|Trade names||Tazocin, Zosyn, others|
Piperacillin/tazobactam, sold under the brand name Tazocin among others, is a combination medication containing the antibiotic piperacillin and the β-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam. The combination has activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is used to treat pelvic inflammatory disease, intra-abdominal infection, pneumonia, cellulitis, and sepsis. It is given by injection into a vein.
Common side effects include headache, trouble sleeping, rash, nausea, constipation, and diarrhea. Serious side effects include Clostridium difficile infection and allergic reactions including anaphylaxis. Those who are allergic to other β-lactam are more likely to be allergic to piperacillin/tazobactam. Use in pregnancy or breastfeeding appears to generally be safe. It usually results in bacterial death through blocking their ability to make a cell wall.
Piperacillin/tazobactam was approved for medical use in the United States in 1993. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world, as of 2015, is about 11 USD per day. In the United Kingdom, as of 2015, this amount costs the NHS about 38.70 pounds per day.
Its main uses are in intensive care medicine (pneumonia, peritonitis), some diabetes-related foot infections, and empirical therapy in febrile neutropenia (e.g., after chemotherapy). The drug is administered intravenously every 6 or 8 hr, typically over 3–30 min. It may also be administered by continuous infusion over four hours. Prolonged infusions are thought to maximize the time that serum concentrations are above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bacteria implicated in infection.
Piperacillin-tazobactam is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence as first line therapy for the treatment of bloodstream infections in neutropenic cancer patients.
The most common adverse effect is diarrhea (7–11%). Another adverse effect is inhibition of platelets (thrombocytopenia).
Society and culture
Apart from Tazocin and Zosyn, the drug is marketed in various countries under other trade names such as Tazact, Biopiper TZ, Brodactam, Piptaz, Maxitaz, Kilbac, Trezora, Du-Tazop, Tazopen, Sytaz, and Inzalin TZ.
Various sources have referred to a shortage of the drug since May 2017, citing various reasons, including an earthquake in China and other issues at the major production facility in 海正 (Hisun); increased demand; withdrawal of funding by a major pharmaceutical company.
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- British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 373. ISBN 9780857111562.
- "Piperacillin / tazobactam (Zosyn) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
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- "Drug Shortages › Piperacillin Tazobactam Injection". Drugs.com. 10 July 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
- "Major shortage forces doctors to ration important antibiotic". RT.com. 1 July 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.