[27]18,917
Liechtenstein20,000 (1967)[28]29,000 (1990) [29]N/A (1994)[25]33,307 (2000)35,789 (2009)[59](2008)[27]15,789
South Korea29,207,856 (1966)[28]42,793,000 (1990) [29]44,453,000 (1994)[25]48,324,000 (2003)48,875,000 (2010) [60](2008)[27]19,667,144
North Korea12,700,000 (1967)[28]21,773,000 (1990) [29]23,483,000 (1994)[25]22,224,195 (2002)24,051,218 (2010)[61](2008)[27]11,351,218
Brunei107,200 (1967)[28]266,000 (1990) [29]280,000 (1994)[25]332,844 (2001)401,890 (2011)[62]76 (2008)[27]306,609
Malaysia10,671,000 (1967)[28]17,861,000 (1990) [29]19,489,000 (1994)[25]21,793,293 (2002)27,565,821 (2010)[63](2008)[27]16,894,821
Thailand32,680,000 (1967)[28]57,196,000 (1990) [29]59,396,000 (1994)[25]60,606,947 (2000)[64]63,878,267 (2011)[65](2008)[27]31,198,267
Lebanon2,520,000 (1967)[28]2,701,000 (1990) [29]2,915,000 (1994)[25]3,727,703[66] (2003)4,224,000[26] (2009)- (2008)[27]
Syria5,600,000 (1967)[28]12,116,000 (1990) [29]13,844,000 (1994)[25]17,585,540 (2003)22,457,763 (2011)[67]-(2008)[27]
Bahrain182,00 (1967)[28]503,000 (1990) [29]549,000 (1994)[25]667,238 (2003)1,234,596[68] (2010)75 (2008)[27]
Sri Lanka11,741,000 (1967)[28]16,993,000 (1990) [29]17,685,000 (1994)[25]19,607,519 (2002)20,238,000[35] (2009)- (2008)[27]
Switzerland6,050,000 (1967)[28]6.712,000 (1990) [29]6,994,000 (1994)[25]7,261,200 (2002)7,866,500[69] (2010)- (2008)[27]
Luxembourg335,000 (1967)[28]381,000 (1990) [29]401,000 (1994)[25]439,539 (2001)511,840 (2011)[70]- (2008)[27]
Romania19,105,056 (1966)[28]23,200,000 (1990)[29]22,736,000 (1994)[25]21,680,974 (2002)21,466,174[71] (2011)- (2008)[27]
Niuē (associated state of New Zealand)1,900 (1966)[28]N/A (1990)[29]N/A (1994)[25]2,134 (2002)1,398 (2009)[72]N/A (2008)[27]-502
Tokelau (New Zealand territory)5,194 (1966)[28]N/A (1990)[29]N/A (1994)[25]1,445 (2001)1,416 (2009)N/A (2008)[27]-3,778
Jamaica1,876,000 (1967)[28]2,420,000 (1990) [29]2,429,000 (1994)[25]2,695,867 (2003)2,847,232[43] (2010)74 (2008)[27]971,232
Argentina32,031,000 (1967)[28]32,322,000 (1990)[29]34,180,000 (1994)[25]37,812,817 (2002)40,091,359 (2010)74 (2008)[27]8,060,359
France49,890,660 (1967)[28]56,440,000 (1990)[29]57,747,000 (1994)[25]59,551,000 (2001)63,136,180 (2011)[73]81 (2008)[27]
Italy52,334,000 (1967)[28]57,662,000 (1990)[29]57,193,000 (1994)[25]56,995,744 (2002)60,605,053[74] (2011)80 (2008)[27]
Mauritius774,000 (1967)[28]1,075,000 (1990)[29]1,104,000 (1994)[25]1,179,137 (2000)1,288,000 (2009)[35]75 (2008)[27]514,000
Guatemala4,717,000 (1967)[28]9,197,000 (1990)[29]10,322,000 (1994)[25]12,974,361 (2000)13,276,517 (2009)70 (2008)[27]8,559,517
