Phenolic acid

Phenolic acids or phenolcarboxylic acids are types of aromatic acid compound. Included in that class are substances containing a phenolic ring and an organic carboxylic acid function (C6-C1 skeleton). Two important naturally occurring types of phenolic acids are hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids, which are derived from non-phenolic molecules of benzoic and cinnamic acid, respectively.[1]


Phenolic acids can be found in many plant species. Their content in dried fruits can be high.

Natural phenols in horse grams (Macrotyloma uniflorum) are mostly phenolic acids, namely 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic, p-hydroxy benzoic, vanillic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, syringic and sinapinic acids.[2]

Phenolic acids can be found in mushroom Basidiomycetes species.[3] It is also a part of the humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil humus.

Many phenolic acids can be found in human urine.[4]


Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase can be used to catalyze the direct acetylation of flavonoids with phenolic acids.[5]

See also


  1. Heleno, Sandrina A.; Martins, Anabela; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R. (2015-04-15). "Bioactivity of phenolic acids: metabolites versus parent compounds: a review". Food Chemistry. 173: 501–513. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.10.057. ISSN 0308-8146. PMID 25466052.
  2. Kawsar, S.M.A.; Huq, E.; Nahar, N.; Ozeki, Y. (2008). "Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Acids in Macrotyloma uniflorum by Reversed Phase-HPLC". American Journal of Plant Physiology. 3 (4): 165. doi:10.3923/ajpp.2008.165.172.
  3. Barros, L.; Dueñas, M.; Ferreira, I. C.; Baptista, P.; Santos-Buelga, C. (June 2009). "Phenolic acids determination by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS in sixteen different Portuguese wild mushrooms species". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 47 (6): 1076–1079. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.01.039. PMID 19425182.
  4. Armstrong, M. D.; Shaw, K. N.; Wall, P. E. (January 1, 1956). "The phenolic acids of human urine. Paper chromatography of phenolic acids" (pdf). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 218 (1): 293–303. PMID 13278337.
  5. Stevenson, David E.; Wibisono, Reginald; Jensen, Dwayne J.; Stanley, Roger A.; Cooney, Janine M. (3 October 2006). "Direct acylation of flavonoid glycosides with phenolic acids catalysed by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435®)". Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 39 (6): 1236–41. doi:10.1016/j.enzmictec.2006.03.006.
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