Philippine languages

Philippine
Geographic
distribution
Philippines
Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia
Eastern Sabah, Malaysia
Orchid Island, Taiwan
Linguistic classification Austronesian
Proto-language Proto-Philippine
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5 phi
Glottolog None
The Philippine languages, per Adelaar and Himmelmann (2005)

In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust (1991, 2005) that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.[1][2][3] Although the Philippines is near the center of Austronesian expansion from Formosa, there is little linguistic diversity among the approximately 150 Philippine languages, suggesting that earlier diversity has been erased by the spread of the ancestor of the modern Philippine languages.[4]

Classification

From approximately north to south, the Philippine languages are divided into the following subgroups:

In addition, the Ati, Umiray Dumaget, Manide, and Inagta Alabat languages are unclassified within the Philippine family, and are considered by Reid (2013)[5] to be early splits from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian.

Reid (2018)

Lawrence Reid (1982[6], 2017[7], 2018[8]) rejects the genetic unity of the Philippine languages, and considers the Philippine languages to form a linkage rather than a unified genetic subgroup. Reid (2018)[8] lists the following branches and languages as separate Malayo-Polynesian branches.

Reid (2013)[5] accepts the following branches as well-defined subgroups spoken within the geographical Philippines.

Vocabulary comparison

Comparison chart between several selected Philippine languages spoken from north to south with Proto-Austronesian first for comparison.

English012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Proto-Austronesian *əsa
*isa
*duSa*təlu*Səpat*lima*Cau*Rumaq*asu*niuR*qalejaw*baqeRu*i-kita*n-anu*Sapuy
Batanic (Bashiic) 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Yami (Tao) ásadóa (raroa)tílo (tatlo)apat (ápat)limataovahaychitoniyoyarawvayoyatenangoapoy
Ivatan asadadowatatdoapatlimataovahaychitoniyoyarawva-yoyatenangoapoy
Northern Luzon 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Ilokano ibbong
awan
maysaduatallouppatlimataobalayasoniogaldawbarositayoaniaapoy
Ibanag awantaddayduatalluappa'limatolaybalaykituniukaggawbagusittamanniafi
Gaddang antetaddwatalloappatlimatolaybalayatuayogawbawuikkanetamsanenayafuy
Pangasinan sakeydua
duara
talo
talora
apat
apatira
limatooabongasoniyogageobalosikatayoantopool
Central Luzon 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Kapampangan alamétung
isâ
adwâatlûápatlimatáubaléásungúngutaldôbáyuíkatamunánuapi
Central Philippine 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Tagalog walaisadalawatatloapatlimataobahayasoniyogarawbagotayoanoapoy
Bikol 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Central Bikol warasaroduwatuloupatlimatawoharongayamniyogadlawba-gokitaanokalayo
Rinconada Bikol əsaddarwātolōəpatlimatawōbaləyayamnoyogaldəwbāgokitāonōkalayō
Visayan 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Waray warayusa
sayo
duhatuloupatlimatawobalayayam
ido
lubiadlawbag-okitaanokalayo
Hiligaynon walayisaduwatatloapatlimatawobalayidolubiadlawbag-okitaanokalayo
Asi usaruhatuyoupatlimatawobayayironidogadlawbag-okitani-okayado
Romblomanon isaduhatuyoupatlimatawobayayayamniyogadlawbag-okitaanokalayo
Onhan isyadarwatatloap-atlimatawobalayayamniyogadlawbag-okitaanokalayo
Kinaray-a warasaradarwatatloapatlimatahobalayayamniyogadlawbag-okita
tatən
anokalayo
Aklanon uwaisaea
sambilog
daywatatloap-atlimatawobaeayayamniyogadlawbag-okitaanokaeayo
Cebuano walausaduhatuloupatlimatawobalayirolubiadlawbag-okitaunsakalayo
Tausug isa
hambuuk
duwatuupatlimataubayiru'niyugadlawba-gukitaniyuunukayu
Danao 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Mëranaw isadowat'lophatlimatawwalayasoneyoggawi'ebagotanotonaaapoy
South Mindanao (Bilic) 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Tboli sotulewutlufatlimataugunuohulefokdawlomitekuyteduofih
Minahasan 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Tombulu (Minahasa) esazua
rua
teluepatlimatouwaléasupo'po'endowerukai
kita
apaapi
Sangiric 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Sangirese sembau
esa'
daruatateluepa'limataubalékapuna'bango'elowuhukitétawéputung
Gorontalo-Mongondow 012345personhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (incl.)whatfire
Gorontalo tuwewuduluwototoluopatolimotawubele'apulasekatdulahubohu'itowolotulu
Mongondow inta'duatoluopatlimaintaubaloiungku'cekutsinggaimobagukitaondatulu'

See also

Defunct language regulators

References

  1. Zorc, R.D. The genetic relationships of Philippine languages. 1986. In Geraghty, P., Carrington, L. and Wurm, S.A. editors, FOCAL II: Papers from the Fourth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. C-94:147-173. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1986.
  2. Blust, Robert (1991). "The Greater Central Philippines hypothesis". Oceanic Linguistics. 30 (2): 73–129. doi:10.2307/3623084. JSTOR 3623084.
  3. Blust, Robert A. (2005). "The linguistic macrohistory of the Philippines". In Liao, Hsiu-Chuan; Rubino, Carl R.Galvez. Current issues in Philippine linguistics pangaral kay Lawrence A. Reid. 2005: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. pp. 31–68.
  4. Adelaar & Himmelmann (2005)
  5. 1 2 Reid, Lawrence A. (2013) "Who Are the Philippine Negritos? Evidence from Language." Human Biology: Vol. 85: Iss. 1, Article 15.
  6. Reid, Lawrence. 1982. The demise of Proto-Philippines. In Papers from the Third International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Vol. 2: Tracking the travellers, ed. by Amran Halim, Lois Carrington, and Stephen Wurm, 201-216. Pacific Linguistics Series C, No. 75. Canberra: Australian National University.
  7. Reid, Lawrence. 2017. Revisiting the position of Philippine languages in the Austronesian family. The Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC (BAG) Distinguished Professorial Chair Lecture, 2017, De La Salle University, Manila.
  8. 1 2 Reid, Lawrence A. 2018. "Modeling the linguistic situation in the Philippines." In Let's Talk about Trees, ed. by Ritsuko Kikusawa and Lawrence A. Reid. Osaka: Senri Ethnological Studies, Minpaku. doi:10.15021/00009006
  • K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, 2005.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.