Cuba8,033,000 (1967)[28]10,609,000 (1990)[29]10,960,000 (1994)[25]11,177,743 (2002)11,239,363 (2009)[75]77 (2008)[27]
Barbados246,000 (1967)[28]255,000 (1990) [29]261,000 (1994)[25]250,012 (2001)284,589 (2010)[31]73 (2008)[27]18,589
Samoa131,377 (1967)[28]164,000 (1990) [29]164,000 (1994)[25]178,173 (2003)179,000 (2009)[26]N/A (2008)[27]
Sweden7,765,981 (1967)[28]8,559,000 (1990) [29]8,794,000 (1994)[25]8,920,705 (2002)9,354,462 (2009)81 (2008)[27]
Finland4,664,000 (1967)[28]4,986,000 (1990) [29]5,095,000 (1994)[25]5,175,783 (2002)5,374,781 (2010)N/A (2008)[27]
Portugal9,440,000 (1967)[28]10,525,000 (1990)[29]9,830,000 (1994)[25]10,355,824 (2001)10,647,763[76] (2011)N/A (2008)[27]
Austria7,323,981 (1967)[28]7,712,000 (1990) [29]8,031,000 (1994)[25]8,032,926 (2001)8,404,252 (2011)N/A (2008)[27]
Libya1,738,000 (1967)[28]4,545,000 (1990)[29]5,225,000(1994)[25]5,499,074 (2002)6,420,000 (2009)[26]77 (2008)[27]
Peru12,385,000 (1967)[28]21,550,000 (1990)[29]23,080,000(1994)[25]27,949,639 (2002)29,496,000 (2010)70 (2008)[27]
Guinea Bissau528,000 (1967)[28]965,000 (1990) [29]1,050,000 (1994)[25]1,345,479 (2002)1,647,000[26] (2009)48 (2008)[27]
Angola5,203,066 (1967)[28]10,020,000 (1990)[29]10,674,000 (1994)[25]10,766,500 (2003)18,498,000[35][77] (2009)38 (2008)[27]
Equatorial Guinea277,000 (1967)[28]348,000 (1990)[29]389,000 (1994)[25]474,214 (2000)676,000 (2009)[35]61 (2008)[27]
Benin2,505,000 (1967)[28]4,736,000 (1990)[29]5,246,000 (1994)[25]8,500,500 (2002)8,791,832 (2009)59 (2008)[27]
Laos2,770,000 (1967)[28]4,139,000 (1990)[29]4,742,000 (1994)[25]5,635,967 (2002)6,800,000[78] (2011)56 (2008)[27]
Nepal10,500,000 (1967)[28]18,961,000 (1990)[29]21,360,000 (1994)[25]25,284,463 (2002)29,331,000[35] (2009)- (2008)[27]
Iran25,781,090 (1966)[28]54,608,000 (1990)[29]59,778,000 (1994)[25]66,622,704 (2002)75,330,000 (2010)[79]71 (2008)[27]
Canada20,014,880 (1966)[28]26,603,000 (1990)[29]29,248,000(1994)[25]31,081,900 (2001)32,623,490 (2011)[80]81 (2008)[27]
United States199,118,000 (1967)[28]249,995,000 (1990)[29]260,650,00(1994)[25]281,421,906 (2000)308,745,538 (2010)[81]78 (2008)[27]
Uganda7,931,000 (1967)[28]18,795,000 (1990)[29]20,621,000 (1994)[25]24,227,297 (2002)32,369,558 (2009)52 (2008)[27]
Notes
* Eritrea left Ethiopia in 1991.
Split into the nations of Sudan and South Sudan during 2011.
Japan and the Ryukyu Islands merged in 1972.
# India and Sikkim merged in 1975.
Population growth 1990–2012 (%)[82]
Africa73.3%
Middle East68.2%
Asia (excl. China)42.8%
China19.0%
OECD Americas27.9%
Non-OECD Americas36.6%
OECD Europe11.5%
OECD Asia Oceania11.1%
Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia-0.8%

