Polish Braille

Polish Braille
Type
alphabet
Languages Polish
Parent systems
Braille
  • Polish Braille
Print basis
Polish alphabet

Polish Braille (alfabet Braille'a) is a braille alphabet for writing the Polish language. It is based on international braille conventions, with the following extensions:[1]

Base
letter

a

c

e

l

n

s

u

y

z
Derived
letter

ą

ć

ę

ł

ń

ś

ó

ż

ź

That is, for letters of the first and second decade of the braille script (a, c, e, l, n, s), a diacritic is written as dot 6, and any dot 3 is removed (or, equivalently, is moved to position 6)—that is, the base letter is moved to the fourth decade. For letters of the third decade (u, y, z), which already have a dot 6, the derivation is a mirror image. Ó is derived from u, which is how it is pronounced (also, the mirror image of o is already taken). Several of these conventions are used in Lithuanian Braille.

History

Some form of a Braille alphabet had been adapted to the Polish language by 1957.[2]

Alphabet

The full alphabet is thus:


a

ą

b

c

ć

d

e

ę

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

ł

m

n

ń

o

ó

p

r

s

ś

t

u

w

y

z

ż

ź

Print digraphs in z are written as two letters in braille as well: cz, rz, sz.

Punctuation


,

.   '[3]

;

 :

?

!

-  

@

*

/

\

#


%


°



$

¢



©

Paired punctuation

“ ... ”

‘ ... ’

( ... )

{ ... } (?)[4]

[ ... ]

...

Formatting


(cap)

(l.c.)

(emph.)
  • (a detailed account of typesetting Polish Braille)
  • Braille Translator on-line( Conversion of typed text on the Braille characters, full of Polish notation.)

References

  1. Morrissey, Patrick (October 1957). "Reading Braille in Foreign Languages". The Modern Language Journal. 41 (6): 266. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1957.tb01695.x. JSTOR 321522.
  2. And thus for ellipsis.
  3. It's not clear which brackets these are. In Polish, their name is nawias wydzielający, a phrase that refers specifically to these braille characters.


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