Growth by region

Population growth rates vary by world region, with the highest growth rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and the lowest in Europe. For example, from 1950 to 2010, Sub-Saharan African grew over three and a half times, from about 186 million to 856 million. On the other hand, Europe only increased by 35%, from 547 million in 1950 to 738 million in 2010. As a result of these varying population growths, Sub-Saharan Africa changed from 7.4% of world population in 1950 to 12.4% in 2010, while Europe declined from 22% to 11% in the same time period. [83]

Into the future

According to the UN's 2017 revision to its population projections, world population is projected to reach 11.2 billion by 2100 compared to 7.6 billion in 2017.[84][85] In 2011, Indian economist Sanjeev Sanyal disputed the UN's figures and argued that birth rates will fall below replacement rates in the 2020s. According to his projections, population growth will be only sustained till the 2040s by rising longevity, but will peak below 9 bn by 2050.[22] Conversely, a 2014 paper by demographers from several universities and the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population would reach about 10.9 billion in 2100 and continue growing thereafter.[86] One of its authors, Adrian Raftery, a University of Washington professor of statistics and of sociology, says "The consensus over the past 20 years or so was that world population, which is currently around 7 billion, would go up to 9 billion and level off or probably decline. We found there’s a 70 percent probability the world population will not stabilize this century. Population, which had sort of fallen off the world’s agenda, remains a very important issue."[87]

See also

References

  1. "World Population Prospects 2017". Retrieved 2017-11-21.
  2. [worldometers.info/world-population/title=World Population 2017 worldometers.info/world-population/title=World Population 2017] Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 2018-04-18. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. "World Population Prospects 2017". Retrieved 2017-11-21.
  4. Population Reference Bureau. "2013 World Population Factsheet" (PDF). www.pbr.org. Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  5. United Nations - World Population Prospects 2017
  6. McKeown, Thomas (1976). The Modern Rise of Population. London, UK: Edward Arnold. ISBN 9780713159868.
  7. 1 2 McKeown T, Brown RG (1955). "Medical evidence related to English population changes in the eighteenth century". Population Studies. 9 (2): 119–141. doi:10.1080/00324728.1955.10404688. JSTOR 2172162.
  8. McKeown T, Brown RG, Record RG (1972). "An interpretation of the modern rise of population in Europe". Population Studies 26:345-382. JSTOR 2173815.
  9. McKeown T, Record RG (1962). "Reasons for the Decline of Mortality in England and Wales during the Nineteenth Century". Population Studies. 16 (2): 94–122. doi:10.2307/2173119. JSTOR 2173119.
  10. McKeown T, Record RG, Turner RD (1975). "An Interpretation of the Decline of Mortality in England and Wales during the Twentieth Century". Population Studies. 29 (3): 391–422. doi:10.1080/00324728.1975.10412707. JSTOR 2173935. PMID 11630508.
  11. Korotayev, A. V., & Malkov, A. S. A Compact Mathematical Model of the World System Economic and Demographic Growth, 1 CE–1973 CE // INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES Volume 10, 2016. P. 200-209.
  12. Deaton, Angus (2013). The Great Escape. Health, wealth, and the origins of inequality. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. pp. 91–93. ISBN 978 0 691 15354 4. McKeown's views, updated to modern circumstances, are still important today in debates between those who think that health is primarily determined by medical discoveries and medical treatment and those who look to the background social conditions of life.
  13. Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario Archived 2008-05-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. 1 2 Reece, Jane; Urry, Lisa; Cain, Michael; Wasserman, Steven; Minorsky, Peter; Jackson, Robert (2014). Campbell Biology. Pearson.
  15. Stewart, James; Clegg, Daniel (2012). Brief Applied Calculus. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
  16. 1 2 "World Population Prospects 2017". Archived from the original on 2017-07-11.
  17. "The World Factbook". 20 November 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  18. "BBC NEWS - South Asia - The end of India's green revolution?".
  19. "International Programs". Archived from the original on 2009-07-01.
  20. UN population projections Archived 2010-10-28 at WebCite
  21. "Japan sees biggest population fall". the Guardian.
  22. 1 2 Sanjeev Sanyal. "Sanjeev Sanyal on The End of Population Growth - Project Syndicate". Project Syndicate.
  23. Carrington, Damien (September 18, 2014). "World population to hit 11bn in 2100 – with 70% chance of continuous rise". The Guardian. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  24. 1 2 "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations".
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 The British Collins Longman Student Atlas, the 1996 and in 1998 publications, ISBN 978-0-00-448879-0 for the 1998 edition, ISBN 0-00-448365-0 for the 1996 edition
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved 2009-03-12. NB: The preliminary results of the National population census in Guinea-Bissau put the figure at 1,449,230, according to email information by the Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa, Bissau.
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